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One  Hundred  Years  in  Ceylon 


The  Centenary  Volume 

OF    THE 

Church  Missionary  Society 




THE  REV.  J.  W.  BALDING,  C.M.S. 








IN  consequence  of  my  having  had  the  honour  of  com 
piling  the  general  History  of  the  Church  Missionary 
Society,  I  am  now  asked  by  the  Ceylon  Committee  that 
has  arranged  for  the  celebration  of  the  Centenary  of  the 
Ceylon  Mission,  to  introduce  this  present  work,  which 
tells  the  story  of  the  Hundred  Years  of  that  Mission, 
and  this  I  do  with  pleasure  and  thankfulness.  The 
author,  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding,  is  now  the  senior  C.M.S. 
missionary  in  Ceylon,  so  far  as  length  of  service  in  the 
Island  is  concerned,  having  joined  in  1881,  and  having 
therefore  thirty-seven  years'  experience.  That  honoured 
veteran,  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands,  indeed,  went  out 
fifty-seven  years  ago  (1861),  but  he  retired  in  1884  and 
rejoined  in  1907,  so  that  his  actual  service  in  the  field 
is  less  than  Mr.  Balding's.  The  book,  therefore,  is 
authoritative  in  an  unusual  degree. 

In  1868  a  small  Jubilee  volume  was  prepared  by  the 
Ceylon  missionaries.  It  was  not  an  encouraging  recital 
of  the  fifty  years. 

Few  Missions  have  had,  in  so  long  a  period,  more 
apparently  scanty  results  to  report.  In  my  History, 
published  thirty  years  later,  I  noticed  this,  and  explained 
the  causes  (Vol.  ii,  p.  288),  and  I  added  that  if  a  record 
of  those  thirty  additional  years  were  written,  the  tone 


would  be  very  different  (Vol.  iii,  p.  547).  In  the  supple 
mentary  fourth  volume,  published  in  1916,  I  was  thank 
fully  able  to  present  a  much  more  hopeful  account. 
Although  I  had  even  then  to  acknowledge  that  progress 
had  been,  as  compared  with  that  of  several  other 
Missions,  exceptionally  slow,  yet  on  the  other  hand, 
the  Mission  had  been  exceptionally  interesting  in  respect 
of  the  individual  cases  of  conversions  reported  (Vol.  iv, 
p.  257).  This  general  impression  will  be  confirmed  by 
the  present  work,  and  the  careful  reader  will  find  much 
to  strengthen  his  faith  in  the  Gospel  and  his  thankful 
ness  to  God. 

Colombo,  with  Galle  Face  Church,  the  Ladies' 
College,  etc.  ;  Cotta  and  Baddegama,  as  centres  of  village 
work;  Kandy,  with  Trinity  College;  the  Itinerancies; 
the  Tamil  Coolie  Mission  ;  Jaffna,  and  its  isolated  but 
important  influence  ; — all  these  present  features  of  real 
interest,  though  they  may  have  little  of  the  romance  of 
Uganda,  or  the  Punjab,  or  parts  of  China,  or  the  Arctic 

In  one  respect  Ceylon  is  unique.  The  Anglican 
Church  there  furnishes  the  spectacle  of  a  self-governing 
body  comprising  white  and  coloured  races  working 
together  in  harmony  and  fellowship,  with  the  native 
Christians  in  a  decided  majority,  while  the  foreign 
Christians  are  no  negligible  minority,  differing  therefore 
from  Colonial  Churches  like  those  of  Canada  or  New 
Zealand  on  one  side,  and  from  Churches  almost  purely 
native  as  in  China  and  Japan  on  the  other. 

The  Church  in  Ceylon  has  its  own  constitution 
and  its  own  Synodical  administration,  although 


ecclesiastically  a  single  diocese  in  the  Province  of  India 
and  Ceyion.  It  presents,  on  a  small  scale,  a  picture  of 
what  we  hope  in  time  to  see  on  the  larger  field  of  India 

I  heartily  commend  this  book  to  readers  both  at  home 
and  in  the  mission  field,  and  to  the  Divine  blessing. 

January,  1918. 



PREFACE         ...            ...  ...            ...  iii 

INTRODUCTION              ...  ...           ...  j 


I.    CEYLQX  5 


II.     THE  SINHALESE             ...  ...  11 

III.  BUDDHISM        ...            ...  ...  16 

IV.  THE  TAMILS                  ...  ...            ...  24 

V.     HINDUISM        ...            ...  ...            ...  28 


VII.     EDUCATION      ...            ...  ...            ..,  43 

VIII.     C.M.S.  IN  CEYLON  ...            ...  53 

IX.     KANDY              ...            ...  68 

X.    JAFFNA             ...            ...  ...  88 

XI.     BADDEGAMA                  ...  ...  IQS 

XII.    COTTA              ...            ...  128 

XIII.  THE  KANDYAN  ITINERANCIES  ...           ...  143 

XIV.  COLOMBO         ...            ...  ...            ...  155 

XV.    THE  TAMIL  COOLY  MISSION  ...            ...  173 

XVI.     C.E.Z.M.S.  IN  CEYLON  188 



CONCLUSION     ...            ...  ...           ...  205 

A  HYMN  FOR  CEYLON  ...  ...            ...  206 



Ceylon  C.M.S.  Missionaries  (Men)         ...  207 

Sinhalese  Clergy       ...             ...              ...  225 

Tamil  Clergy            ...             ...             ...  228 

Women  C.M.S.  Missionaries                  ...  231 


New   Constitution    for   the   Ceylon  Mis 
sionary  Conference            ...              ...  236 


EUGENE  STOCK,    in  the   '  History  of  the  Church 


Page  34,  line  6  from  bottom  for  '  it '  read  *  in  • 
Page  165,  line  17,  /or  '  women  '  read  ' 
Page   190,  line   5,  for  '  having  too  great    for   her  -  read 
having  proved  too  great  for  her  ' 

PaagnedS  n  2'3'  ^^  ^P  °f  Itinerancies'  Between  Teldeniy, 
and  Dunuvila  read    Urugala  '. 

— ^^^^^^^^— ^__ 
have  presented  in  subsequent  years  more  manifest  signs 

of  the  working  of  the  grace  of  God.' 

Early  in  1915,  in  view  of  the  near  approach  of  the 
centenary  of  the  C.M.S.  in  Ceylon,  the  Standing  Com 
mittee  of  the  Conference  suggested  the  formation  of  a 
Centenary  Central  Committee,  so  that  the  Centenary  in 
1918  might  be  widely  and  properly  commemorated. 

A  representative  committee  was  accordingly  formed, 
with  the  Secretary  of  the  Mission  (the  Rev.  A.  E. 
Dibben)  as  chairman.  Two  secretaries,  one  clerical 




Ceylon  C.M.S.  Missionaries  (Men)        ...     207 

Sinhalese  Clergy       ...  ...     225 

Tamil  Clergy 

Women  C.M.S.  Missionaries  ...     231 


DR.  EUGENE  STOCK,  in  the  '  History  of  the  Church 
Missionary  Society '  published  in  1899,  in  connection 
with  the  Centenary  of  the  Parent  Society,  refers  to  the 
'  Jubilee  Sketches,'  or  an  '  Outline  of  the  work  of  the 
C.M-S.  in  Ceylon  during  fifty  years,  1818-1868'  written 
by  the  late  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones,  and  published  in 
Colombo,  in  the  following  terms  : — '  In  1868,  the  Ceylon 
Mission  celebrated  its  Jubilee.  The  missionaries  then 
brought  out  a  small  volume  of  "  Jubilee  Sketches,"  giving 
the  history  of  each  station  during  the  fifty  years.  This 
little  book  is  singularly  modest  in  its  estimate  of  the 
work  done  and  the  results  achieved.  If  the  interesting 
little  book  were  now  to  have  a  new  edition,  the  whole 
tone  would  be  different.  Few  missions  had  been,  at  the 
end  of  fifty  years,  more  scanty  in  results.  Few  missions 
have  presented  in  subsequent  years  more  manifest  signs 
of  the  working  of  the  grace  of  God.' 

Early  in  1915,  in  view  of  the  near  approach  of  the 
centenary  of  the  C.M.S.  in  Ceylon,  the  Standing  Com 
mittee  of  the  Conference  suggested  the  formation  of  a 
Centenary  Central  Committee,  so  that  the  Centenary  in 
1918  might  be  widely  and  properly  commemorated. 

A  representative  committee  was  accordingly  formed, 
with  the  Secretary  of  the  Mission  (the  Rev.  A.  E. 
Dibben)  as  chairman.  Two  secretaries,  one  clerical 


(Rev.  A.  M.  Walmsley)  and  one  lay  (Mr.  W.  Wadsworth) 
and  a  treasurer  (Rev.  J.  W.  Ferrier)  were  also 

In  addition,  members  of  committee  were  nominated 
by  the  District  Church  Councils. 

It  was  proposed  that  the  Centenary  should  be  made 
the  occasion  of  the  raising  of  a  sum  of  at  least  Rs. 
50,000,  as  a  thank  offering,  and  that  this  should  have 
four  objectives  : — 

(1)  a  Capital  Fund  for  advance  Missionary  Move 
ments,  (2)  a  Pension  Fund  for  Catechists,  Biblewomen 
and  School  Teachers,  (3)  a  Capital  Fund  to  meet 
opposition  in  Educational  Work,  and  (4)  to  provide 
funds  for  Itinerating  Bands. 

Several  '  Centenary  Pamphlets  '  have  been  published, 
and  the  writer  of  No.  3  says,  '  We  do  not  want  to  make 
this  centenary  effort  merely  a  matter  of  raising  funds- 
To  do  so,  would  be  to  fall  very  short  of  our  real  needs. 
What  are  they  ?  First  of  all,  this  must  be  a  time  of 
increased  prayer  and  re-consecration.  If  we  are  all  in 
the  line  of  God's  will,  praying  earnestly  for  the  extension 
of  His  kingdom,  the  effort  and  the  means  will  be  forth 
coming,  but  money,  without  His  Spirit  to  direct  and 
control  and  bless  it,  can  never  fulfil  its  purpose.  Let 
the  Centenary  be  borne  to  us  on  a  great  wave  of  prayer, 
and  we  shall  find  it  stored  with  a  rich  cargo  of  blessings. 
Let  us  remember  three  watchwords  : — (1)  Thanksgiving, 
for  the  past,  with  all  its  mercies  and  blessings.  (2) 
Humiliation,  as  we  think  of  the  present,  with  its  many 
unanswered  calls,  unused  opportunities,  and  unentered 
doors.  (3)  Advance,  in  the  future,  as  we  remember  that 


in  the   future   lies   the   coming   of  the   Lord,   so  closely 
connected  with  the  evangelization  of  the  world.' 

Further,  it  was  agreed  that  a  history  of  the  work  of 
the  C.M.S.  in  Ceylon  should  be  written,  which  it  was 
hoped  '  would  find  its  way  into  many  homes,  and  thus 
sustain  and  deepen  interest  in  our  work,  and  prove  a 
source  of  information  and  renewed  effort.' 

This  I  was  asked  to  undertake,  and  the  following  pages 
are  the  result,  which  I  trust  will  draw  forth  praise  and 
thankfulness  for  God's  goodness  and  help  in  the  past, 
and  call  forth  more  prayer  and  work  in  His  cause  in  the 

I  have  chosen  as  the  title  for  the  book,  '  One  hundred 
years  in  Ceylon,  or  the  Story  of  the  C.M.S.  there  from 
1818  to  1918.'  It  is  the  natural  title  to  take  for  a 
centenary  volume,  and  other  writers  on  Ceylon  seem  to 
have  been  impelled  to  describe  their  books  in  terms  of 
years,  for  instance, 

'  Two    Happy  Years  in  Ceylon,'    by    Miss   Gordon- 


'  Seven  Years  in  Ceylon,'  by  Miss  M.  Leitch. 
'  Eight  Years  in  Ceylon,'  by  Sir  Samuel  Baker. 
'  Eleven  Years  in  Ceylon,'  by  Major  Forbes. 
'  Fifty  Years  in  Ceylon,'  by  Major  Skinner. 
'  A  Century  in  Ceylon,'  by  Miss  Helen  Root. 
Although  I  have  been  a  missionary  in  Ceylon  for  more 
than  a  third  part  of  the  one  hundred  years,  I  cannot  lay 
claim    to    much    that    is  original    in    the    pages    of  this 
history,   as   I    have    drawn    and   compiled,    largely   and 
liberally,  from  the  '  Jubilee  Sketches  '  published  in  1868  ; 
the    small    pamphlet,   the    'Ceylon    Mission'   published 


by  the  C.M.S.  in  1900;  the  'History  of  the  C.M.S.' 
published  in  1899  ;  the  '  Historical  Sketch  of  Ceylon  ' 
published  by  the  S.P.G.  ;  '  Ceylon  at  the  Census  of  1911,' 
by  Mr.  E.  B.  Denham  ;  the  '  Book  of  Ceylon  '  and 
'  Golden  Tips,'  by  Mr.  H.  W.  Cave  ;  '  Ceylon,'  by  Dr. 
J.  C.  Willis;  'History  of  Ceylon,'  by  Mr.  Donald 
Obeyesekere  ;  the  '  Ceylon  Handbooks  '  published  by  the 
Messrs.  Ferguson  ;  the  local  '  Reports  of  the  C.M.S. 
Ceylon  Mission  ;  '  and  many  other  writers.  To  each  and 
all  of  these  I  am  much  indebted  and  tender  grateful 
thanks,  as  well  as  to  the  many  friends  who  have  given 
valuable  advice  and  assistance,  and  last  but  not  least  to 
the  kind  writer  of  the  preface. 


7  ColomlH, 



No  country  in  the  world,  except  possibly  Egypt,  has  such  a 
long  continuous  history  and  civilization,  with  tradition,  fable 
and  legend  encircling  it  from  the  remotest  times.  The 
Mohammedans  assert  that  Ceylon  was  given  to  our  first 
parents,  Adam  and  Eve,  as  a  new  Elysium  to  console  them 
for  the  loss  of  Paradise.  According  to  the  Indian  poem,  the 
Ramayana,  (500  B.C.)  a  prince  named  Rama  is  said  to  have 
come  with  a  great  army  from  India  to  Ceylon  about  three 
thousand  years  ago  and  conquered  and  killed  the  king. 

It  is  also  supposed  to  have  been  part  of  the  region  of  Ophir 
and  Tarshish,  from  which  the  ships  of  King  Solomon  obtained 
gold  and  silver,  ivory,  apes  and  peacocks.'  The  ancient 
Greeks  and  Romans  knew  the  island  as  '  Taprobane,'  and 
the  poet  Milton  has  preserved  the  name  in  his  great 

Embassies  from  regions  far  remote, 
From  India  and  the  golden  Chersonese, 

And  from  utmost  Indian  isle,  Taprobane. 

To  the  people  of  India  it  has  been  known  for  centuries  as 
'  Lanka  the  Resplendent,'  and  the  '  pearl-drop  on  the  brow 
of  Ind,'  whilst  the  Siamese  called  it  '  the  divine  Lanka.'  To 
the  Chinese  it  was  '  the  island  of  jewels,'  to  the  Persians  '  the 
land  of  the  hyacinth  and  ruby,'  to  the  Arabs  it  was  '  Seren- 
dib  ',  to  the  ancient  Sinhalese  '  the  island  of  the  lion  race,' 
and  to  travelled  Europeans  '  the  Eden  of  the  Eastern  wave.' 


It  has  been  immortalized  by  Bishop  Heber,  in  the  well-known 
missionary  hymn, 

What  though  the  spicy  breezes 
Blow  soft  o'er  Ceylon's  isle 

Though  every  prospect  pleases 

By  another  poet  it  is 

Confessed  to  be  the  brightest  gem 
In  Britain's  orient  diadem 

Ceylon  lies  to  the  south-east  of  the  continent  of  India,  and 
is  about  the  size  of  Ireland.  .Its  length  from  north  to  south 
is  271  miles,  and  its  greatest  width  137  miles.  Its  area  is 
about  25,000  square  miles.  The  south  of  the  island  lies  with 
in  six  degrees  of  the  equator,  and  the  average  temperature 
near  the  coast  is  between  eighty  and  ninety  degrees  in  the 
shade,  a  climate  always  humid  and  enervating.  In  the  hills 
however  a  temperature  as  low  as  twenty-six  degrees  is  some 
times  experienced.  The  annual  rainfall  varies  from  thirty-six 
inches  in  the  driest  parts  of  the  island  to  two  hundred  inches 
in  the  wettest  whereas  the  rainfall  of  Great  Britain  range? 
from  a  minimum  of  twenty-two  inches  to  a  maximum  of 
seventy  inches.  Time  is  five  hours  and  twenty  minutes 
ahead  of  Greenwich,  so  it  is  about  noon  in  Colombo  when 
England  is  only  half  awake. 

Ceylon  has  a  population  of  over  four  millions  of  people,  and 
among  these,  eighty  races  are  represented.  The  Sinhalese 
number  2,714,880,  the  Tamils  1,060,432,  the  Moors  266,876, 
the  Burghers  26,857,  the  Malays  13,092,  the  Europeans 
8,555  and  the  Veddahs  5,342. 

The  Veddahs  are  supposed  to  be  the  descendants  of  the 
aborigines — the  yakkos  or  devils,  as  they  are  called  in  native 
legend.  These  were  conquered  by  an  invading  race  who  in 
543  B.C.,  swept  down  from  the  valley  of  the  Ganges,  com 
manded  by  Wijayo,  the  son  of  a  king  of  Bengal.  He  founded 


the  royal  dynasty  which  held  sway  for  about  2,300  years. 
The  Sinhalese  (from  Sinha,  a  lion)  are  the  descendants  of 
these  conquerors.  They  speak  an  Aryan  language  of  the 
Sanskrit  type,  and  are  divided  into  two  great  sections, 
Kandyan  and  Low-Country  Sinhalese.  Both  are  descended 
from  the  same  stock  and  are  only  distinguished  outwardly  by 
difference  of  dress.  The  Tamils  are  of  Dravidian  origin,  and 
are  the  descendants  of  mercenaries  and  invaders  from  South 
ern  India  who  settled  in  the  Island  ages  ago.  Others  are 
recent  immigrants  who  corns  over  in  large  numbers  from 
India  to  work  on  the  tea  and  rubber  plantations.  The  Moors, 
who  are  energetic  and  enterprising  traders,  are  probably  de 
scendants  of  Arabs,  who  conquered  some  coast  towns  in  the 
eleventh  century,  and  intermarried  with  the  women  of  the 
land.  They  are  Mohammedans,  as  are  also  the  Malays,  who 
were  brought  to  Ceylon  by  the  Dutch. 

The  Burghers  are  the  descendants  of  the  Portuguese  and 
Dutch  settlers,  and  form  an  influential  part  of  the  community. 
Tne  Dutch  Burghers  are  largely  employed  in  Government 
offices,  law  and  medicine. 

The  Europeans  consist  chiefly  of  Government  officials,  the 
military,  merchants,  planters,  and  missionaries. 

The  principal  seat  of  Government  is  at  Colombo,  which 
under  the  name  of  Kalambu,  was  described  by  the  Moors  in 
1340,  as  '  the  finest  city  in  'Serendib.'  It  has  one  of  the 
finest  harbours  in  the  world,  and  all  steamers  going  to  or  from 
the  East  make  it  a  port  of  call. 

Kandy,  the  capital  of  the  interior,  is  situated  in  an  amphi 
theatre  surrounded  by  wooded  hills  and  forest-clad  mountains, 
seventy-two  miles  from  Colombo,  nearly  two  thousand  feet 
above  the  sea,  whilst  in  Nuwara  Eliya,  six  thousand  feet 
above  sea  level,  '  Europe  amid  Asia  smiles.' 

Ceylon  is  an  island  of  indescribable  beauty.  Nature  has 
showered  her  charms  with  lavish  hand,  and  has  welded 


together  giant  peaks,  rippling  streams,  dense  jungles  and 
pleasant  plains  into  one  sweet  fairyland.  There  is  beauty 
everywhere,  in  the  wealth  of  vegetation  and  foliage,  the  rich 
colourings  of  birds  and  insects,  and  a  thousand  other  objects. 
A  belt  of  rich  alluvial  soil  round  the  coast  waves  with  dense 
groves  of  coconut,  palmyra,  sago,  areca,  and  other  palms. 
There  is  an  abundance  of  fruit,  such  as  mango,  rose-apple, 
guava,  durian,  prickly-pear,  sour-sop,  lovi-lovi,  custard-apple, 
cashew  nut,  pomelo,  tamarind,  pomegranate,  pineapple,  man- 
gosteen,  orange  and  lime. 

Melons  and  cucumbers,  papaws  and  bananas,  breadfruit 
and  jak,  cinnamon,  cacao,  cardamoms,  pepper,  nutmegs, 
cinchona,  tobacco,  cotton,  sugarcane,  lemon  and  citronella 
grass  all  have  their  place. 

There  are  about  three  thousand  species  of  native  plants, 
two  hundred  and  thirty  different  kinds  of  ferns,  and  over  one 
hundred  and  sixty-eight  species  of  orchids  growing  wild. 
Paddy  or  rice  cultivation  has  been  the  chief  agricultural 
pursuit  of  the  people  from  time  immemorial,  and  although 
sixty  varieties  of  rice  are  grown,  the  quantity  raised  is  not 
sufficient  for  the  wants  of  the  people.  For  many  years 
coffee  cultivation  was  the  staple  industry  of  the  European 
planters,  but  a  fungoid  pest,  Hemeleia  vastatrix,  practically 
destroyed  this  shrub,  and  tea  took  its  place.  In  1873  only 
23  Ibs.  of  tea  were  exported,  but  now  nearly  200,000,000  Ibs. 
are  exported  annually. 

The  fauna  of  the  island  includes  a  number  of  species 
which  are  not  found  in  any  other  country.  There  are  superb 
butterflies,  black  and  grey  monkeys,  lemurs,  civet-cats, 
cheetahs  and  bears,  wild  elephants  (protected  by  Govern 
ment),  wild  buffaloes  (also  protected),  crocodiles,  porcu 
pine,  pangolin,  sambur,  wild  pig,  jackals  and  twenty-two 
species  of  bats.  Amongst  the  owls  there  is  one  called  the 
'  devil  bird  '  uttering  most  fearful  cries,  which  have  been 

A    PEEP    OF    THE    LAKE,    KANDY 



compared  with  those  of  a  woman  being  murdered,  or  a  child 
tortured.  Forty-three  of  the  one  hundred  and  thirty-three 
species  of  reptiles,  have  not  been  found  elsewhere.  Of  the 
snakes,  eight  species  are  poisonous,  the  most  dangerous  being 
the  cobra  and  tic  polonga.  One  thousand  five  hundred  species 
of  beetles  are  found  in  the  country,  and  mosquitoes,  ticks, 
sand  flies,  leeches  and  other  creatures  make  their  presence  felt 
and  known. 

The  seas  abound  in  fish,  trout  have  been  introduced  into 
upcountry  streams,  singing  fish  live  in  the  hot  water  wells 
on  the  east  coast,  another  fish  only  thrives  when  half  buried, 
in  mud,  and  a  kind  of  perch  can  make  its  way  across  dry 
land  unaided  by  legs. 

The  island  is  also  renowned  for  its  precious  stones,  the  chief 
of  these  being  the  ruby  and  sapphire,  to  which  may  be  added 
the  catseye,  the  star  ruby,  star  sapphire,  amethyst,  alexandrite, 
moonstone,  garnet,  chrysolite,  chrysoberyl  and  tourmaline. 

Iron  is  also  found,  and  plumbago,  otherwise  known  as 
graphite  or  blacklead,  and  pearls  are  fished  up  from  the 
oyster  banks  on  the  north-west  coast. 

Mr.  H.  W.  Cave  in  his  '  Book  of  Ceylon  '  writes  :  '  To 
those  who  have  the  most  extensive  experience  of  East  and 
West,  the  claim  of  Ceylon  to  be  regarded  as  the  very  gem  of 
the  earth  will  not  seem  extravagant.  The  economic  results  due 
to  its  situation  in  the  eastern  seas,  a  spot  on  which  converge 
the  steamships  of  all  nations  for  coal,  and  the  exchange  of 
freight  and  passengers,  its  wealth  and  diversity  of  agricultu 
ral  and  mineral  products,  the  industry  of  the  inhabitants 
both  colonists  and  natives— these,  together  with  its  scenery 
and  the  glamour  of  its  unrivalled  remains  of  antiquity,  entitle 
Ceylon  to  a  place  of. high  distinction  among  the  dependencies 
of  the  empire.' 

Sir  Emerson  Tennent,  who  resided  in  the  island  for 
some  years  as  Lieutenant-Governor  and  Colonial  Secretary, 


in    his    interesting     and     valuable     work    on     the     colony, 
writes  : — 

'  There  is  no  island  in  the  world,  Great  Britain  itself  not 
excepted,  that  has  attracted  the  attention  of  authors  in  so 
many  distant  ages  and  so  many  different  countries  a>  Ceylon, 
there  is  no  nation  in  ancient  or  modern  times  possessed  of  a 
language  or  literature,  the  writeis  of  which  have  not  at  some 
time  made  it  their  theme.  Its  aspect,  its  religion,  its  anti 
quities  and  productions,  have  been  described  as  well  by 
classic  Greeks  as  by  those  of  the  lower  empire,  by  the 
Romans,  by  the  writers  of  China,  Burmah,  India  and 
Cashmere,  by  ths  geographers  of  Arabia  and  Persia,  by  the 
mediaeval  voyagers  of  Portugal  and  France,  by  the  annalists 
of  Portugal  and  Spain,  by  the  merchants  and  adventurers  of 
Holland  and  by  the  travellers  and  topographers  of  Great 
Britain.  .  .  .  Ceylon,  from  whatever  direction  it  is  approach 
ed,  unfolds  a  scene  of  loveliness  and  grandeur  unsurpassed,  if 
it  be  rivalled,  by  any  land  in  the  universe.  The  traveller  from 
Bengal,  leaving  behind  the  melancholy  delta  of  the  Ganges 
and  the  torrid  coast  of  Coromandel,  or  the  adventurer  from 
Europe  recently  inured  to  the  sands  of  Egypt,  and  the 
scorched  headlands  of  Arabia,  alike  are  entranced  by  the 
vision  of  beauty  which  expands  before  him  as  the  island 
rises  from  the  sea,  its  lofty  mountains  covered  by  luxuriant 
forests,  and  its  shores,  till  they  meet  the  ripple  of  the  waves, 
bright  with  the  foliage  of  perpetual  spring.' 



THE  origin  of  the  Sinhalese  has  given  rise  to  much  specula 
tion.  The  Mahawansa  J  (chapter  VI)  states  that  the  grand 
mother  of  Wijaya  was  Suppadevio,  a  princess  of  Bengal,  who 
secretly  fled  with  a  caravan  chief  bound  for  the  Maghadha 
country.  In  the  jungle  in  the  land  of  Lala,  she  was  carried 
off  by  a  lion,  by  whom  she  had  a  son  called  Sinhabahu,  who 
slew  his  lion  father  and  became  king  of  Lala,  and  founded  a 
city  called  Sinhapura.  Wijaya  was  his  son,  who  with  his 
followers  arrived  in  the  island  about  543  B.C. 

By  whatever  means  the  monarch  Sinhabahu  slew  the 
Sinha  (lion)  his  sons  and  descendants  are  called  Sinhala  (the 
lion  slayers).  Lanka  having  been  conquered  by  a  Sinhala,  it 
obtained  the  name  of  '  Sinhala  '  or  '  Sihala.'  It  is  probable 
that  the  '  lion  '  was  a  bold  and  daring  bandit,  known  by  the 
name  of  '  Sinha,'  the  lion. 

The  most  generally  accepted  theory  however  is,  that  the  pro 
genitors  of  the  Sinhalese  were  Aryan  settlers  from  the  north  of 
India.  This  is  borne  out  •  by  language,  customs,  and  subse 
quent  history.  The  ancient  poem  Ramayana  (500  B.C.)  and 
the  inscriptions  of  Asoka  (250  B.C.)  prove  early  intercourse 
between  India  and  Ceylon.  The  Sinhalese  language  is  one  of 
the  group  of  Indo-Aryan  languages  of  which  Sanskrit  is  the 
literary  type.  It  is  unknown  in  India,  and  its  preservation  in 
Ceylon  is  valuable  evidence  of  the  distinct  development  of  the 
Sinhalese  race.  It  has  borrowed  largely  from  Sanskrit,  Pali 
1  An  ancient  History  of  Ceylon. 


and  Tamil,  and  many  Portuguese,  Dutch,  Malay  and  English 
words  have  become  naturalized  in  it. 

The  Sinhalese  literature  consists  of  works  written  in  pure 
Sinhalese,  now  called  Elu,  free  from  Sanskrit  foreign  words. 
The  Buddhist  scriptures,  or  the  sayings  of  the  founder  of 
Buddhism,  were  first  reduced  to  writing  in  Ceylon,  in  85  B.C. 
The  language  of  most  of  the  sacred  books  is  Pali,  which  is  not 
understood  by  the  common  people,  and  many  of  the  Sinhalese 
commentaries  are  written  in  an  antiquated  style. 

The  '  Mahawansa '  is  a  dynastic  history  of  the  island 
written  by  Buddhist  monks,  to  cover  twenty-three  centuries 
from  543  B.C.  to  A.D.  1758. 

Before  the  dawn  of  civilization  in  England,  the  Sinhalese 
were  a  nation  possessing  beautiful  cities  and  wonderful 
temples,  and  maintaining  a  high  type  of  civilization.  Being 
keen  agriculturists  they  brought  the  whole  country  into  a  high 
state  of  productiveness  by  means  of  irrigation.  The  inhabi 
tants  of  the  Sinhalese  highlands,  of  which  Kandy  is  the  capital, 
are  called  Kandyans  or  Upcountry  Sinhalese.  They  are  of  a 
stronger  and  more  independent  character  than  the  people  of 
the  plains,  or  low-country,  and  preserved  their  freedom  intact 
throughout  the  Portuguese  and  Dutch  periods.  A  Sinhalese 
writer  says  '  The  Kandyan  and  Low-country  Sinhalese  are  as 
distinct  from  each  other  in  their  dress,  manners  and  customs 
and  in  their  very  ideas  and  manner  of  thinking  as  if  they 
formed  two  different  races,  rather  than  two  sections  of  one 

The  distinction  is  every  year  lessened,  by  increasing  inter 
marriage,  opening  up  of  the  country  by  improved  means  of 
communication,  the  creation  of  new  standards  of  comfort,  and 
the  spread  of  education  and  Christianity. 

Marriages  take  place  at  an  early  age,  though  not  so  early 
as  in  India,  the  daughters  as  a  rule  marrying  before  the 


Superstition  abounds  and  lucky  days  are  sought,  for  begin 
ning  any  important  work,  for  marriages,  and  even  for  sending 
children  to  school.  Astrologers  are  consulted  on  every  event 
of  life.  Devil  ceremonies  for  the  sick  are  of  nightly  occur 
rence,  and  planet-worship  is  practised.  Charms  are  worn  by 
the  mass  of  the  villagers,  and  pots  spotted  with  lime  are  hung 
up  in  the  vegetable  gardens  to  avert  the  evil  eye.  Fishers  on 
the  sea  and  reapers  in  the  harvest  field  use  a  language  they 
suppose  the  evil  spirits  will  not  understand.  Caste,  in  the 
matter  of  marriages  is  extremely  rigid,  and  sometimes  strong 
in  social  intercourse,  but  as  affecting  trade  it  is  almost  dead. 

The  Sinhalese  are  a  graceful  race,  with  delicate  features. 
The  men  wear  a  jacket,  and  a  cloth  round  the  waist  reaching 
to  the  ankles.  They  usually  wear  their  hair  long,  drawn 
back  from  the  face  and  tied  in  a  knot  at  the  back.  A  semi 
circular  tortoise-shell  comb  on  the  top  of  the  head  is  frequently 
used  by  the  men  of  the  low-country.  Many  are  now  adopting 
short  hair  and  English  dress  as  well  as  language. 

Intellectually  they  are  capable  of  anything,  but  as  a  race 
they  are  perhaps  lacking  in  energy.  Educated  Sinhalese  now 
take  high  and  honourable  positions  in  the  various  professions, 
and  in  Government  service  up  to  the  Legislative  Council 
and  the  Supreme  Court  bench.  Agriculture  is  the  chief 
employment  of  the  people  and  there  are  good  artisans  who 
excel  in  wood-carving,  carpentry  and  brass  work.  It  is 
not  easy  to  win  the  confidence  of  the  people  at  first,  as  they 
are  of  a  very  independent  and  somewhat  suspicious  turn  of 
mind,  but  are  responsive  to  kindness  and  confidence.  Euro 
pean  habits  and  customs  have  a  great  attraction  for  them,  and 
the  more  progressive  have  a  great  desire  for  English  education. 

The  following  is  the  judgment  of  Sir  William  Gregory,  a 
former  governor,  written  after  he  retired  from  the  island  :— 

'  The  people  are  pleasant  to  govern,  they  are  quick-witted 
and  intellectual,  and  the  higher    classes  singularly   well-bred 


and  taking  in  their  deportment.  I  think  too,  there  are  indica 
tions  of  the  quality  of  gratitude,  in  the  existence  of  which  in 
the  East  I  had  long  disbelieved.  I  am  sure  much  may  be 
done  with  them  by  kindness,  courtesy,  and  respectful  treat 
ment.  I  have  known  some  whom  I  would  trust  as  implicitly 
as  I  would  Englishmen,  and  I  am  as  confident  as  one  can 
ever  be  of  human  conduct,  that  if  future  rulers  of  Ceylon  will 
endeavour  to  induce  the  natives  to  trust  them  and  rely  on  them, 
much  more  of  the  administration  of  the  country  may  be 
vested  in  them.  Weakness  and  moral  and  physical  timidity 
are  their  main  faults,  and  as  you  well  know,  cowardice  is  a 
difficult  defect  to  cure.  The  way  to  deal  w  th  such  a  race  is 
to  give  them  confidence  and  encouragement,  to  reward  even 
ostentatiously  good  conduct,  fidelity  and  strength,  but  to  be 
down  on  offenders  with  relentless  severity.  I  have  'pursued 
ihis  course,  and  without  egotism  I  can  say  that  I  believe  no 
Governor  ever  before  succeeded  in  inspiring  such  a  universal 
trust  in  his  motives.' 

A  rebellion  of  the  Kandyan  Sinhalese  occurred  in  1817-19. 
The  first  outbreak  was  in  Uva,  and  the  Government  Agent  of 
Badulla  was  killed  by  the  rebels.  The  people  were  not 
altogether  pleased  to  be  governed  by  foreigners,  and  the  chiefs 
were  discontented  when  they  found  they  were  less  respected, 
.and  the  greater  part  of  their  power  taken  away.  Some  of  the 
rebels  were  beheaded,  and  others  banished  to  the  Mauritius. 
A  change  was  also  made  in  the  relations  between  the  British 
Government  and  Buddhism.  When  the  British  took  Kandy 
in  1815,  a  treaty  was  made  in  which  Buddhism  was  declared 
.'  inviolable,'  and  its  rites  and  temples  were  promised  protec 
tion  and  maintenance.  It  was  found  that  the  Buddhist  priests 
were  the  chief  promoters  of  the  rebellion,  so  in  the  new  treaty 
it  was  stated  that  '  the  priests  as  well  as  the  ceremonies  of 
Buddhism  shall  receive  the  respect  which  in  former  times 
was  shown  to  them.' 


There  were  two  small  risings  of  the  Sinhalese  in  1820  and 
1823,  but  in  1848  a  small  rebellion  broke  out  in  Matale  and 
Kurunegala.  There  had  been  unrest  for  some  time  and 
resentment  towards  the  new  taxes  on  dogs,  guns  and  boats, 
the  stamp-tax,  and  especially  the  road-tax.  Riotous  meetings 
were  held  protesting  against  the  taxes,  and  a  rebellion  broke 
out,  but  it  was  at  an  end  in  less  than  three  months.  Some  of 
the  ringleaders  were  banished  to  Malacca.  In  1866  there 
were  serious  food  riots  in  Colombo,  Kandy  and  Galle,  owing 
to  the  high  price  of  rice. 

For  the  next  fifty  years  everything  was  peaceful,  till  in 
May  1915  serious  riots  occurred  in  many  places,  which  led  to 
considerable  loss  of  life,  the  proclamation  of  martial  law, 
and  the  imprisonment  of  some  6,000  men,  under  sentences 
varying  from  a  few  weeks'  detention  to  death.  Religious  and 
economic  considerations  led  the  Sinhalese  mob  to  attack  the 
Mohammedans  or  Mcors.  The  Mohammedans  had  protested 
against  a  Buddhist  religious  procession  passing  their  mosque 
at  Gampola,  and  their  protest  had  been  upheld  in  the  law- 
courts.  They  also  boasted  that  they  would  interfere  with  the 
great  Kandy  perahera  in  August— the  most  important  proces 
sion  in  Ceylon — and  tried,  though  in  vain,  to  prevent  the  erec 
tion  of  a  dansala,  or  booth,  in  Kandy  for  the  free  distribution 
of  food  on  Buddha's  birthday.  These  steps  aroused  religious 
animosity,  which  was  intensified  by  the  economic  hatred  of 
the  Moors,  caused  chiefly  by  jealousy  on  account  of  their 
superior  success  as  traders.  The  riots  broke  out  on  the 
morning  of  the  29th  of  May,  when  a  mosque  which  had  been 
specially  aggressive  in  its  objections  to  dansalas  and  proces 
sions,  was  wrecked  by  the  Sinhalese,  and  in  the  evening  of 
that  day  bloodshed  began.  The  riots  were  quelled  after  a  few 
weeks,  the  ringleaders  punished,  and  heavy  fines  imposed 
upon  the  inhabitants  to  repair  the  damage  done  to  property. 



THE  population  of  Ceylon  in  1911  was  4,110,367  ;  of  these 
2,714,880  were  Sinhalese.  In  the  Census  returns  for  that 
year  2,474,170,  entered  themselves  as  Buddhists. 

Gautama  Buddha,  the  founder  of  Buddhism,  lived  and  died 
in  Northern  India  in  the  sixth  century  B.C.  At  the  age  of 
twenty-nine  years  he  undertook  what  is  called  the  '  Great 
Renunciation  '  by  forsaking  his  family  and  departing  into  the 
jungle,  to  discover  by  his  own  unaided  efforts  how  deliver 
ance  from  the  ills  and  changes,  ,to  which  mankind  was  sub 
ject,  could  be  realized.  At  the  end  of  six  years  of  meditation 
he  achieved  his  aim  and  while  sitting  near  a  Bo  Tree  (ficus 
religiosa)  became  Buddha,  i.  e.  the  enlightened  one.  He 
declared  he  was  free  from  all  desire  and  was  capable  of  com 
prehending  all  things — past,  present  and  future.  With  regard 
to  the  beginning  of  matter  and  life,  he  asserted  that  it  was 
unknowable.  In  one  of  his  first  sermons  he  took  as  his  text 
the  words,  '  Everything  burns,'  and  said  that  nothing  is 
permanent,  and  that  the  comprehension  of  this  fact  was 
essential  to  the  attainment  of  the  summum  bonuin  of  his 
religion — nirvana.  Buddha  commenced  to  preach  at  the  age 
of  thirty-five  and  died  at  the  age  of  eighty. 

In  the  seventeenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Asoka,  king  of 
Maghada,  in  India,  in  the  third  century  after  Buddha's  death, 
a  convocation  of  Buddhists  was  held  and  it  was  decided  to 
send  missionaries  to  Ceylon.  Prince  Mahindo,  the  son  of  the 
king,  was  sent  about  the  year  307  B.C.  and  succeeded  in 


converting  Tissa,  the  king  of  Ceylon  and  many  of  his  subjects. 
Tissa  sent  to  Asoka  for  the  right  collar  bone  of  Buddha,  and 
over  this  was  erected  the  Thuparama  dagoba,  in  Anuradhapura. 
Shortly  after  this  Sanghamitta,  the  younger  sister  of  Mahindo, 
came  to  Ceylon  bringing  with  her  a  branch  of  the  sacred 
Bo  Tree.  Buddha  is  said  to  have  visited  the  island  on  three 
occasions,  knowing  that  '  Ceylon  would  be  the  place  where 
his  religion  would  be  most  glorified,'  and  on  the  last  occa 
sion  is  said  to  have  left  the  impression  of  his  foot  on  Adam's 
Peak.  In  85  B.C.  five  hundred  priests  met  in  a  rock-temple 
at  Aluwihare,  near  Matale,  and  there  the  '  Tripitaka '  or 
'  Threefold  Collection  '  of  Buddha's  sayings,  with  notes,  were 
written  down.  Previously  the  doctrines  were  committed  to 
memory  and  handed  down  orally. 

In  A.D.  313,  the  relic,  Buddha's  tooth,  was  brought  to 
Ceylon  by  a  Brahman  princess,  hidden  in  the  folds  of  her 
hair,  to  prevent  its  falling  into  the  hands  of  enemies. 

In  A.D.  1305  King  Bahu  IV  built  many  temples,  and  during 
his  reign  the  '  Jatakas  '  or  five  hundred  '  birth  stories  '  of 
Buddha  were  translated  from  Pali  into  Sinhalese. 

The  canonical  scriptures  of  Buddhism  contain  more  than 
two  million  lines,  about  two  feet  each  in  length  of  manuscript, 
and  treat  of  the  most  abstruse  and  metaphysical  subjects,  as 
well  as  of  moral  duties.  The  raison  d'etre  of  Buddhism 
must  be  looked  for  in  the  pantheism  and  sacerdotalism  which 
prevailed  in  Buddha's  time  and  country.  The  Brahmans 
taught  that  every  particle  of  matter  was  a  visible  portion  of 
the  unseen  God  and  that  worship  addressed  to  it  was  the 
same  as  worship  addressed  to  Him.  They  also  had  become 
unpopular  on  account  of  their  extreme  pretensions  to  superi 
ority  with  regard  to  caste.  The  Ceylon  priests  in  a  petition 
to  the  late  King  Edward  regarding  their  temple-lands,  said 
that  Buddha  did  not  inculcate  the  worship  of  any  God,  and 
that  the  temples  were  not  built  for,  nor  dedicated  to,  the  worship 


of  any  supernatural  being.  'Answer  122'  in  the  Buddhist 
Catechism,  published  by  the  late  Colonel  Olcott  says,  '  The 
Buddhist  priests  do  not  acknowledge  or  expect  anything  from  a 
divine  power.  A  personal  God  is  only  a  shadow  thrown 
upon  the  void  of  space  by  the  imagination  of  ignorant  men. ' 

Buddha  repeatedly  told  his  followers  to  look  to  themselves 
alone  for  salvation,  so  prayer  to  a  superhuman  being  is  un 
known  and  unpractised.  Professor  Monier  Williams  says, 
'  It  is  a  strange  irony  of  fate  that  Buddha  himself  should 
have  been  not  only  deified  and  worshipped,  but  also  repre 
sented  by  more  images  than  any  other  being  ever  idolized  in 
any  part  of  the  world. ' 

The  obliteration  of  the  doctrines  relating  to  the  Supreme 
Being  of  the  Universe  and  the  soul  of  man  has  made  Bud 
dhism  generally  inoperative  in  the  lives  of  its  adherents. 

Buddhism  teaches  that  a  man's  present  existence  was 
preceded  by  unnumbered  lives  in  past  ages,  and  will  be 
succeeded  by  countless  others,  unless,  like  Buddha,  we  snap 
the  chain  of  desire  which  links  us  to  life.  The  arbiter  of  any 
particular  state  of  being  is  '  karma' — action.  This  is  taught 
in  the  oft-quoted  saying  of  the  Buddhists,  who,  when  wish 
ing  to  show  what  is  the  doctrine  of  rewards  and  punishments, 
say,  '  Kala,  kala  de,  phala,  phala  de,'  the  equivalent  of  '  As 
a  man  sows,  so  shall  he  reap.' 

Dr.  R.  S.  Copleston,  in  his  valuable  work  '  Buddhism,  past 
and  present,'  says  :  '  Buddhism  does  not  hold  that  there  is  any 
such  thing  as  a  permanent  independent  soul,  existing  in  or 
with  the  body  and  migrating  from  one  body  to  another.  The 
self  or  personality  has  no  permanent  reality  ;  it  is  the  result 
of  certain  elements  coming  together,  a  combination  of  facul 
ties  and  characters.  No  one  of  these  elements  is  a  person,  or 
soul,  or  self,  but  to  their  combination  the  term  self  is  popu 
larly  given.  The  death  of  a  man  is  the  breaking  up  of  this 
ombination,  not  the  separation  of  soul  from  body,  but  the 


dissolution  both  of  body  and  of  the  aggregate  of  faculties  and 
characters  on  which  life  depended.' 

On  the  death  of  any  living  being  whose  Karma  is  not  yet 
exhausted,  another  being  comes  into  1  existence,  to  whom  the 
residue  of  the  karma  is  transferred.  This  second  being  is  the 
same  as  the  first  and  yet  not  the  same. 

Buddhism  lays  stress  upon  four  fundamental  truths  called 
the  '  Four  noble  Truths,'  viz: — 

(1)  All  existence  is  suffering,  (2)  The  origin  of  suffer 
ing  is  desire,  (3)  The  cessation  of  suffering  is  brought  about 
by  the  removal  of  desire,  (4)  The  way  to  the  attainment  of 
cessation  of  suffering  is  by  carrying  out  the  precepts,  until 
Nirvana  is  reached. 

The  course   of  conduct   which,   if   adopted,  will  lead  to  the 

removal  of  desire  is  called  the  '  Noble  Eight-fold  Path,'  viz  : — 

(1)    Right   opinion,    (2)    Right   resolve,    (3)  Right  speech, 

(4)   Right  employment,  (5)   Right   conduct,   (6)   Right  effort, 

(7)   Right  thought,   (8)  Right  self-concentration. 

Every  priest  is  bound  to  abstain  from  the  following  ten 
things,  (dahasil};—\.  Killing,  2.  Theft,  3.  Unchastity,  4. 
Falsehood,  5.  Alcoholic  drink,  6.  Solid  food  after  midday, 
7.  Dancing,  8.  Perfumes  and  ornaments,  9.  High  or  broad 
beds,  10.  Receiving  of  gold  or  silver.  The  lay  adherent  is 
only  bound  to  abstain  from  the  first  five  of  these  (pansil). 

Buddha  himself  issued  no  regulacions  about  religious  ritual 
or  worship,  because  it  was  opposed  to  that  state  of  self-reliance 
which  he  insisted  on.  All  that  we  find  now  relating  to 
temples,  images  and  offerings  was  instituted  later.  He  estab 
lished  an  order  of  celibates,  who  were  to  devote  the  whole  of 
their  lives  to  the  subjugation  of  their  passions,  and  to  exhort 
others  to  join  their  order.  Buddhism  has  adopted  many 
ceremonies  of  the  Hindus  in  order  to  obtain  popular  sympathy 
and  processions  with  dancing,  jugglers,  music,  clowns  and 
elephants  are  frequently  held  to  attract  the  public.  The 


people  give  alms  to  the  priests,  feed  beggars,  make  pilgrimages, 
prostrate  themselves  before  images,  relics,  trees,  dagobas  and 
footprints,  visit  temples  at  the  changes  of  the  moon,  and 
recite  their  creed, '  Buddham  saranam  gachchami,  Dhatnmam 
saranam  gachchami,  Sangham  saranam  gachchami ' — I  take 
refuge  in  Buddha,  in  the  doctrine,  in  the  priesthood. 

For  some  years  past  there  has  come  into  prominence  the 
belief  in  the  coming  of  another  Buddha,  the  Maitri  or 
Metteyya,  the  loving  one.  Buddha  made  the  following 
prophecy  :  '  Man's  average  age  will  dwindle  through  sin  to  ten 
years,  and  will  then  rise  again  to  eighty  thousand  years  ;  there 
will  then  arise  a  Buddha  named  Metteyya,  endowed  with  all 

Many  of  the  Buddhists  now  centre  all  their  hopes  of 
Nirwana  in  the  coming  of  this  Maitri  Buddha,  who  is  to  be 
righteousness,  knowledge  and  love,  believing  that  the  love  he 
will  inspire  by  his  personality  and  preaching  will  do  what 
they  cannot  now  do.  Animism  or  demon  worship  which 
existed  before  the  introduction  of  Buddhism,  still  holds  its 
own,  and  the  devil  priests  are  important  functionaries  in  the 
village  communities,  having  less  philosophy  but  more  power 
than  the  Buddhist  priests.  Bishop  R.  S.  Copleston  says,  '  It 
is  the  devil  priest  and  not  the  Bhikku  who  is  the  real  pastor 
of  the  people.' 

According  to  the  Census  of  1911,  there  were  in  Ceylon, 
7,774  Buddhist  priests,  3,019  ebittayas,  or  attendants  on  the 
priests,  948  persons  engaged  in  temple  service,  1,305  devil 
dancers  and  468  astrologers.  Buddhism  has  wealthy  endow 
ments,  and  four  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land  belong  to  the 

About  thirty  years  ago  a  '  Buddhist  Temporalities  Ordi 
nance  '  was  passed  by  the  Government,  and  a  few  years  later 
a  Mr.  Bowles  Daly,  LL.D.  of  Dublin  University,  and  once 
a  clergyman  of  the  Church  of  England,  was  appointed 


'  Commissioner '  to  enquire  into  the  working  of  the  Act.  For 
some  years  he  had  made  Ceylon  his  head-quarters,  identifying 
himself  with  the  Buddhists,  and  endeavouring  to  excite  among 
them  a  revival  of  religious  zeal.  He  visited  1,300  of  the 
Pansalas  or  monasteries,  and,  in  his  report  to  Government,  is 
scathing  in  denunciation  of  the  general  character  of  the 

For  the  last  thirty  years  the  Buddhists  have  been  very 
active  and  aggressive,  through  what  is  called  the  '  Buddhist 
revival '  which  was  commenced  by  American  and  English 
Theosophists.  A  catechism  was  published,  with  the  approval 
of  the  high  priest,  and  in  the  preface  it  states  '  The  signs 
abound  that  of  all  the  world's  great  creeds,  that  one  is  destined 
to  be  the  much  talked  of  religion  of  the  future  which  shall  be 
found  in  least  antagonism  with  nature  and  with  law.  Who 
dares  predict  that  Buddhism  will  not  be  the  one  chosen  ?  '  It 
further  says,  '  Various  agencies,  among  them,  conspicuously, 
the  wide  circulation  of  Sir  Edwin  Arnold's  beautiful  poem 

The  Light  of  Asia  ",  have  created  a  sentiment  in  favour  of 
Buddhistic  philosophy,  which  constantly  gains  strength.  It 
seems  to  commend  itself  to  Freethinkers  of  every  shade  of 
opinion.  The  whole  school  of  French  Positivists  are  practi 
cally  Buddhists.'  This  Catechism  further  states  '  The  word 

religion  "  is  most  inappropriate  to  apply  to  Buddhism,  which 
is  not  a  religion  but  a  moral  philosophy.' 

In  addition,  vernacular  schools  as  well  as  English  and 
Boarding  schools  have  multiplied  rapidly,  some  of  them 
taught  by  European  teachers,  and  itinerant  preachers  pene 
trate  to  remote  villages  copying  Christian  phraseology  and 
Christian  missionary  methods.  Sunday  schools,  Young  Men's 
Buddhist  Associations,  tract  distribution,  carol  singers  during 
the  Sinhalese  New  Year,  parodies  of  Christian  hymns, 
Buddhist  cards  for  Buddha's  birthday,  newspapers,  a 
Buddhist  '  Daily  Light, '  an  '  Imitation  of  Buddha, '  a 


'  Funeral  Discourse,'  pictures  of  events  in  the  life  of  Buddha, 
a  Buddhist  flag,  have  all  been  brought  into  being. 

We  agree  with  the  words  of  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Ewing  in  the 
'  Resplendent  Isle,'  viz.  '  We  rejoice  in  all  this  opposition 
for  it  rouses  the  people  from  apathy  and  indifference.  It  has 
led  also  to  the  spread  of  primary  school  teaching  among  the 
children — the  duty  utterly  neglected  by  the  Buddhist  monks 
in  respect  of  the  boys,  and,  of  course,  nearly  always  of  the 
girls.  Christianity  has  everything  to  gain  ultimately  by  the 
change.  It  is  in  the  days  of  strenuous  struggle  that  the 
Gospel  wins  its  greatest  triumphs,  not  in  the  days  of  ease 
and  compromise.' 

Mr.  K.  J.  Saunders,  late  of  Trinity  College,  Kandy,  on  the 
last  page  of  his  '  Modern  Buddhism  in  Ceylon,'  writes, 
'  Already  we  have  to  thank  God  for  signs  that  Buddhists  are 
awakening  from  the  long  sleep  of  centuries,  a  new  enthusiasm 
for  national  life,  and  a  revival  of  the  old  yearning  for  the 
coming  one,  both  due,  we  believe,  to  the  quickening  touch  of 
Christianity.  The  problem  before  the  Church  of  Ceylon 
would  seem  to  be  so  to  preach  Christ  that  He  should  be 
accepted  as  the  realization  of  their  ideal  of  a  loving  one,  who 
has  superseded  Law  by  Love,  and  counteracted  karma  by 
His  redemptive  power,  and  that  His  kingdom  shall  stand  for 
the  Fulfilment  of  all  those  dim  yearnings  after  national 
greatness  which  are  struggling  to  find  expression.' 

Mr.  Harold  Begbie,  in  his  introduction  to  '  In  the  Hand 
of  the  Potter,'  writes  truly  '  Christianity  is  janua  vitae, 
Buddhism,  janua  mortis.  Christianity  is  an  ardent  enthu 
siasm  for  existence,  Buddhism  is  a  painful  yearning  for 
annihilation,  Christianity  is  a  hunger  and  thirst  after  joy, 
Buddhism  a  chloral  quest  for  insensibility.  The  Christian 
is  bidden  to  turn  away  from  sin  that  he  may  inherit  the 
everlasting  joy  of  eternity,  the  Buddhist  is  told  to  eradi 
cate  all  desire  of  any  kind  whatsoever  lest  he  be  born  again. 


Buddha  sought  to  discover  an  escape  from  existence,  Chrisl 
opened  the  door  of  life.  Buddha  forbade  desire,  Christ 
intensified  aspiration.  Buddha  promised  anaesthesia,  Christ 
promised  everlasting  felicity.' 




AT  the  last  Census  (1911)  there  were  528,024  Ceylon  Tamils 
and  530,983  Indian  Tamils,  making  a  total  of  1,059,007,  in 
the  Island,  or  slightly  more  than  a  quarter  of  the  whole 

The  first  invasion  by  the  Tamils  from  South  India  occurred 
in  205  B.C.  when  an  army  led  by  Elara,  a  prince  of  the 
kingdom  of  Chola,  now  called  Tanjore,  landed  in  Ceylon,  and 
marched  victoriously  to  Anuradhapura,  where  he  defeated 
and  slew  Asela,  the  king  of  the  Sinhalese. 

The  Ceylon  Tamils  or  Jaffna  Tamils  '  as  they  are  more 
popularly  called,  are  the  descendants  of  the  old  conquerors, 
who  mostly  came  from  the  far  north  of  Southern  India. 
The  Indian  Tamils  are  chiefly  the  estate  coolies,  who  are 
temporary  migrants  from  the  extreme  south  of  India.  The 
name  '  cooly  '  is  derived  from  the  word  '  kuli '  which  means 
'  daily  hire  or  wages,'  therefore  a  cooly  means  a  day 

Jaffna  is  the  stronghold,  or  Mecca,  of  the  Ceylon  Tamils, 
whilst  the  Indian  Tamils  look  upon  '  the  coast '  as  their 
home.  Jaffna  has  always  been  supplied  with  educational 
advantages,  and  this  has  encouraged  emigration.  Many  of 
the  Jaffnese  find  work  in  the  Madras  presidency,  and  others 
find  employment  in  Colombo,  and  the  far  East,  as  accountants, 
clerks,  overseers  and  conductors  on  estates.  There  were 
seven  thousand  Jaffnese  in  the  Federated  Malay  States  and 

THE    TAMILS  25 

Straits  Settlements  at  the  last  Census.  Owing  to  the  emigra 
tion  of  so  many  men,  Jaffna  is  the  only  district  in  Ceylon, 
with  the  exception  of  Galle,  where  there  is  a  preponderance  of 
females.  The  Tamils  have  of  course  their  failings  like  other 
mortals,  but  it  is  always  more  gracious  and  pleasant  to  look 
at  the  bright  side  of  things  than  at  the  dark.  No  one  who 
knows  anything  of  Tamils  will  deny  the  fact  that  as  a 
race  they  are  industrious,  enterprising  and  clever.  The 
energetic  and  industrious  coolies  are  the  backbone  of  all 
island  labour.  It  has  often  been  said  that  Tamil  cooly  labour 
is  the  '  best  labour  in  the  world,'  and  certainly  it  is  surprising 
how  much  work  a  Tamil  labourer  will  get  through  in  a  day 
on  a  minimum  of  food. 

In  days  of  old  these  immigrants  invaded  Ceylon  as  ruth 
less  conquerors,  now  they  come  as  valuable  helpers  in 
every  enterprise,  and  are  invaluable  on  the  tea  and  rubber 

They  are  also  an  enterprising  people,  for  they  are  to  be 
found  in  many  parts  of  the  world,  as  far  away  as  Capetown, 
the  Mauritius  and  Jamaica,  where  they  make  money  by 
their  industry  and  thrift.  This  readiness  to  emigrate  in 
search  of  work  is  a  singular  characteristic  in  an  Eastern 

That  they  are  clever  is  clear  from  the  many  wise  sayings 
which  are  found  in  their  classical  works,  and  from  the  fact 
that  many  of  them  take  high  honors  at  our  universities.  It  is 
a  fact,  of  which  the  Tamils  may  be  justly  proud,  that  the  first 
Indian  to  be  raised  to  the  Episcopate,  the  Right  Rev.  V.  S. 
Azariah,  D.D.,  of  Dornakal,  is  one  of  their  race.  Another 
point  of  interest  is  their  literature.  The  great  epic  poem, 
the  Ramayana,  was  rendered  into  Tamil  some  centuries  ago 
.and  is  most  popular  to-day.  Among  the  mo^t  interesting  of 
their  classical  works  is  the  Cural,  which  is  considered  one  of 
the  finest  poems  in  the  Tamil  language.  Here  are  a  few 


examples  of  its  ethical  teaching  culled   from  E.  J.  Robinson's 
book  on  '  Tales  and  Poems  of  South  India.' 

Woman.     What  is  there  not,  when  she  excels  ? 

Where  she  is  useless  nothing  dwells. 
Children.    The  rice  is  all  ambrosial  made, 

In  which  their  tiny  hands  have  played. 
Love.          The  soul  of  love  must  live  within,    . 

Or  bodies  are  but  bone  and  skin. 
Slander.     Who  loves  to  backbite  makes  it  clear 

His  praise  of  virtue's  insincere. 

A  question  which  naturally  arises  is,  Have  the  Tamils  made 
their  mark  upon  Christian  literature  in  any  degree  ?  The 
answer  is  in  the  affirmative.  One  of  the  greatest  Christian 
poets  that  has  arisen  among  the  Tamils  is  Vethanayagam 
Sasthriar  of  Tanjore.  Perhaps  the  most  popular  of  his 
hymns  is  one  that  is  connected  with  Ceylon.  The  story  of 
how  it  came  to  be  written  has  its  humorous  side,  and  by 
some  may  not  be  considered  very  complimentary  to  the  fair 
island.  The  story  is  that  on  one  occasion  the  poet  and  his 
choir  of  singers  visited  Jaffna,  and  their  robes  being  some 
what  soiled,  it  was  thought  expedient  to  send  them  to  the 
'  wash.'  But,  alas,  they  never  returned,  the  washerman 
having  set  envious  eyes  on  them.  The  poet  and  his  choir 
had,  therefore,  to  appear  in  their  ordinary  clothes.  To  com 
fort  his  own  mind  the  poet  wrote  a  hymn  which  is  often  sung 
by  the  Tamils  in  time  of  sorrow.  Of  course,  there  is  no* 
mention  made  of  the  dhoby  and  his  thievish  tricks.  The 
following  is  a  translation  of  the  hymn,  which  may  be  entitled 
'  Trusting  at  all  times.' 

Though  sinners  hate  thee  sore 

And  would  entrap  thy  way, 
Though  trials  and  distress 

Befal  thee  day  by  day, — 


Though  all  should  persecute, 

And  grievous  cares  arise, 
Though  devils  should  appear 

Before  thy  trembling  eyes, — 

Though  all  men  should  forsake 

And  battles  rage  around, 
Though  pain  and  suffering  come 

And  poverty  abound, — 

Though  men  despise  and  scorn 

And  ill  for  good  requite, 
Though  evil  hosts  combine 

To  rob  thee  of  thy  right, — 

My  soul,  be  aot  distressed, 

Remember  Zion's  Lord, 
By  anxious  thoughts  oppressed, 

Faint  not,  but  trust  His  word. 



THE  Ceylon    Hindus   may   be   described   as  pure    Animists, 
Animists  and  Sivites,  and  orthodox   Sivites.     The   Animists 
are  principally  composed  of  all  castes  from  the  barber  caste 
downwards,  who  are  not  allowed  to  enter  a  consecrated  Hindu 
temple,  and  who  are  not   ministered  to  by   Brahmans.     The 
orthodox  Sivite  worships  certain  gods,  of  whom  Siva,  Parvati 
his  wife,  Ganesha  their  son,  Skanda  and  Virabhadra  are  the 
principal ;  but  these  gods  merely  represent  ideals  for  medita 
tion.      The    worship    of    Skanda    is    considered    the    most 
important,  and   Kataragama  is   the  chief   shrine   in   Ceylon. 
The  circle  of  gods  is  considerably   enlarged  by  the  admission 
of  various  other  gods  of  local,  caste,  or  traditional  significance. 
Each    caste    has  its  own    protecting   deity.     Hinduism    was 
originally  nature    worship,   but   has  become   polytheism  of  a 
gross  kind.     In    the   Hindu    mythology    there    is   a    triad   of 
principal  gods, — -Brahma,  Vishnu  and  Siva,  the  first  of  whom 
is  not   now  worshipped.     The  legends    of    Vishnu    represent 
him,  in   his    various  incarnations,  as  guilty    of    all   sorts   of 
immoralities.       Siva    represents   the    reproductive   force    of 
nature,  and  in  his   temples  an   upright   black   stone,  called  a 
lingam,   is    worshipped.     Saivas  or   Sivites,  the   followers  of 
Siva,  are  distinguished  by    the   three    stripes  of   white  cow 
dung   ash,  smeared    on  their    foreheads  and    often    on  their 
arms  and  breasts.     Many   also  have  a  round  white   mark   on 
the  centre  of  their  foreheads  to  represent  the   third   eye    of 
Siva.     In  Ceylon,    the    most    familiar   names    of    deities,    or 


perhaps  as  they  should  rather  be   called,  demons,  are   Mari- 
amma  (mother  of  death),  Suppramaniam,  Muniyandi,  Katha- 
resan,  and   Narayanan.     Mari-amma  is    the    small-pox  god. 
dess  or    demon.     Muniyandi   is    the  demon  most   commonly 
worshipped  by  the   coolies,  and   has  many   little  temples  on 
the  tea  estates.     Muniyandi    was    once  a  cooly  himself,   in 
the  early   coffee   days.     He  was  of    the   lowest   caste    (shoe 
maker).     One  day  he  went  to  cut  some  branches  from  a  tree 
for  his  goats,  when  a  branch    fell    on   him    and   killed    him. 
That    very    day    a    terrible   storm    broke    over    Hunasgiriya 
estate,   near    Kandy,   where   Muniyandi   worked.     T.vo  men 
chanced  to  take  shelter   in  a  cow-shed  and  one  of  them  was 
struck  by   lightning.     Next  day,    his   companion   consulted  a 
fortune  teller,  as  to    the  cause    of    the    misfortune.     He   was 
told    that    it   was    the    spirit    of    Muniyandi   that   had   taken 
revenge  on   his   companion,    and    he    was    urged   to   worship 
Muniyandi    with    proper    rites.     Muniyandi    has   ever   since 
been  regarded  as    a  worker  of  mischief  on   the  estates.     The 
following    is    the    mode    of    worship    of    the   coolies.     The 
worshipper,  accompanied  by  a   few  companions,  takes   some 
incense  in  a  pot,  a  banana  leaf,  some  bananas  and  betel  nuts, 
some  ashes  and  camphor,  a  coconut,  a  bottle  of  arrack  and  a 
live  cock.     Arriving   at  the   spot  sacred    to    Muniyandi,    he 
burns  the  incense,  arranges   the  bananas  with  the  betel  nuts 
on  the  banana  leaf,  covers  the  ashes  with  camphor,  sets  fire 
to  it  and  cuts  the  coconut  shell   in  halves,  care  being   taken 
to  cut  the  shell  with  one  cut.     He   then  places  the  bottle  of 
arrack  beside  the  banana   leaf  and  kills  the  cock,  pouring  its 
blood  over  the  rude  stone   that  serves   as  an   idol,  as  well  as 
over  the  banana  leaf  and   its   contents.     He   then  pulls  the 
feathers  off  the    bird,  and,    having  cut    it   down    the    breast, 
holds  it  over  the  camphor  fire  for  a  few  minutes.     This  done, 
he  either  prostrates  himself  before  the  idol  or  stands  with  his 
hands  clasped    over  his    head,    and   prays   to   Muniyandi   to 


prosper  him  and  forgive  anything  amiss  in  his  worship.  He 
then  takes  the  ashes,  now  sacred,  and  having  put  some  in  his 
mouth  and  smeared  some  on  his  forehead,  he  distributes 
some  among  his  companions,  and  reserves  the  remainder  for 
his  family.  He  then  takes  up  the  cock  and  the  arrack,  and 
after  pouring  a  little  of  the  latter  before  the  idol,  he  cuts  the 
kernel  of  the  coconut  into  pieces  and  pours  some  arrack 
into  the  coconut  shell.  He  then  cuts  the  fowl  into  pieces 
and  distributes  it  with  the  coconut  and  arrack  among  him 
self  and  his  companions.  Once  more,  with  due  reverence,  he 
places  a  piece  of  coconut  and  betel  before  the  idol  and 
returns  home. 

There  are  three  chief  religious  festivals  in  Ceylon,  (l) 
The  Thai  Pongal,  which  takes  place  early  in  the  year,  is  a 
relic  of  an  aboriginal  nature  worship  of  the  sun.  (2)  The 
Tee-Vali  in  October  commemorates  the  defeat  of  a  tyrannical 
giant  who  had  mightily  oppressed  both  gods  and  men.  It  is 
also  called  the  feast  of  lamps.  (3)  The  Vale  is  connected 
with  the  worship  of  Suppramaniam,  a  son  of  Siva.  In 
Colombo  this  festival  is  the  occasion  of  a  curious  procession 
between  two  temples  at  opposite  extremities  of  the  town, 
and  of  celebrations  lasting  many  days. 

The  religion  of  the  higher  classes  is  a  religion  of  fear,  for 
Hinduism  presents  God  in  a  terrible  aspect.  No  one  can 
visit  the  temples  in  India  and  Ceylon  without  being  struck 
with  the  representation  of  God.  As  in  all  false  systems  of 
religion,  purity  is  unknown  in  Hinduism.  This  is  clear  from 
the  fact  that  '  dancing  girls  '  are  attached  to  nearly  every 
temple.  These  unhappy  girls  are  called  '  the  slaves  of  God,' 
while  in  reality  they  are  the  miserable  slaves  of  men's  worst 
passions.  Every  candid  Hindu  will  admit  that  the  presence 
of  these  women  at  their  festivals  is  a  blot  on  the  escutcheon 
of  their  religion.  And  yet  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  light 
in  Hinduism,  for  the  doctrines  of  expiation,  sacrifice,  the 


incarnation  and  the  unity  of  the  Godhead  are  all  found  in  it. 
Bullocks,  sheep  and  fowls  are  commonly  offered  as  expiatory 
sacrifices.  Hinduism  teaches  moreover,  that  the  God  Vishnu 
has  become  incarnate,  under  different  forms,  nine  times,  and  a 
tenth  incarnation  is  eagerly  looked  for  by  every  devout 

Again,  the  Trinity  in  Unity,  is  not  a  strange  doctrine  to 
the  Hindu,  for  he  believes  that  Brahma  is  God,  Vishnu  is 
God,  and  Siva  is  God,  and  yet  they  have  a  saying,  '  Let 
earth  be  put  into  the  mouth  of  any  one  who  denies  that  Vishnu 
and  Siva  are  one.' 

It  has  been  well  said  that  '  a  man's  religion  consists  of 
what  he  is,  what  he  does,  and  what  he  hopes  'for.'  What 
then  is  the  hope  of  the  Hindu  ?  His  highest  ambition  is  to 
lose  his  own  personality  and  be  absorbed  in  the  deity.  To 
attain  this  he  must  perform  many  acts  of  self-mortification,  or 
of  charity,  which  bring  with  them  the  reward  of  merit,  but 
before  this  highest  stage  can  be  reached,  he  must  pass 
through  many  transmigrations.  Hinduism  presents  but  little 
hope  to  women.  Here  is  a  story  the  truth  of  which  can  be 
vouched  for.  A  Hindu  woman  was  seen  in  devout  and 
earnest  prayer.  When  she  had  concluded  her  devotions,  a 
Zenana  missionary  asked  her,  '  For  what  have  you  been 
praying  ?  '  and  the  woman  replied,  '  I  have  been  praying  that 
•when  I  die,  my  soul  may  enter  into  a  cow.'  It  is  often  said, 
'  Why  trouble  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the  Hindus  ?  '  Surely, 
the  Hindus,  men,  women  and  children  need  the  Gospel,  the 
Gospel  of  love  and  purity.  While  the  Hindus  are  expecting 
another  incarnation  of  their  God  Vishnu,  it  is  the  duty  and 
privilege  of  the  Christian  Church  to  proclaim  far  and  wide 
the  one  true  incarnation  which,  when  compared  with  the 
false  incarnation  of  Vishnu,  is  as  light  compared  with 



THERE  is  a  tradition  of  the  existence  of  Nestorian  Christi 
anity  in  Ceylon,  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Justinian. 
Cosmas,  a  Nestorian  Christian,  writing  about  A.D.  550  says, 
on  the  authority  of  one  Sopater,  a  Greek  merchant,  that  in 
Taprobane  (which  was  the  ancient  Greek  name  for  Ceylon) 
there  existed  a  community  of  Persian  Christians,  tended  by 
bishops,  priests  and  deacons,  and  having  a  regular  liturgy. 

St.  Thomas,  St.  Bartholomew,  and  the  eunuch  of  Candace, 
whose  conversion  by  St.  Philip  is  recorded  in  the  Acts  of  the 
Apostles,  are  all  alleged  to  have  preached  Christianity  in  the 

The  historical  evidence  of  the  planting  of  Christianity  is 
the  arrival  of  the  Portuguese  in  1505,  who  brought  with 
them  Franciscan  Fathers  and  who  did  their  utmost  to  press 
Roman  Catholicism  upon  the  people.  The  most  famous  of 
their  workers  was  St.  Francis  Xavier,  the  '  Apostle  of  the 
Indies  '  who  came  over  from  India  in  1544  on  a  mission  to 
the  Tamils  in  the  North.  He,  being  unable  to  accept  the 
invitation  of  the  people  of  Manaar  to  '  come  and  teach  them 
also '  sent  one  of  his  clergy,  through  whom  about  seven 
hundred  persons  received  baptism,  a  baptism  which  was 
straightway  crowned  by  martyrdom,  as  these  early  converts 
were  forthwith  put  to  death  by  the  Rajah  of  Jaffna,  who  was 
a  worshipper  of  Siva.  In  1650  the  Dutch  arrived,  forcing 
the  people  by  every  means  in  their  power  to  embrace  the 
doctrines  of  the  Reformed  Church  of  Holland.  Baptism  had 


come  to  be  regarded  as  a  Government  regulation,  and  was 
known  as  '  Christiyani  karnawa,'  or  making  Christian. 

In  1795  the  low  country,  and  in  1815  the  upcountry,  came 
under  the  rule  of  the  British,  who  proclaimed  religious 
liberty.  Emerson  Tennent  says,  '  It  had  been  declared 
honourable  by  the  Portuguese  to  undergo  such  a  ceremony, 
"  making  Christian,"  it  had  been  rendered  profitable  by  the 
Dutch,  and  after  three  hundred  years'  familiarity  with  the 
process  the  natives  were  unable  to  divest  themselves  of  the 
belief  that  submission  to  the  ceremony  was  enjoined  by 
orders  from  the  civil  government.'  When  the  pressure  of 
compulsion  was  removed  by  the  advent  of  the  British  power, 
thousands  openly  returned  to  their  former  superstitions,  while 
the  great  majority  of  those  who  kept  up  their  connection  with 
Christianity  had  been  so  educated  and  trained  in  hypocrisy 
and  false  profession,  that  while  outwardly,  as  a  body,  con 
forming  to  Christian  worship,  and  anxious,  as  a  matter  of 
respectability,  to  obtain  Christian  rites,  they  held  as  their 
religious  belief  the  doctrines  of  Buddhism,  and  practised  in 
secret  all  its  ceremonies  and  rites.  In  the  first  ten  years  of 
the  British  r-ule,  the  number  of  Buddhist  temples  in  the 
Sinhalese  districts  had  increased  from  between  two  and  three 
hundred  to  twelve  hundred. 

In  1801,  out  of  an  estimated  population  of  about  one  and  a 
half  million,  the  number  of  those  who  professed  the  Protes 
tant  form  of  the  Christian  faith  was  estimated  to  exceed 
342,000,  while  the  Roman  Catholics  were  considered  to  be 
still  more  numerous.  In  1804,  the  Protestant  Christians 
were  estimated  at  240,000,  in  1810  they  had  dropped  to 
150,000,  in  1814  to  130,000  and  fifty  years  after  in  1864,, 
there  were  said  to  be  40,000  Protestants  and  100,000 

The   writer   of  the   'Jubilee   Sketches'   of  the   C.M.S.    in 
Ceylon      says,     '  About     the    time    that    the    first    C.M.S. 


Missionaries  came  to  the  island,  the  people  were  becoming 
aware  of  the  fact  that  the  outward  profession  of  Christianity 
was  no  longer  necessary  to  secure  their  civil  rights,  and  were 
going  back  in  large  numbers  to  the  open  practice  of  Bud 
dhism  which,  all  along,  they  had  secretly  believed.  The 
gradual  cessation  of  efforts  to  instruct  the  people,  which 
preceded  and  followed  the  advent  of  the  British  rule,  left  the 
mass  of  nominal  adherents,  who  still  retained  their  outward 
profession  of  Christianity,  in  utter  ignorance  of  its  real 
nature,  and  thus  confirmed  in  them  the  idea  that  connection 
with  it,  although  no  longer  compulsory,  still  placed  them  in  a 
more  advantageous  position  and  that  the  reception  of  its  rites, 
(Baptism  and  Marriage)  still  secured  to  them  the  countenance 
of  the  ruling  powers,  and  gave  them  a  respectable  standing, 
which,  for  their  worldly  advancement  and  profit,  it  was 
necessary  to  retain.' 

At  the  commencement  of  the  Dutch  rule,  and  for  a  long 
period  of  its  continuance,  earnest  and  systematic  efforts  seem 
to  have  been  made  by  that  Government  to  bring  the  people  of 
the  island  to  a  knowledge  and  profession  of  Christianity. 
Had  those  efforts  been  continued  in  full  vigour,  both  by  the 
Dutch  Government  and  our  own,  Buddhism  would  doubtless 
have  been  uprooted  from  the  land,  and  a  nominal  profession 
of  Christianity  established  in  its  place.  Whether  or  not  that 
would  have  been  more  favourable  to  the  real  progress  of  the 
Gospel  than  the  present  state  of  things,  is  a  question  which 
it  is  difficult  to  decide,  and  concerning  which  diverse  opinions 
will  always  be  held.  For  a  long  period  of  their  rule,  the 
Dutch  made  vigorous  efforts,  and  liberally  expended  funds,  it 
endeavours  to  convert  the  inhabitants  to  the  Christian  faith. 
Not  only  did  they  establish  schools,  but  they  also  built 
churches  and  employed  ministers  in  direct  missionary  work 
among  the  adults.  Yet  these  efforts  seem  to  have  been 
marred  by  their  mistaken  policy,  in  making  the  reception  of 


baptism  and  the  outward  profession  of  Christianity  necessary 
in  order  to  secure  to  the  people  their  civil  rights  and  pri 
vileges,  and  as  a  passport  to  Government  employment.  The 
result  of  this  false  policy  was  to  make  the  outward  profession 
of  Christianity  almost  universal,  but,  at  the  same  time,  it  so 
opened  the  floodgates  of  hypocrisy,  that  the  tide  of  false  and 
insincere  professors  completely  overwhelmed  the  real  con 
verts,  and  overspread  the  land  with  a  spurious  Christianity 
which  although  imposing  in  extent,  was  utterly  false  and 
unsound.  In  the  '  Historical  Sketch  of  Ceylon  '  by  Dr.  R.  S. 
Copleston,  published  by  the  S.P.G.,  the  writer  says,  '  When 
the  English  took  possession  in  1798,  more  than  300,000 
natives  are  said  to  have  been  registered  as  members  of  the 
Dutch  Church.  Of  these  a  few  were  genuine  Protestants,  a 
large  number  were  really  Romanists,  but  the  majority  were 
merely  nominally  Christians,  and  actually  Buddhists  or 
Hindus.  Still,  it  was  a  grand  opportunity  which  was  thus 
set  before  our  own  nation  and  our  own  Church.  For, 
although  much  of  the  Christianity  we  found  in*  Ceylon  was 
unsound,  still  the  heathenism  was  feeble,  ignorant,  and  dis 
credited  (to  a  depth  far  below  what  is  now  the  case),  and 
Christian  education  had  done  much  to  bring  the  children  at 
least  within  our  reach.  But  unhappily  the  England  of  that 
time  was  little  alive  to  such  a  responsibility,  the  opportunity 
was  lost,  almost  all  that  was  done  was  to  remove  the  pressure 
which  had  kept  so  many  people  nominally  Christian.  With 
the  gradual  withdrawal  of  that  pressure  (which  was  not 
completely  done  till  I860,  when  marriage,  other  than 
Christian,  obtained  equal  registration),  the  great  majority  of 
the  nominal  Protestant  Christians  resumed  the  open  profes 
sion  of  their  real  religion.  In  many  cases  this  was  Roman 
Catholicism,  in  more  it  was  heathenism.  Thus  during  nearly 
the  whole  century,  at  the  beginning  of  which  more  than 
300,000  persons  outwardly  professed  the  Church  of  England 


as  representing  the  Government  religion,  the  number  of 
adherents  of  the  Church  has  steadily  decreased.' 

For  some  time  after  the  British  annexation,  Dutch  Pres- 
byterianism  wa=  recognized  as  the  established  Church  of  the 
Colony,  and  Mr.  North  afterwards  Lord  Guilford,  the  first 
British  Governor,  not  only  took  active  measures  for  restoring 
one  hundred  and  seventy  of  the  Dutch  village  schools,  but 
also  offered  Government  assistance  to  the  clergy  if  they 
would  itinerate  through  the  rural  districts,  and  so  keep  alive 
some  knowledge  of  the  Christian  faith. 

The  first  Protestant  missionaries  to  visit  Ceylon  from 
England  were  four  agents  of  the  London  Missionary  Society 
in  1805,  but  for  some  reason,  they  all  soon  left  for  India, 
except  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Palm  who  settled  down  as  the  Pastor 
of  the  Dutch  Church  at  Wolfendahl  in  Colombo.  The 
pioneer  of  modern  missions  in  Ceylon  was  the  Rev.  James 
Chater  who  landed  in  Colombo  on  April  16,  1812.  He 
was  sent  out  by  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society  in  1806  to 
join  the  Serampore  Mission  in  North  India,  but  his  landing 
was  opposed  by  the  Indian  Government,  so  he  went  on  to 
Burmah  and  commenced  work  there.  Civil  war  in  the 
Burmese  dominions  and  the  ill-health  of  his  wife  forced  him 
to  relinquish  work  there  and  try  Ceylon.  The  Governor- 
General  Sir  Robert  Brownrigg,  and  Lady  Brownrigg,  were 
in  full  sympathy  with  missionary  effort  and  gave  him  a  hearty 
welcome.  The  beginning  of  all  the  principal  missions  in 
Ceylon  took  place  during  this  Governor's  regime. 

The  centenary  of  the  Baptist  Mission  was  celebrated  in 
1912,  and  a  most  interesting  story  of  the  hundred  years  was 
written  by  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Ewing,  under  the  title,  '  The 
Resplendent  Isle— a  hundred  years  witness  in  Ceylon.'  In 
it,  the  writer  say?,  '  The  Baptist  cause  in  Ceylon  has  never 
been  strong  numerically.  There  have  been  years  of  abun 
dant  harvest,  as  well  as  periods  of  barrenness  and  drought, 


but  every  effort  is  made  to  receive  only  sincere  adherents, 
believing  that  only  thus  will  the  Church  ultimately  become 
strong  and  self-supporting.'  The  principal  stations  are  at 
Colombo,  Kandy,  Matale  and  Ratnapura.  There  are  twenty 
stations  and  out-stations,  four  men  missionaries,  nine  women 
missionaries,  thirty-nine  native  evangelists,  thirty-one  in 
dependent  churches,  954  native  members,  106  school  teachers, 
forty-six  schools  with  3,831  scholars,  and  2,787  children  in  the 
Sunday  schools. 

The  Ceylon  Auxiliary  (originally  called  the  Colombo 
Auxiliary)  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  was 
established  at  Queen's  House,  Colombo,  on  August  1,  1812, 
mainly  by  the  zealous  efforts  of  Sir  Alexander  Johnston, 
Chief  Justice  of  Ceylon,  with  the  Governor,  Sir  Robert 
Brownrigg  as  President,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Bisset,  Assistant 
Colonial  Chaplain,  the  Honorary  Secretary.  From  the  day 
of  its  birth  the  Society  has  pursued  an  unwavering  course 
and  stands  at  the  centre  of  all  organized  efforts  for  the 
evangelization  of  the  island.  The  position  which  it  holds  in 
respect  to  all  Protestant;  missions  is  unique,  for  it  is  the 
partner,  helper  and  friend  of  all. 

The  auxiliary  celebrated  its  centenary  in  1912,  and  in  the 
Annual  Report  for  that  year,  a  summary  of  the  year's  work 
is  given  as  follows :  '  The  Scriptures  circulated  totalled 
84,326  volumes,  in  twenty-five  languages,  against  72,783  for 
the  previous  year,  an  increase  of  11,543  copies.  The  average 
number  of  Colporteurs  employed  was  twenty  and  of  Bible- 
women  sixty-four.  The  receipts  from  sales  reached  no  less  a 
sum  than  Rs.  7,622  :  27  and  the  subscriptions  and  collections 
contributed  locally  came  to  Rs.  8,424  :  92.' 

The  Wesleyan  Methodist  Mission  commenced  its  work  in 
Ceylon  in  1814,  being  the  first  oriental  station  of  this 
denomination.  The  first  party  of  six  missionaries,  two  of 
whom  were  married,  with  Dr.  Coke  as  their  leader,  sailed  from 


England  on  December  30,  1813,  and  arrived  at  Point  de 
Galle  on  June  29,  1814.  Dr.  Coke  and  Mrs.  Ault,  wife  of  one 
of  the  missionaries,  died  on  the  voyage. 

Evangelistic,  educational  and  industrial  work  have  been 
prosecuted  vigorously  in  many  parts  of  the  island.  The 
principal  educational  institutions  are  Wesley  College  in 
Colombo  opened  in  1874,  Richmond  College,  Galle,  1876, 
Kingswood  College,  Kandy,  1891  and  the  Wellawatte, 
Industrial  Home,  1890.  In  Wellawatte,  the  mission  owns 
a  valuable  printing  establishment,  and  in  Colpetty  a  high 
school  for  girls.  It  has  also  established  a  mission  to  seamen 
and  a  city  mission  '  in  Colombo.  Other  important  stations 
have  been  established  in  the  Jaffna  peninsula  and  on  the 
East  coast.  In  1916  there  were  twenty-seven  European 
men  missionaries,  twenty-eight  women  missionaries  not 
including  wives,  sixty  catechists,  343  elementary  schools 
with  927  teachers  and  27,500  scholars,  eleven  boys'  high 
schools  with  eighty-six  teachers  and  1,572  scholars,  four 
colleges  with  eighty-two  teachers  and  1,583  students,  6,545 
church  members  and  10,438  on  probation. 

The  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missions  (Congregation- 
alist)  commenced  work  in  Jaffna  in  1816,  and  have  ever 
since  confined  themselves  to  that  part  of  the  island.  The 
first  missionaries  had  been  designated  for  Madras,  but  on 
their  way  their  vessel  was  wrecked  off  the  north-west 
coast.  This  they  accepted  as  an  indication  of  the  Divine 
will  that  they  were  to  go  no  further.  The  medical  work  of 
the  mission  has  been  a  great  feature,  and  has  been  attended 
with  much  success.  In  1824  the  Uduvil  Girls'  Boarding 
School  was  commenced,  probably  the  earliest  effort  of  the 
sort  in  a  heathen  land.  One  of  the  missionaries,  Miss  Eliza 
Agnew  had  charge  of  this  school  for  forty-three  years. 
Upwards  of  a  thousand  girls  studied  under  her  care,  and  of 
these  more  than  six  hundred  left  the  school  as  really  earnest 


Christians.  Although  the  Mission  has  concentrated  its  effort 
on  a  comparatively  small  field,  it  has  twenty-one  outstations, 
twenty-one  churches,  2,252  members,  five  men  missionaries, 
nine  women  missionaries,  eleven  pastors,  375  teachers  and 
126  schools  with  11,548  scholars.  The  mission  celebrated  its 
centenary  in  1916,  when  a  history  was  compiled  by  Miss 
Helen  Root  entitled  '  A  Century  in  Ceylon.' 

The  Friends'  Foreign  Mission  Association  commenced 
work  in  Matale  in  1896  and  in  Mirigama  in  1903.  In  1915 
there  were  six  missionaries,  sixty-three  native  workers,  313 
adherents,  twenty-three  schools,  1,373  scholars  and  three 
dispensaries  at  which  4,800  patients  were  treated  that  year. 
The  Salvation  Army  commenced  work  in  Ceylon  in  1883, 
the  Heneratgoda  Faith  Mission  in  1891,  and  there  are  a  few 
private  or  '  free  lance  '  missions  at  work. 

The  Ceylon  branch  of  the  Christian   Literature  Society  for 
India,  formerly  called  the  Vernacular  Education  Society,  was 
founded  in  1858  as  a  memorial  of  the  Mutiny  by  a  union  of 
all   the   chief    missionary    societies  to  do  a  work   which  (in 
their    own    words)  '  could   not   be  done   by  them   separately 
except  by  the  wasteful  expenditure  of  much   money.'     It  is 
accordingly   controlled   by  committees   composed   mainly  of 
their  missionaries.     The  Central  Depot   and  Head  Office  of 
the    Ceylon    Branch   is   situated   in    Dam   Street,   Colombo. 
During    the    year    1915,    there   were   sold    16,237   copies   of 
General  Literature,  2,015  Bibles  and  11,278  Testaments  and 
portions,   whilst   there   were   distributed   free    240,000    four- 
page  tracts  and  120,000    twelve-page  booklets.     During  the 
same  year  123,500  copies  of  school  books,  44,000  copies   of 
general  literature,   140,300  copies  of  periodicals  and  240,000 
copies   of   tracts,   having   a  total  of  11,233,500  pages,  were 
printed.       Six     colporteurs     were     employed    whose     sales 
produced  nearly  Rs.  1,500.     The  object  of  the  Society  is  to 
disseminate  among  the  masses  pure,  healthy  literature  of  a 


Christian  spirit  and  tone,  chiefly  in  the  vernacular.  The 
Edinburgh  Conference  of  1910  reported  that  'Christianity 
has  been  most  intelligent,  influential  and  progressive  when 
mental  activity  has  been  most  carefully  nourished  and 
stimulated  by  Christian  literature,'  and  an  Indian  missionary 
says,  '  After  an  experience  of  fifty  years  among  the  millions  of 
these  vast  regions,  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  I 
regard  this  agency  as  se%cond  only  to  preaching  and  teaching 
among  all  the  forms  of  labour  employed  in  the  missionary 

The  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel  began  work 
in  Ceylon  in  1840,  and  in  November  of  that  year  the  Rev. 
C.  Mooyart  became  its  first  missionary,  being  stationed  in 
Colombo.  In  1842  the  Rev.  H.  Von  Dadelszen  was  appointed 
to  Nuwara  Eliya  and  the  Rev.  S.  D.  J.  Ondaatjie  to  Kalutara. 
In  the  following  year  a  District  Committee  was  formed  at 
Colombo.  'The  S.P.G.  began  by  aiding  existing  churches, 
not  by  going  into  entirely  new  fields.  In  some  cases, 
a  Sinhalese  or  a  Tamil  clergyman,  who  was  already  employed 
as  a  chaplain  under  Government  to  minister  to  Christians  of 
his  own  race,  would  be  assisted  by  a  grant  from  the  S.P.G. 
and  placed  upon  its  lists  of  missionaries,  that  he  might  in 
this  capacity  be  encouraged  and  enabled  to  extend  his  work 
to  the  heathen,  and  such  missionary  chaplains  employed 
catechists,  and  opened  schools.  In  other  instances,  where 
Government  could  be  persuaded  to  make  an  allowance  for  a 
Catechist,  the  S.P.G.  grant,  in  addition  to  the  Government 
salary,  made  it  possible  to  maintain  a  priest.' 

The  S.P.G-  has  been  a  promoter  and  helper  of  missionary 
work  rather  than  a  proprietor  of  distinct  missions.  In  one  or 
two  districts  it  has  independent  and  valuable  work,  but  more 
often  the  S.P.G.  has  worked  in  clo^e  conjunction  with 
Government  chaplains  or  diocesan  clergy,  rather  than  by  a 
staff  and  missions  of  its  own.'  In  1851  with  the  assistance  of 


the  S.P.G.,  St.  Thomas'  College  was  opened  and  has  received 
continuous  aid.  The  Society  has  been  gradually  reducing 
its  grant  to  Ceylon  which  now  only  amounts  to  ^500. 
It  was  through  the  help  of  the  Society  that  the  Bishopric 
Endowment  Fund  was  originated  and  completed  in  1898. 

The  statistics  for  the  year  ended  June  1916  were 
Christians  2,906,  commmunicants  816,  catechumens  44, 
baptized  during  the  year  94,  schools  28,  teachers  148, 
pupils  2,792. 

The  preponderance    of    Roman  Catholicism  in  the  island 
is  very    marked.     In   seven  out  of  the  nine  provinces  more 
than  seventy  per  cent  of  the  Christians  are  Roman  Catholics. 
There  has  been   great  activity  not  only  in   multiplying  digni 
taries,   but  in   promoting  higher  education.     There  are  three 
principal    Roman   Catholic   Missions,    the   Oblates  of   Mary 
Immaculate,   the  Oblates  of   St.    Benedict  and  the  Society  of 
Jesus.     The   Archbishopric    is    of    Colombo,   with    Bishops 
of  Colombo,    Jaffna,  Kandy,   Galle  and   Trincomalee,   whilst 
there  are   173  foreign    priests,  67  native,  priests,  26    foreign 
lay  brothers,  64  native  lay  brothers,   186  foreign  sisters  and 
324  native   sisters.    Among  the   congregations  of  women   at 
work  are   the  Sisters  of  the   Good  Shepherd,  the  Franciscan 
Missionaries  of  Mary,  and  the  Sisters  of  the  Holy  Family. 
There     are     several    native     congregations     including     the 
St.    Joseph's    Society  of  lay    brothers   and    the  Societies   of 
St.   Peter  and  of  St.  Francis  Xavier  for  women.     The  edu 
cational  institutions  include  St.  Joseph's  College  in  Colombo, 
St.  Patrick's  College  in  Jaffna,  St.  Aloysius'  College  in  Galle 
and   the   Papal  General  Seminary  at  Ampitiya  near  Kandy. 
The   last  named  institution  was   founded  by  Pope    Leo  XIII 
in  1893  to  provide  a  specially  thorough  theological  education, 
of  which  all  Indian  dioceses  might  avail  themselves. 

The    Church     of    England     in    Ceylon,    according    to    the 
Government  Census  of  1911,  numbered  41,095  members. 


Ceylon,  which  had  been  added  to  the  See  of  Calcutta  in 
1817,  and  to  that  of  Madras  in  1835  was  erected  into  a 
separate  Bishopric  in  1845.  The  first  Bishop  of  Calcutta, 
Dr.  F.  T.  Middleton,  was  consecrated  privately  in  Lambeth 
Palace  on  May  8,  1814,  for  '  fear  of  offending  the  natives' 
and  the  Dean  of  Winchester's  sermon  on  the  occasion  was 
not  allowed  to  be  printed.  His  first  episcopal  visitation  to 
Ceylon  was  in  October  ^1816,  when  he  arrived  by  the  H.M. 
Cruiser,  Aurora.  His  next  visit  was  in  1821,  when  he 
consecrated  St.  Peter's  Church  in  Colombo  on  May  22. 
Bishop  Heber  visited  the  island  in  1825,  followed  by  Bishop 
Turner  in  1831,  and  Bishop  Wilson  in  January  1843.  The 
first  Bishop  of  Colombo,  Dr.  James  Chapman,  was  consecra 
ted  in  Lambeth  Palace  Chapel  on  May  4,  1845,  and  landed 
in  Colombo  on  All  Saints'  Day  of  that  year,  and  after  sixteen 
years  of  devoted  service  resigned  in  1861.  The  C.M.S. 
Annual  Report  of  1845  said,  '  The  Committee  anticipate 
much  benefit  to  the  Ceylon  Mission  from  his  spiritual  direc 
tion  and  paternal  superintendence  over  the  Church  in  this 
interesting  island.' 

The  second  Bishop  of  Colombo,  was  Dr.  Piers  C.  Claugh- 
ton,  who  was  translated  from  St.  Helena  in  1862,  and  after 
eight  years'  work  resigned  in  1870. 

The  third  Bishop,  Dr.  Hugh  W.  Jermyn,  was  consecrated 
in  1871,  but  was  forced  by  ill-health  to  resign  in  1874,  and 
afterwards  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Brechin  and  Primus  of 

In  1875,  his  successor,  Dr.  Reginald  Stephen  Copleston, 
was  consecrated  and  worked  assiduously  for  twenty-seven 
years,  until  his  translation  in  1902  to  Calcutta.  In  1892, 
was  published  his  standard  work  on  '  Buddhism,  primitive 
and  present,  in  Magadha  and  in  Ceylon.'  Dr.  Copleston, 
owing  to  ill-health,  resigned  the  See  of  Calcutta  in 


In  1903,  his  brother,  Dr.  Ernest  A.  Copleston  who  had 
been  working  in  Ceylon  for  some  years,  was  consecrated  fifth 
Bishop  of  Colombo,  in  the  Cathedral  Church  of  Calcutta. 

In  1881,  the  connection  of  the  British  Government  with 
the  endowment  of  religion  by  ecclesiastical  votes  from  the 
general  revenue  to  the  Bishop  and  a  number  of  Episcopal 
and  Presbyterian  Chaplains,  was  discontinued  by  ordinance, 
provision  being  made  for  existing  incumbents.  The  Bishop 
thereupon  summoned  a  Church  assembly,  comprising  all  the 
clergy  in  priests'  orders,  and  lay  delegates  chosen  by  the 
various  congregations,  who  elected  a  Committee  to  consider 
the  future  constitution  of  the  Church.  This  Committee  sat 
for  nearly  five  years  and  ultimately  drafted  a  complete  con 
stitution  for  '  the  Church  of  England  in  Ceylon.'  On 
July  6,  1886,  the  draft  constitution  was  submitted  to  the 
Church  assembly  and  approved,  and  recommended  to  the 
acceptance  of  the  permanent  Synod  of  the  disestablished 
Church,  which  had  already  been  elected  by  anticipation. 
The  Synod  met  on  the  following  day  for  the  first  time  and 
solemnly  accepted  the  constitution  in  the  name  of  the  whole 
Church  in  Ceylon.  The  proceedings  closed  with  a  joyful 
Te  Deum. 

The  duty  of  self-organization  and  self-support  which  was 
thus  forced  upon  the  Church  by  the  withdrawal  of  State  aid, 
has  served  to  quicken  and  to  create  corporate  feeling,  as  well 
as  the  sense  of  unity,  and  has  brought  into  it  new  life  and 

Under  rule  8  of  Chapter  VII  on  the  '  Revision  and  For 
mation  of  Parishes  and  Districts  '  of  '  The  Constitution  and 
the  Fundamental  Provisions,  and  Regulations  Non-Funda 
mental,  of  the  Synod  of  the  Church  of  England  in  Ceylon  '  it 
says  '  nor  shall  any  of  the  foregoing  rules  be  so  interpreted 
or  understood  as  to  hinder  or  prevent  either  the  Society  for 
the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  parts  or  the  Church 


Missionary  Society,  or  any  other  directly  Mission  Organiza 
tion  of  the  Church  of  England  from  carrying  on  as  heretofore 
with  the  sanction  and  license  of  the  Bishop,  direct  Evange 
listic  Missionary  work  amongst  such  heathen  and  Moham 
medan  populations,'  and  in  Chapter  VIII,  on  Patronage, 
Rule  V,  '  Nothing  contained  in  this  chapter  shall  interfere 
with  the  rights  of  the  Society  for  the  Propagation  of  the 
Gospel  or  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  or  of  any  other 
Patrons,  so  long  as  they  desire  to  exercise  their  Patronage 
independently  of  Synod.' 

At  the  close  of  the  year  1916  the  number  of  clergy  of  the 
Church  of  England  in  Ceylon  holding  the  Bishop's  License 
was  108,  viz.  thirty-eight  Europeans,  five  Burghers,  twenty- 
nine  Tamils  and  thirty-six  Sinhalese. 

The  Church  Missionary  Society  commenced   work  in  1818, 
and  the  Church  of  England  Zenana   Missionary   Society  in 
1889,  particulars  of  which  will  be  found  in   Chapter  VIII  and  ' 
the  following  pages  of  this  volume. 

in  the  Census  of  1911  the  population  enumerated  was 
4,110,367.  Of  these  409,168  entered  themselves  as  Christians, 
as  follows  i — 

Roman  Catholics  ...  .-..  330,300 

Church  of  England  ...  ...  41,095 

Presbyterians  ...  ...  3,546 

Wesleyans  ...  ...  17,323 

Baptists        ...  ...  ...  3,306 

Congregationalism  ...  ...  2,978 

Salvationists  ...  ...  1,042 

Friends         ...  ...  ...  120 

Lutherans    ...  ...  ...  142 

Others          ...  ...  ...  316 

According  to  the  Census  of  1881  the  Christians  numbered 
267,977,  in  1891  they  numbered  302,127,  and  in  1901  they 


numbered  349,239.  The  strength  of  the  four  principal 
religions  in  1911  was,  Buddhists,  60  per  cent ;  Hindus,  23  per 
cent ;  Christians,  10  per  cent ;  and  Mohammedans,  7  per  cent, 
of  the  population. 

One  result  of  the  World  Missionary  Conference  held  in 
Edinburgh  in  June  1910,  was  the  appointment  of  a  Continua 
tion  Committee  of  some  forty  leaders  of  the  missionary  forces. 
This  Committee  requested  its  Chairman,  Dr.  John  R.  Mott, 
to  visit  the  mission  fields,  acquainting  missionaries  and  native 
leaders  with  the  work  and  plans  of  the  Committee  and  assist 
ing  the  work  in  such  other  ways  as  might  be  determined. 

Dr.  Mott  accordingly  spent  from  October  1912  to  the 
following  May  in  a  tour  through  the  principal  mission  fields 
of  Asia,  and  held  a  series  of  twenty-one  conferences.  Never 
before  have  the  great  questions  involved  in  the  establishment 
of  Christ's  kingdom  upon  earth  been  discussed  by  so  many 
recognized  leaders  of  the  Christian  forces  throughout  the  non- 
Christian  world,  nor  has  there  ever  been  such  an  expression 
of  united  judgment  and  desire  on  the  part  of  workers  of  the 
various  Christian  bodies. 

Ceylon  was  the  first  centre  visited  and  a  Conference  was 
held  in  Colombo,  on  November  11-13,  1912,  at  which  sixty- 
six  delegates  chosen  by  the  various  religious  bodies  (except 
ing  Roman  Catholics)  were  present  under  the  chairmanship 
of  Dr.  Mott.  The  following  were  chosen  to  represent  the 
C.M.S.,  the  Revs.  G.  S.  Amarasekara,  J.  W.  Balding,  J.  V. 
Daniel,'  A.  E.  Dibben,  A.  G.  Eraser,  W.  E.  Rowlands,  W.  G. 
Shorten,  S.  S.  Somasundaram,  Messrs.  N.  _P.  Campbell,  N. 
Selvadurai,  Mrs.  A.  G-  Eraser  and  Miss  L.  E.  Nixon. 
The  following  is  a  summary  of  'the  findings' 
Conference,  in  regard  to  Ceylon. 

Missionary  work  is  located  in  the  most  populous  and    me 
accessible   areas   and   is   reaching  the   Sinhalese  and    Tamil 
speakin*  people.     Very  little,  except  through   our  schools,  is 


being  done  for  the  Mohammedan   men.     The  Parsis  and  the 
forest  Veddahs  are  neglected.     More  direct  evangelistic  work 
among  non-Christians  needs  to  be  done.     A   serious  attempt 
should  be  made  towards  a  better  understanding  of  the  religious 
standpoint  of  the  people.     Preachers  and  teachers  should  lay 
special  stress  by  precept  and  example  upon  the  truth  that  the 
task  of  the  evangelization  of  this  country  is  the  task   of  every 
member  of  the  Church.     The  Sinhalese  and  Tamil  Churches 
connected  with  several  missions  support  their  own   Ministry 
entirely  in  many  places,  partially  in  others.     The  community 
is    strong   enough   in    religious    experience    and    intellectual 
attainment  to  supply  an  ordained  ministry  for  its  Church  life, 
and  is  doing  so.     The  progress  made  in    self-government  has 
resulted  in  greater  generosity  and  in  a  deeper  appreciation  of 
independence,    responsibility    and    power.      The    support    of 
evangelistic  efforts   through   indigenous   Missionary  Societies 
has   been   steadily    increasing.     Evangelistic    effort    in    the 
immediate  neighbourhood   of   independent  churches  and  con 
gregations  is  wholly  inadequate.     Leaders  should  be  sought 
out  and  trained  and   every  effort   should  be  made   to  provide 
for  them  a  ladder  of   responsibility,   and   to  give  freedom  of 
initiative  to  such  persons  when  discovered  or  trained.     Mission 
schools  should  be     concerned    primarily    in    educating    the 
Christian  and  social  conscience  of  their  pupils.     Ceylonese 
workers  should  be  accorded  a  powerful  place  in  Church  con 
ferences  aud  a  full  share  in  its  consultations.     Greater  efforts 
should  be    made    through    the   children    attending   schools  to 
reach  and  influence  their  homes.     As  singular  opportunities 
exist  for  the  calling  out  and  development  of  the  missionary 
spirit  in  the  various  Christian  schools  and  colleges,  it  would 
give  encouragement  to  the  missionary  cause  if  the  training  of 
Ceylonese   missionaries  were   placed  in   the   forefront  of  the 
objects  for  which  such  colleges   exist  and  if  special  scholar 
ships  were  founded  to  help  those  who  wish  to  qualify  for 


missionary  service.  Greater  attention  should  be  given  to  the 
production  and  dissemination  of  Christian  literature  adapted 
to  the  needs  of  Ceylon  Christians  and  non-Christians.  There 
is  a  lack  of  leaders  from  among  the  Ceylonese  women  and  a 
paucity  of  European  women  workers.  Suitable  Ceylonese 
women  missionaries  should  receive  exactly  the  same  official 
and  social  status  as  the  foreign  workers.  Simple  inexpensive 
Anglo-vernacular  Girls'  Boarding  Schools  should  be  multi 
plied.  The  non-realization  of  many  women  and  girls  of  the 
congregations  of  their  duty  to  undertake  voluntary  church 
work  is  a  defect.  Simple  medical  work  among  women  and 
children  in  backward  districts  is  to  be  desired. 



ABILITY  to   read    and    writa    at    least    one's    own    language, 
though  not   indispensable  to  the   planting  and  development  of 
Christianity,   must  be  acknowledged    to  be  a  very  importan 
aid   to  the  work   of    the   Christian   Missionary.     Christianity 
does  not  invite  ignorance  as  an   ally,  but  welcomes  enlighten 
ment  as  its  co-adjutor.     The  total  numbers  able  to  read  and 
write   one   language  in   all    Ceylon   in  the   last   four   decades 

Census  of   1881        ...  ...       404,441 

1891       ...  ...       603,047 

1901        ...  ...       773,196 

1911        ...  ...    1,082,828 

The  proportions  of  the  above  (in  which  males  and  females 
are  included)  are  :  — 

1881     1891      1901      1911 

Percentage  of  Males       ...24-6     30-0     34-70     40'4 
„  Females  ...     2-5       4-3       6-92     10-6 

The  total  number  of  literates  at  the  last  Census  was 
878,766  males  and  204,062  females.  The  total  native 
population  literate  in  English  was  70,679.  Of  these  57,881 
were  males  and  12,798  females,  and  of  these  1,785  Sinhalese 
and  241  Ceylon  Tamils,  a  total  of  2;026  could  not  read  and 
write  trfeir  own  language. 

During  the  Dutch  occupation  of  the  Colony,  schools  were 
established  and  attendance  was  made  compulsory.  The 
teaching  was  largely  religious  and  the  girls  had  to  show  that 


they  understood  the  catechism  and  creed  before  they  could  be 
married.  In  the  Instructions  from  the  Governor-General  of 
India  to  the  Governor  of  Ceylon  in  1656,'  it  is  laid  down 
'  that  the  boys  and  girls  should  be  made  to  attend  schools, 
and  be  there  received  into  Christianity.  The  observance  of 
this  point  will  cause  some  difficulty,  because  the  natives 
think  a  great  deal  of  their  daughters,  and  the  parents  will  not 
consent  to  their  going  to  school  after  their  eighth  year.  They 
may,  perhaps,  receive  a  little  more  instruction  on  the  visits  of 
the  clergyman.' 

That  the  education  imparted  was  not  of  a  very  advanced 
type  may  be  gathered  from  a  quotation  from  «Eschelskroon  in 
his  '  Description  of  Ceylon,  1782.'  '  The  schoolmasters  are 
either  chaplain?,  that  come  with  the  ships  from  Europe,  or 
more  usually  still,  broken  mechanics,  such  as  bakers,  shoe 
makers,  glaziers,  etc.,  who  have  no  more  book  learning  than 
just  to  make  a  shift  to  sing  the  Psalms  of  David,  and  at  the 
same  time  perhaps  can  say  the  Heidelberg  catechism  by 
heart,  together-jwith  a  few  passages  out  of  the  Bible,  and  are 
able  to  read  a  sermon  from  some  author,  or  else  they  are  some 
wretched  natives,  that  can  scarce  make  a  shift  to  read  Dutch 
intelligibly,  much  less  can  they  write  a  good  hand,  and  in 
arithmetic  are  still  more  deficient.'  When  the  British  took 
possession  in  1796,  the  question  of  education  was  neglected 
for  some  years,  but  with  the  advent  of  the  missionary  bodies, 
schools  were  established  in  various  parts  of  the  Island. 

A  School  Commission  was  instituted  by  the  Government 
on  May  19,  1834,  and  the  first  Government  Educational 
Institution,  called  the  Colombo  Academy,  now  known  as  the 
Royal  College,  was  started  on  October  26,  1836.  In  January 
1868,  Sir  Hercules  Robinson's  Education  Scheme  passed  the 
Legislature,  abolishing  the  School  Commission,  appointing  a 
Director  of  Education,  and  regulating  Grants-in-aid  to  all 
denominations  and  private  schools  in  return  for  secular 


results  only.  This  gave  a  great  impetus  to  education,  and 
the  total  number  of  scholars  under  the  cognizance  of  the 
Department  of  Public  Instruction  has  risen  from  44,192  in 
769  schools  in  1873,  to  384,533  in  4,303  schools  in  1915. 
Of  these  118,381  were  girls,  about  39  per  cent  of  the  girls  of 
school-going  age. 

The  total  expenditure  on  '  Education  '  from  the  General 
Revenue  in  1879  was  Rs.  445,228  and  for  the  year  1915  it 
amounted  to  Rs.  2,154,209. 

The  Cambridge  Local  Examinations  were  introduced  in 
1880,  and  for  the  first  examination  that  year,  were  presented 
twenty-one  boys  and  no  girls;  in  1915  there  were  2,151 
boys  and  236  girls. 

There  are  thirty-nine  industrial  schools,  and  carpentry 
among  boys,  and  lace-  making  among  girls,  are  the  most 
popular  industries. 

The  following  extracts  from  Mr.  E.  B.  Denham's  '  Ceylon 
at  the  Census  of  1911  '  are  interesting.  Under  '  Instruction  ' 
he  s-ays,  '  67  per  cent  of  the  persons  employed  in  this 
profession  are  males  and  33  per  cent  females.  In  all 
it  supports  15,500  persons.  The  number  of  persons  de- 
perding  on  "  Instruction  "  has  increased  by  5,000  during  the 
decade.  There  were  4,690  school  masters  and  teachers, 
as  compared  with  3,126  in  1901,  and  2,269  school  mistresses 
and  teachers,  as  compared  with  1,507  in  1901.  Of  the 
Kandyan  Sinhalese,  only  912  depend  upon  educational 
employment,  as  compared  with  7,176  Low-country  Sinha 
lese  and  5,001  Ceylon  Tamils.' 

Again  Mr.  Denham  writes  under  '  Education ',  '  The 
improved  standard  of  comfort  throughout  the  country,  the 
growth  of  wealth,  accompanied  by  considerable  changes  in 
manners  and  customs,  have  ail  produced  an  enormous 
demand — which  may  almost  be  described  as  a  passion — for 
education.  The  older  generation  regard  education  as  an 


investment  for  their  children,  which  will  enable  them  to  take 
up  positions  to  which  their  newly  acquired  wealth  entitles 
them.  The  small  landowner  and  cultivator  who  has  pros 
pered  believes  that  education  will  make  a  clerk  of  his  son  or 
fit  him  for  a  learned  profession,  that  the  latter  will  then  hold 
a  better  position  in  the  world  than  his  father,  and  that 
consequently  the  fortunes,  and,  what  appeals  to  him  equally 
strongly,  the  status  of  the  family  will  be  assured.  The 
younger  generations  seek  escape  from  rural  life,  from  manual 
toil,  from  work  which  they  begin  to  think  degrading,  in  an 
education  which  will  enable  them  to  pass  examinations, 
which  will  lead  to  posts  in  offices  in  the  towns,  and  so  to 
appointments  which  entitle  the  holders  to  the  respect  of  the 
class  from  which  they  believe  they  have  emancipated  them 

The  Church  Missionary  Society,  together  with  the  other 
Christian  Missions,  has  from  the  beginning  been  in  the 
forefront  in  the  matter  of  education,  and  has  established 
some  of  the  best  schools  in  the  Island.  Consequently  the 
Christians  show  the  highest  proportions  of  literates  amongst 
all  religions. 

In  1911,  the  percentage  of  literates  of  each  religion  and 
sex  was  as  follows  : — 

Males.  Females. 

Christians        ...              ...          60-3  38-8 

Buddhists        ...              ...         41-8  9-1 

Hindus            ...             ...         29-6  4-0 

Mohammedans                ...          36'2  3-2 

During  the  last  thirty  years  the  Buddhists  have  taken  a 
keener  interest  in  education,  and  hundreds  of  vernacular 
schools  have  been  opened  in  the  villages  for  boys  as  well  as 
for  girls,  and  English  schools  in  the  towns.  The  Hindus  are 
also  now  taking  their  share  in  the  education  of  the  young. 


It  is  a  cause  for  thankfulness  that  the  education  of  girls 
has  not  been  neglected,  for  the  value  of  female  education  is 
so  great  that  its  importance  cannot  be  exaggerated. 

Sinhalese  women  have  never  been  deliberately  excluded 
from  the  acquisition  of  knowledge,  and  the  old  proverb  of 
the  Tamils,  '  Though  a  woman  may  wear  cloth  upon  cloth 
and  is  able  to  dance  like  a  celestial,  she  is  not  to  be  desired  if 
she  can  press  a  style  on  a  palm  leaf  '  does  not  hold  to-day. 

Mr.  John  Ferguson  in  his  review  of  '  Christian  Missions 
in  Ceylon  '  says  '  Education  has  made  great  strides  .  .  . 
Perhaps  the  most  unfailing  and  successful  branch  of  mission 
work  has  been  found  in  the  boarding  schools  for  girls  as 
well  as  for  boys,  but  especially  for  the  girls.  If  a  Christian 
philanthropist  were  to  stipulate  that  his  wealth  had  to  be 
devoted  solely  to  that  branch  of  mission  operations  which  had 
been  found  to  give  the  most  uniformly  satisfactory  results, 
we  fancy  the  vote  of  the  missionaries,  as  of  Christian  laymen 
in  Ceylon,  would  go  by  a  large  majority  in  favour  of  Girls' 
Boarding  Schools.' 



ON  February  16,  1796,  Colombo  was  surrendered  by  the 
Dutch,  with  scarcely  a  blow  being  struck  in  its  defence,  and 
so  the  low  country  became  a  possession  of  the  British  crown. 

Three  years  after,  on  Friday,  April  12,  1799,  in  a  first 
floor  room  in  the  '  Castle  and  Falcon  Hotel '  in  Aldersgate 
Street,  London,  when  sixteen  clergymen  and  nine  laymen 
were  present,  was  founded  '  The  Church  Missionary  Society 
for  Africa  and  the  East.'  In  each  year's  annual  report  of  the 
Society  issued  since,  we  are  reminded  that  '  Ceylon  was  one 
of  the  first  fields  to  which  the  fathers  of  the  C.M.S.  turned 
their  eyes.' 

The  peculiar  circumstances  of  Ceylon,  its  claims  on  British 
Christians,  and  the  facilities  it  afforded  for  the  prosecution  of 
missionary  work,  led  the  Committee  of  the  Society  to  deter 
mine  on  making  an  effort  in  its  behalf  as  soon  as  they  should 
find  themselves  in  a  position  to  do  so.  It  was,  however,  not 
the  heathenism  of  Ceylon,  but  its  Christianity  which  led  them 
to  contemplate  this  step.  In  the  first  report  of  the  Society's 
proceedings,  published  in  1801,  we  read,  '  In  the  island  of 
Ceylon,  it  appears  that  there  are  not  less  than  145  Christian 
schools  ;  of  these  fifty-four  are  within  the  district  of  Colombo, 
and  in  that  one  district  alone  there  are  not  less  than  90,000 
native  Christians.  The  Christian  religion  having  been  thus 
successfully  planted  by  the  Portuguese  and  then  further 
cultivated  by  the  Dutch,  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  not  be  suffered 
to  decline  now  that  the  Island  is  subject  to  the  Crown  of 
England.  This  important  subject  has  not  escaped  the 
attention  of  the  Committee.' 


With  no  actual  experience  of  the  real  state  of  matters  to 
guide  them,  the  Island  appeared  to  them  as  a  field  of  labour 
white  already  to  the  harvest.'  A  clergyman  stationed  in 
Ceylon  in  a  letter  dated  December,  1801,  to  one  of  the 
Governors  of  the  Society,  writes,  '  From  the  time  the  English 
took  possession,  until  the  arrival  of  Mr.  North,  the  Governor, 
the  Christian  schools  and  education  of  the  inhabitants  were 
entirely  neglected,  many  Churches  had  fallen  into  ruins,  and 
thousands  of  those  who  called  themselves  Christians  had 
returned  to  their  ancient  paganism  and  idolatry.  By  the  last 
returns  in  the  Ecclesiastical  department,  there  were  nearly 
170  schools  and  upwards  of  342,000  Christians.' 

Until  1813,  the  C.M.S.  was  unable,  first  from  the  want  of 
funds,  and  then  from  the  want  of  men,  to  take  any  direct 
step  towards  the  opening  of  a  mission.  They,  however,  cor 
responded  with  men  of  influence  in  the  island  who  took  an 
interest  in  Christian  work,  in  order  to  obtain,  information  for 
future  use,  and  further  made  an  offer  to  Sir  Alexander 
Johnston,  the  Chief  Justice,  to  educate  for  the  ministry  any 
two  native  young  men  that  he  might  select  and  send  to 
England.  Sir  A.  Johnson  also  caused  the  first  number  of 
the  '  Missionary  Register'  (January,  1813)  to  be  translated 
into  Sinhalese,  Tamil  and  Portuguese,  for  circulation  in  the 
island.  He  also  engaged  two  men  to  translate  Bishop 
Porteus'  work  on  the  Evidences  of  Christianity  into 

Two  men,  Thomas  Norton  and  William  Greenwood,  had 
been  accepted  for  training  by  the  C.M.S.  in  1809.  Norton 
was  a  married  shoemaker  who  had  studied  Greek,  and  Green 
wood  was  a  blanket  manufacturer.  After  training,  the 
Bishops  declined  to  ordain  men  for  work  outside  their  own 
dioceses.  Eventually  they  were  ordained  to  curacies  in 
England,  and  in  1814  appointed  to  Ceylon,  being  the  first 
clergymen  of  the  Church  of  England  to  go  to  Asia  definitely 

C.M.S.    IN    CEYLON  55 

as  missionaries,  the  first  two  English  men  trained  by  the 
C.M.S.  and  the  first  two  English  clergymen  sent  out  by  the 

In  the  instructions  delivered  to   them   at  the   valedictory 
dismissal  on  January  7,  1814,   the  following  passage   occurs, 
You,    Mr.    Norton,    and    Mr.    Greenwood,   are   destined  to 
labour  in   the   populous   island   of    Ceylon.     We    feel    great 
interest   in  the  increase  of  true  religion  there,  and  in   this 
desire    our   personal   intercourse   with   Sir   A.  Johnston,  has 
greatly  confirmed  the  Committee.     The  war  into  which   the 
ambitious  violence   of   these   days    unwillingly   forced   Great 
Britain  and  Holland  is  now  happily  closed.     This  protracted 
war  disabled  the  Dutch  from  maintaining  in  Ceylon  that  suc 
cession  of  clergymen  which  was  necessary  for  the  support  of 
religion.     We   send   you   to    lend   your   aid    to    the    religious 
concerns   of   this    important   portion   of  the   British  colonial 
possessions,  and  in  the  persons  in  authority  there,  you   will 
find  willing  protectors.'     The  two  missionaries  embarked  in 
the  same  vessel  for  Ceylon,  but  she   was  obliged  to  put  back 
for  repair^,  and  before  finally  sailing,  which  was  three  weeks 
before  the  Battle  of  Waterloo  in  1815,  the  Committee  altered 
their  destination  to  India. 

In  the  autumn  of  1817,  the  Comrtrittee  appointed  the  Revs. 
Samuel  Lambrick,  Benjamin  Ward,  Robert  Mayor  and 
Joseph  Knight,  all  of  whom  had  been  ordained  by  Bishop 
Ryder  of  Gloucester,  as  missionaries  to  Ceylon,  and  in  their 
instructions  we  read,  '  In  few  places  are  there  more  favour 
able  opportunities  of  reviving  and  extending  Christian  truth. 
For  want  of  religious  instruction,  numbers  are  fast  degene 
rating  into  heathenism..  The  Chief  Justice  has  prepared  the 
way  for  our  exertions,  by  diffusing  information  respecting  the 
designs  of  our  Society.  There  are  two  objects  which  you 
will  ever  keep  in  mind  as  forming  the  great  design  of  your 
labours,  the  revival  of  true  Christianity  in  the  hearts  of  the 


natives  who  at  present  only  nominally  profess  it,  and  the 
conversion  of  the  heathen.' 

On  October  28,  1817,  a  valedictory  dismissal  under  the 
presidency  of  Lord  Gambier  was  held  at  the  Freemason's 
Hall  in  the  City  of  London,  and  a  sermon  was  previously 
preached  by  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Cunningham,  Vicar  of  Harrow, 
at  St.  Bride's  Church,  from  Psalm  Ivi.  3,  '  Though  I  am 
sometime  afraid,  yet  put  I  my  trust  in  Thee.' 

The  Rev.  Charles  Simon  also  gave  an  address  to  the  de 
parting  missionaries.  On  December  20,  1817,  the  four  men, 
with  Mrs.  Mayor  and  Mrs.  Ward,  embarked  at  Gravesend 
on  board  the  Vittoria.  They  arrived  at  Teneriffe  on 
January  5,  leaving  again  on  the  23rd,  not  reaching  the  Cape 
till  April  14,  in  consequence  of  calms  and  contrary  winds, 
arriving  in  Madras  on  June  17,  and  at  Point  de  Galle  on 
June  29,  1818,  having  taken  two  hundred  days  to  accomplish 
the  voyage.  On  disembarking  at  Galle,  the  missionaries 
were  received  with  great  kindness  by  the  Rev.  J.  M.  S. 
Glenie,  the  Chaplain  at  the  station. 

In  the  original  plan  of  the  Parent  Committee  it  &ad  been 
arranged  that  Mr.  Lambrick  should  be  stationed  at  Colombo, 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mayor  at  Galle,  Mr.  Knight  at  Jaffna  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Ward  at  Trincomalie,  but  on  arrival  representations 
were  made  to  them  which  led  to  a  change  in  the  location  of 
two  of  their  number. 

Messrs.  Lambrick  and  Ward  were  stationed  at  Kandy  and 
Calpentyn  respectively,  and  Messrs.  Mayor  and  Knight  pro 
ceeded  to  the  stations  to  which  they  were  originally  designated. 
After  a  few  months  Mr.  Mayor  thought  it  advisable  to  leave 
the  town  of  Galle,  so  in  1819  moved  twelve  miles  inland  to 
Baddegama,  and  Mr.  Ward  finding  Calpentyn  unsuitable  for 
a  Mission  station,  removed  to  Jaffna  and  afterwards  to 

In  1822  the  Cotta  Mission  was  begun,  Colombo  was  occu- 


REV.    R.    T.    DOWBIGGIN 

REV.    E.    T.    HIGGENS 

REV.    \Y.    OAKLEY 

REV.    J.   D.    SIMMONS 

C.M  S.    IN    CEYLON  57 

pied  in  1850  and  the  Kandyan  Itinerancy  and  Tamil  Cooly 
Mission  were  founded  in  1853  and  1855  respectively.  In 
1827  the  Cotta  Institution  to  train  workers  was  founded, 
but  now  for  some  years  it  has  been  carried  on  as  an  English 

Early  in  1850,  Sir  J.  Emerson  Tennent,  Secretary  to  the 
Ceylon  Government,  and  afterwards  well  known  for  his  ela 
borate  book  on  Ceylon,  wrote  a  letter  to  Lord  Chichester,  the 
President  of  the  C.M.S.,  in  which  he  said,  '  The  mission  of 
Christianity  is  not  doomed  to  repulse,  as  has  been  improperly 
asserted.  Its  ministers  are  successfully  carrying  forward 
the  work  of  enlightenment  and  civilization  with  an  effect  so 
remarkable,  and  a  result  so  convincing,  in  Ceylon,  as  to  afford 
every  assurance  of  a  wide  and  permanent  triumph  for  the 

An  important  high  class  boys'  school  was  begun  at  Chun- 
•dicully  in  1851,  which  is  now  kaown  as  St.  John's  College, 
and  the  Copay  Training  Institution  was  opened  in  1853.  In 
1857  the  Kandy  Collegiate  School  for  boys  was  opened  by 
the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones  and  was  closed  after  six  years,  but 
in  1872  was  reopened  under  the  name  of  Trinity  College  by 
the  Rev.  R.  Collins. 

Several  boarding  schools  for  girls  were  opened,  the 
first  at  Nellore  in  1842,  another  for  Tamils  at  Borella  by 
Mrs.  W.  E.  Rowlands  in  1869,  the  Cotta  school  in  1870  by 
Mrs.  R.  T.  Dowbiggin,  another  at  Baddegama  in  1888  by 
Mrs.  J.  W.  Balding,  and  one  at  Kegalle  by  Mrs.  G.  Liesching 
in  1895.  Miss  H.  P.  Phillips  opened  an  industrial  school  at 
Dodanduwa  in  1893  and  a  Girls'  English  High  School  was 
commenced  at  Chundicully  in  18S6  by  Mrs.  J.  Carter. 

The  C.M.S.  Ladies'  College  was  opened  in  Colombo  in 
1900  by  Miss  L.  E.  Nixon  and  Miss  E.  Whitney,  in  1903  a 
Girls'  English  School  at  Cotta  by  Mrs.  J.  W.  Balding,  and 
in  1904  a  vernacular  training  school  for  Sinhalese  women 


teachers  was  opened  in  Colombo  which  after  a  few  months 
was  transferred  to  Cotta  and  in  1916  to  the  newly  instituted 
Training  Colony  at  Peradeniya. 

The  Jubilee  of  the  mission  in  Ceylon  was  celebrated  in 
1868  and  an  appeal  was  issued  by  the  Rev.  W.  Oakley,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Mission  in  May  1868,  for  '  contributions  to 
a  Jubilee  Fund,  as  a  token  that  the  utility  of  past  efforts  is 
recognized,  and  as  a  pledge  of  the  desire  that  the  work  shall  go 
still  on.'  The  writer  of  the  appeal  also  says,  '  The  amount  of 
success  has  not  perhaps  been  all  that  was  at  first  anticipated, 
the  number  of  satisfactory  converts  may  have  not  been  as 
great  as  in  some  more  favoured  missions,  still  the  efforts 
made  have  not  been  without  fruit,  the  prayers  offered  have 
not  been  without  answer,  and  there  is  good  reason  to  hope 
that  in  the  midst  of  the  great  and  countless  multitude  of  the 
redeemed  which  shall  hereafter  surround  God's  throne, 
many  shall  appear  whose  first  knowledge  of  the  truth  as  it 
is  in  Jesus  was  conveyed  to  them  by  the  workers  of  the 
C.M.S. '  Meetings  were  held  in  various  centres  to  celebrate 
the  Jubilee,  the  chief  one  being  held  at  the  girls'  school  near 
the  Kachcheri,  in  Colombo,  on  Friday  evening,  July  17,  1868. 
This  was  presided  over  by  the  Bishop,  and  the  collection  at 
the  close  amounted  to  £18. 

The  Rev.  W.  Oakley  moved  the  first  resolution,  '  That  this 
meeting  feels  bound  to  render  hearty  thanks  to  God  for  His 
goodness  in  having  enabled  the  C.M.S.  to  continue  uninter 
ruptedly,  its  labours  in  Ceylon  for  a  period  of  fifty  years,  and 
for  the  measure  of  success  by  which  those  labours  have  been 
crowned.'  This  was  seconded  by  Dr.  Willisford.  Mr.  R.  V. 
Dunlop  moved  the  second  resolution  which  was  seconded 
by  the  Hon'ble  Colonel  Layard,  '  That  this  meeting  desires 
to  express  its  confidence  in  the  soundness  of  those  principles 
by  which  the  C.M.S.  has,  from  its  commencement  been 
guided,  and  to  which  it  still  firmly  adheres.' 

C.M.S.    IN    CEYLON 


The  Hon'ble  R.  F.  Morgan  moved  the  third  resolution 
which  was  seconded  by  the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones,  '  That  this 
meeting,  while  acknowledging  with  thankfulness  the  impor 
tant  results  which  have  by  God's  blessing,  followed  from  the 
Church  Missionary  Society's  labours  in  Ceylon,  feels  deeply 
the  urgent  need  which  still  exists  for  continued  and  extended 
efforts,  and  recognizes  the  duty  of  promoting  by  every 
possible  means,  the  great  ends  which  the  Society  has  in 


Also  to  commemorate  the  Jubilee,  the  Rev  J.  Ireland  Jones 
wrote    the  small  book   already   mentioned,    entitled   '  Jubilee 
Sketches.'     In  this  review  of  the  fifty  years'  work,  the  writer 
says,  '  A  more  arduous  task,  a  more  trying  field  of  labour,  it 
would  be  difficult  to  imagine.     It  is  a  matter  well  understood 
by  planters,   that  while  the  primeval   forest  land,   if   cleared 
and  planted,  will  soon  yield  them  a  rich  return,  the  chenas 
the   lower  ranges,  previously  exhausted  by  native  cultivatic 
though  far  more  easy  of  access,  and  requiring  far  less  outlay 
at  the  beginning,  will  too  often  mock  their  hopes,  and  can  o 
be  made^  to  yield  a  return  at  last,  by  a  long  and  expeni 
mode  of  cultivation.     This  fact  has  its  counterpart  in  spir 


In  1875    Dr   Reginald  Stephen  Copleston  was 
fourth  Bishop  of  Colombo,  and  arrived  in  the  island  early  t 
following    year.     Soon    after    the    Bishop's    arrival, 
difficulties  arose,  owing  to  his   seeking  a  more  direcl 
than  his  predecessors  had  had,  over  the   C.M.S.  work. 
Society   conceived   that   its  just  liberties  as  an   independent 
organization,  and  those  of  its  missionaries  as  clergymen  o 
diocese,  were  at  stake,  and  the  controversy  was  render, 
more  painful  by  theological  differences.    In  1880,  the  que  tio 
at    issue  were   submitted   to  the    Archbishop  of    Canterbury 
(Dr.  Tait),  the    Archbishop    of    York    (Dr.    Thomso 
Bishops  of  London  (Dr.   Jackson),    Durham  (Dr.  Lightfoot), 


and  Winchester  (Dr.  Harold  Browne),  and  the  result  was 
an  '  Opinion  '  from  these  prelates  which  was  accepted  on 
both  sides  as  satisfactory  and  under  which  the  mission  has 
been  carried  on  ever  since  with  little  difficulty. 

In  1881  the  Bishop  confirmed  520  candidates,  including 
174  Tamil  coolies,  in  C.M.S.  districts.  In  another  tour  in 
1885,  he  confirmed  eighty-three  candidates,  and  wrote  to  a 
missionary  magazine,  The  Net,  '  I  have  lately  seen  much 
that  was  encouraging  among  the  immigrant  Tamil  coolies  and 
among  the  native  Sinhalese  respectively.  The  former  set  a 
very  good  example  by  the  zeal  and  liberality  with  which  they 
support  their  own  Churches.  In  one  planting  district,  while 
the  English  masters  were  waiting,  and  wishing,  and  consider 
ing  how  they  should  get  a  Church,  their  Tamil  labourers 
built  one.' 

The  Bishop  was  transferred  to  Calcutta  in  1902,  a  gain  to 
India  but  a  corresponding  loss  to'  Ceylon.  Whilst  it  is  im 
possible  to  forget  that  the  early  years  of  his  episcopate  were 
a  period  of  estrangement  and  conflict  between  the  Bishop  and 
the  missionaries  and  the  Committee,  the  alienation  had  long 
since  disappeared  and  for  many  years  the  record  had  been 
one  of  unbroken  and  cordial  co-operation.  Differences  in 
deed  doubtless  remained,  theological,  ecclesiastical  and  prac 
tical,  but  these  have  not  prevented  the  discovery  of  a  common 
ground  on  which  all  could  work  together  for  the  glory  of 
their  common  Lord.  Clergy  and  laity  alike,  European  and 
Ceylonese,  learnt  to  revere  the  Bishop  as  a  true  Father 
in  God. 

In  1884  some  questions  arose  upon  which  the  missionaries 
and  lay  friends  differed  from  the  Home  Committee,  and  the 
Revs.  J.  Barton  and  C.  C.  Fenn  were  sent  out  to  adjust 
matters,  which  they  accomplished  to  general  satisfaction, 
and  no  further  difficulty  has  occurred.  In  1887  and  again  in 
1889,  '  Special  Missions'  were  conducted  by  the  Rev.  G.  C. 



REV.    J.    HENSMAN 

C.M.S.    IN    CEYLON  61 

Grubb,  assisted  on  the  first  occasion  by  Colonel  Oldham^ 
Much  blessing  was  vouchsafed,  many  English  planters  were 
brought  to  Christ,  and  the  Christian  men  among  them  stirred 
up  to  greater  zeal,  and  the  effect  of  this,  both  upon  the 
Ceylonese  Christians  and  upon  the  evangelistic  work  was 
very  marked.  It  was  afterwards  marred  by  the  antago 
nistic  influence  of  the  Exclusive  Brethren.  The  Revs. 
E.  N.  Thwaites  and  Martin  J.  Hall  also  conducted  special 
missions  in  1894  and  the  Rev.  E.  Bacheler  Russell  in  1896 
at  Christ  Church,  Galle  Face.  Mrs.  J.  W.  Balding,  writing 
to  the  localized  Gleaner  in  1887  with  reference  to  '  the 
missioners  in  the  Baddegama  District,'  says,  '  Blessed  have 
been  the  messages,  straight  from  the  loving  Saviour,  through 
His  instruments,  messages  of  earnest,  tender  appeal  for  a 
full  surrender  of  the  heart  to  God,  and  perfect  consecration 
to  Him  and  to  His  service.  The  mission  came,  bringing  to 
many  a  weary  heart,  rest,  joy,  and  peace,  and  has  gone, 
leaving  behind  a  greater  hungering  and  thirsting  after 
righteousness.  Some  of  our  Christians  have  been  stirred  up 
to  more  active  work.  Every  day  there  were  good  attend 
ances.  Backsliders  were  present  whose  faces  had  not  been 
seen  for  many  years.  Buddhists  also  came.  It  was  beauti 
ful  to  note  the  earnest  upturned  faces,  and  the  rapt  attention 
with  which  the  word  was  listened  to,  the  word  of  God  full  of 
pardon,  love  and  peace,  melting  to  tears  some  of  the  hearers, 
imparting  to  others  unspeakable  joy.'  The  Rev.  A.  E. 
Dibben  writing  of  the  1894  mission  said,  '  Europeans, 
Sinhalese  and  Tamils  have  been  so  stirred  up  that  several 
have  given  in  their  names  as  wishing  to  engage  directly  in 
the  Lord's  work  as  He  may  lead.' 

In  1886  the  Rev.  F.  E.  Wigram,  the  Honorary  Clerical 
Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.  during  his  tour  of  the  missions  in 
the  East,  accompanied  by  his  son,  visited  Ceylon. 

In    1869   a  system   of   Native  Church    organization    was 


brought  into  operation,  with  District  Councils  to  manage  all 
financial  business,  and  a  Central  Council  as  a  deliberative 
body.  Large  grants-in-aid  which  were  received  yearly  from 
the  Home  Society  were  reduced  by  one-twentieth  annually. 
These  grants  have  now  run  out,  and  in  1911  the  old  system 
was  superseded  by  the  launching  of  a  '  Scheme  for  the  organi 
zation  of  Churches  in  Ceylon  in  connection  with  the  C.M.S.' 
More  responsibility  is  now  thrown  upon  the  Ceylonese  clergy 
as  they  take  independent  charge  of  their  pastorates.  Several 
clergy  have  been  accorded  this  position,  and  some  have  taken 
over  the  management  of  the  schools  and  assumed  responsibi 
lity  for  the  evangelistic  work  in  their  respective  areas.  This 
new  scheme  has  had  the  effect  of  developing  the  spirit  of 
devotion  and  self-sacrifice,  as  well  as  of  calling  forth  more 
prominently  the  co-operation  of  the  laymen  of  the  Church. 
Some  of  these  independent  pastorates  also  receive  annual 
grants  from  the  Synod  of  the  diocese.  In  1892  two  tea- 
planters,  Messrs.  Ernest  J.  Carus  Wilson  and  Sydney 
M.  Simmons  left  their  estates  and  commenced  a  Band  of 
Associated  Lay  Evangelists  in  connection  with  the  Sinhalese 
branch  of  the  mission.  Work  was  carried  on  in  the  villages 
with  the  assistance  of  catechists.  The  work  was  helped  by 
the  exhibition  of  large  coloured  Scripture  pictures,  hymn 
singing,  lantern  talks  under  the  palm  trees  and  work  amongst 
children.  The  band  was  never  really  given  a  fair  trial  of 
steady  and  continued  labour,  as  when  any  urgent  vacancy 
occurred  in  the  stations,  one  of  the  lay  evangelists  was  at 
once  sent  to  fill  the  gap.  The  evangelists  went  to  England 
in  1896  and  returned  the  following  year.  Mr.  Simmons  who 
had  been  ordained  was  appointed  to  take  charge  of  Badde- 
gama,  and  in  1899,  Mr.  Carus  Wilson  who  had  been  engaged 
in  evangelistic  work  at  Bentota,  was  obliged  to  return  to 

In  1899  the  Ceylon  Mission  commemorated  the  Centenary 

C,M.S.    IN    CEYLON  63 

of  the  Parent  Society.     On  April   12  a  public  meeting  was 

held    in    the  school  room   at    Galle    Face  Church,   Colombo. 

The  Bishop   presided   and    the  three   speakers,  all  of   whom 

have  since  passed  to  their  rest,  were  the  Revs.  E.  T.  Higgens, 

J.  D.  Simmons  and  Sir   W.    W.    Mitchell.     Special   services 

and    meetings    were    held   at    all    the    stations.     At    Cotta, 

Rs.  315  was  contributed  as  a  birthday  offering,  at  Baddegama 

Rs.  500  as  a  centenary   thankoffering   and   at   Holy   Trinity 

Church,    Kandy,    RP.  500    was    given    to    meet    the   monthly 

liabilities  of  the  pastorate.     At  Nellore  a  breakfast  was  given 

to  five  hundred  persons.     At   Chundicully   there  was  a  social 

gathering  and  at  5.20   p.m.    corresponding  to  noon  in  London, 

the   Union   Jack   was   unfurled,   and   the  hymn   '  Jesus   shall 

reign  '  was  sung.     At   Pallai,  after  the  thanksgiving  service, 

Sir  W.  Twynam  entertained  one  hundred  and  fifty  Christians 

at  breakfast. 

The  C.M.S.  Conference,  which  until  quite  recently  met 
twice  a  year,  now  meets  once  a  year  in  the  month  of 
August,  with  the  Bishop  as  Chairman.  All  the  European 
missionaries,  four  Ceylonese  clergy  and  two  Ceylonese 
laymen  are  members.  The  women  missionaries  have  also  a 
Conference  which  meets  annually.  The  Conferences  elect 
Standing  Committees,  Examination,  Visiting  and  other  sub 

The  Finance  Committee  of  the  mission  is  composed  of 
nine  laymen,  two  missionaries  and  the  Secretary  of  the 
mission.  There  have  always  been  influential  laymen  willing 
to  give  their  services,  and  one  of  these,  Sir  VV.  W.  Mitchell, 
K.C.M.G.,  who  died  in  Colombo  on  December  15,  1915,  had 
been  a  valuable  member  for  thirty-one  years. 

i  A  new  constitution  granted  by  the  Parent  Committee  came  into  force 
at  the  August  Conference,  1921.  See  Appendix. 


In  the  year  1843  an  Association,  under  the  patronage  of 
His  Excellency,  Sir  Colin  Campbell  (then  Governor),  the 
Bishop  of  Madras  and  some  of  the  principal  members  of  the 
Civil  Service,  was  established,  in  order  to  assist  the  evange 
listic  and  educational  work  of  the  C.M.S.  in  Colombo  and  the 
Western  Province.  From  the  commencement  '  the  Ceylon 
Association  of  the  C.M.S.'  as  it  is  now  called,  has  contributed 
largely  to  the  local  funds  of  the  mission,  and  for  several 
years  has  made  grants  to  the  stations  and  has  supported 
workers.  The  receipts  of  the  Association  for  the  twenty-five 
years,  1891—1915,  amounted  to  no  less  than  Rs.  126,804. 

A  few  years  ago  a  '  Home  Branch  of  the  Ceylon  C.M.S. 
Association  '  was  formed  by  Mr.  Ernest  J.  Carus  Wilson, 
Woodlea,  Barnet,  (formerly  of  the  Ceylon  Mission)  in  order 
to  retain  the  prayerful  sympathy  and  practical  help  of  those 
interested  in  Ceylon  and  also  of  those  who,  when  resident  in 
the  island,  subscribed  to  the  work.  Gifts  are  forwarded  to 
Ceylon  and  donors  receive  the  monthly  Gleaner  and  the  annual 
report  of  the  Association. 

For  some  years  the  Church  Missionary  Gleaner,  a  monthly 
illustrated  publication  containing  information  of  the  work  in 
various  missions  throughout  the  world,  has  been  localized. 
The  Ceylon  portion  furnishes  details  of  local  mission  work 
and  is  edited  by  one  of  the  missionaries. 

During  the  hundred  years,  108  European  missionaries, 
clerical  and  lay,  and  sixty  European  women  missionaries 
(not  including  wives)  have  worked  in  the  mission  with, 
during  the  same  period,  thirty-three  Tamil  clergy  and  twenty- 
nine  Sinhalese. 

As  regards  area,  fully  three-fourths  of  the  island  has 
been  committed  to  the  C.M.S.  by  diocesan  authority,  either 
for  Sinhalese  or  Tamil  work  or  for  both,  but  it  has  to  be 
acknowledged  with  regret  that  a  great  part  of  this  area  has 
never  been  effectively  occupied.  The  following  are  the 

C.M.S.  IN  CEYLON  65 



1.  Mission  Agents — 

European  Clergy          ....  ...              ...            16 

Ceylonese  Clergy          ...  ...              ....            27 

Women  Missionaries  ...  ...              ...            14 

Catechists  and  Readers  ..              ...          122 

Biblevvomen                  ...  ...              ...            37 

School  Masters             ...  ...              ...         479 

School  Mistresses         ...  ...              ...          319 

2.  Congregations — 

Communicants               ...  ...              ...      6,041 

Christians  (adults  and  children)   including 

the  Communicants  ...  ...              .,.     14,796 

Adult  candidates  for  baptism      ...  ...         302 

3.  Baptisms  in  1918 — 

Adults            ...              ...  ...              ...          224 

Children        ...              ...  ...              ...         487 

4.  Sunday  Schools               ...  ...              ...         253 

Scholars         ...              ...  ...              ...      9,749 

5.  Educational— 

Training  Schools 

Students  ...  ..„  52 

High  Schools  4 

Students    ...              ...  •••      1357 

Middle  Schools  ...  ...  15 

Students    ...              ...  ...       1,342 

Elementary  Schools 

Students    ...             ...  ...             •••    23,814 

Industrial  Schools 

Students    ...              ...  141 



STATISTICS  OF  THE  MISSION  FOR  1918—  continued. 

6.  Contributions  in  1918 — 


Grants  by   Parent  Committee  and   contri 
butions  received  through  them  ...      184,714:24 

Contributions  by  Europeans  and  Burghers.  31,057:52 
Contributions  by  Sinhalese  and  Tamils  for 

their  own  Churches                  ...              ...  42,346:10 

Contributions  for  Tamil  Cooly  Mission     ...  11,734:84 

Ceylon  Association       ...              ...              ...  7,538:69 

Total   ...        92,677:15 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  dealing  with  the  statistics 
the  figures  refer  only  to  what  are  known  as  the  C.M.S. 
districts,  for  instance,  the  number  of  Christians  given  above 
as  14,796,  is  the  number  living  in  the  districts  belonging  to 
the  congregations  for  that  year.  Many  of  our  young  people 
who  by  our  means  have  been  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
truth,  move  out  into  the  world  to  obtain  a  livelihood,  and 
attach  themselves  to  other  congregations.  There  is  not  a 
parish  or  district  in  the  island  in  which  will  not  be  found 
those  who  have  at  one  time  or  another,  been  connected  with 
our  districts  or  schools. 

In  1918  the  C.M.S.  thus  had  in  Ceylon  314  schools  with 
26,654  students. 

Three  hundred  and  ten  of  these  schools  received  grants-in- 
aid  from  Government  that  year,  amounting  to  Rs.  118,866 
or  nearly  ^"7,924.  The  twenty-one  English  schools  received 
of  this  amount,  Rs.  36,300:50,  the  four  Anglo- Vernacular 
schools,  Rs.  4,375:21  and  the  285  Vernacular  schools, 
Rs.  78,190:61. 

C.M.S.    IN    CEYLON 


Again,  the  results  of  missionary  work  cannot  be  gauged  by 
the  number  of  converts  living  at  any  particular  date.  The 
real  fruits  of  the  work  are  the  souls  that  have  passed  to  the 
everlasting  rest.  Dr.  Stock  truly  says  in  the  History  of  the 
C.M.S.  (vol.  iii,  p.  769)  :  '  Let  it  be  repeated,  that  statistics 
fail  to  show  the  best  fruits,  the  fruits  already  gathered  into 
the  heavenly  garner,  and  no  mission  has  given  brighter 
examples  of  Christian  deaths  crowning  Christian  lives  than 
the  mission  in  Ceylon.' 








European  Clergy  ... 
Ceylonese  Clergy  ... 
Lay  Workers 










1,744  | 








1888            1898            1908            191S 


European  Clergy  ... 






Ceylonese  Clergy  ... 



17  !             21 


Lay  Workers 



644              844 









1,512  i 






222  I 













KANDY,   beautifully  situated    in  a  valley  amid   the    Kandyan 
hills,  seventy-two    miles  from  Colombo  and  1,654  feet  above 
sea-level,   was   founded   about  A.D.   1200   and  from  the  year 
1592  to  1815  was  the  Capital  of  the  Sinhalese  Kings.     Kandy 
or  Kande  means  the   hill  or   hill   country,   but  it   is  known  to 
the  people  as  '  Maha   Nuwara,'   the  great  city.     Cruelty  on 
the  part  of   the   last   Sinhalese    king  had   made   his   subjects 
regard  him  with   hatred,  and  the    execution    of  the    wife  and 
children  of  his  prime  minister,    Ehelapola,  led  the    people   to 
compass  his    overthrow.     The    British    were  invited  to  help, 
and  the  arrest  and  death  in  exile  of  the  tyrant,  Sri  Wickrama 
Raja   Singha,   terminated  the   line  of   Sinhalese   kings.     On 
March  2,  1815,  the  British  flag  was  hoisted    and    the    interior 
came  under  the   dominion  of    the  British  Crown.    ,  At  a  Con 
vention    on   the   same   day,   between  the   Governor  and  the 
chiefs,  it  was  agreed  that  the  late  sovereign  had  forfeited   all 
claims  to  that  title   and  that    his   descendants    should    be  for 
ever  excluded  from  the  throne.     It  was  also  agreed  that  '  the 
religion  of  Buddha  should  be  inviolable  and  its  rites,  ministers 
and  places  of  worship  maintained  and  protected.'     The   spirit 
of  independence,    however,    still   remained,    the  chiefs  would 
not  brook  the  restraints  of  the  new  government,  and   within 
three  years  a  rebellion  broke    out    the    suppression   of  which 
cost  the  lives  of  a  thousand  British  and  many  natives. 

About  this  time  the  population  of  Kandy  was  about  three- 
thousand,  whilst  to-day  it  is  over  thirty  thousand,  and  the  low 
country  people  in  the  town  out-number  the  Kandyans  by 

KANDY  69 

nearly  three  thousand.     A  wonderful  change  has  taken   place 
in  Kandy  during  the  last  hundred  years.     In  the  early    day?, 
the  town  consisted  of  mud  huts  thatched  with  straw,  the  streets 
being  almost   impassable,  with  open  drains   on  each    side,  six 
or  seven  feet  wide,  which  acted  as  receptacles  for  the  filth  of 
the  town  and  over  which  were  placed  planks  as  approaches  to 
the  huts.     Villagers  brought   in   produce   from   the  country, 
fowls  could  be  bought  at  two  pence  each  and  one  hundred  and 
twenty  eggs  for  a  shilling.     There  were  no  proper  roads  and 
the  first  mail  coach   did  not  run  till    1832.     When  the  first 
C.M.S.  missionaries  arrived  in  Ceylon,  the  Governor  strongly 
urged  that  one  of  their  number  should  commence  work  in 
Kandy.     There    were    many    reasons   which    favoured    this. 
Here  was  the  temple,  the   Dalada   Malagawa,   containing  the 
so-called  tooth  of  Buddha,  which  was  regarded  with  supersti 
tious  reverence  by  the  Buddhists,  also  the  viharas  or  colleges 
of  the  priests.     The  independence  of  the  people  was   in  itself 
a  safeguard  against  hypocrisy  and  a  pledge  of  their  sincerity 
when  they  should   be   led  to  profess  faith   in   Christ.     So  in 
1818    the  Rev.  S.  Lambrick   entered  on  his  work   in  Kandy. 
On  October  27,    1818,   he  wrote   '  I  cannot  be  permitted  at 
present  to  preach  to  the  natives,  but  I  have  obtained  author 
ity  to  open  schools,  and  have  obtained  two  priests  to  be  the 
masters  of  them.     The  children    will  be  especially  taught  to 
read  and  write  their  own  language  as  a  step  towards  their 
receiving  the  words  of  eternal  life.'     Mr.   Lambrick  was  for 
two  years  the  only  Church  of  England  clergyman  in  Kandy 
and  consequently  gave  much  time  to  the  spiritual   care  of  the 
troops  and  other  Europeans  there.     On  the  eve  of  the  depar 
ture  of  the  Governor,    Sir  R.   Brownrigg,  from  the  island,   a 
levee  was  held  at   which  the  four  C.M.S.  missionaries  were 
present  and  presented  an  address,   to    which  the    Governor 
replied,  '  The  whole   island  is  now   in  a  state  of  tranquillity, 
most  favourable  for  the  cultivation  and  improvement  of  the 


human  mind.  I  cannot  doubt  but  that  under  the  guidance  of 
providence,  the  progress  of  Christianity  will  be  general,  if  the 
zeal  for  propagating  the  knowledge  of  Christianity  be  tem 
pered  with  such  a  sound  discretion  as  has  been  exhibited 
already  by  one  of  your  mission  (Mr.  Lambrick)  in  the  centre 
of  the  heathen  population.  It  is  my  sincere  wish  that  you 
may  all  follow  that  example,  and  that  your  success  may 
justify  my  partial  feelings  of  regard  for  the  missionaries  of 
the  established  Church.'  On  October  28,  1821,  the  Rev. 
and  Mrs.  Thomas  Browning  arrived  to  work  with  Mr. 
Lambrick.  Owing  to  want  of  success  among  the  Kandyans, 
there  was  some  thought  of  abandoning  the  town  and  starting 
work  in  an  interior  village.  The  Government  however 
would  not  sanction  the  removal  on  account  of  the  unsettled 
state  of  the  country.  At  the  end  of  May,  1822,  Mr.  Lambrick 
removed  to  the  low  country.  In  June,  1822,  Mr.  Browning 
obtained  from  Government  a  grant  of  land,  which  still  forms 
part  of  the  Trinity  College  compound,  on  which  he  erected  a 
bungalow  and  school  room.  Service  was  held  in  the  school 
on  Sundays,  several  Kaffir  soldiers  belonging  to  the  Ceylon 
regiment  were  under  instruction,  and  the  Sinhalese  prisoners 
in  the  jail  were  visited.  At  the  end  of  1823  there  were  127 
children  attending  the  five  schools  which  had  been  opened. 

Bishop  Heber,  on  his  visit  to  Kandy  in  1825,  says  '  We 
went  up  with  the  Governor,  Sir  E.  Barnes,  to  Kandy,  where  I 
preached,  administered  the  sacrament,  and  confirmed  twenty- 
six  young  persons  in  the  audience  hall  of  the  late  King  of 
Kandy,  which  now  serves  as  a  Church.  Here,  twelve  years 
ago,  this  man,  who  was  a  dreadful  tyrant,  used  to  sit  in  state, 
to  see  those  whom  he  had  condemned,  trodden  to  death  by 
elephants  trained  for  the  purpose.  Here  he  actually  com 
pelled  the  wife  of  one  of  his  chief  ministers,  to  bruise  to  death 
in  a  mortar,  with  a  pestle,  with  her  own  hands,  one  of  her 
children,  before  he  put  the  other  to  death,  and  here  at  the 

KANDY  71 

time,  no  Englishman  or  Christian  could  have  appeared,  unless 
as  a  slave,  or  at  the  risk  of  being  murdered.  Now,  in  this 
very  place,  an  English  Governor  and  an  English  congregation, 
besides  many  converted  natives  of  the  island,  were  sitting 
peaceably  to  hear  an  English  bishop  preach.' 

In  1826  a  further  piece  of  land  was  granted  by  Government 
for  a  burial  ground.  In  1827,  '  there  were  eight  communi 
cants  from  the  Portuguese  and  Sinhalese,  whose  moral 
conduct  was  consistent '  and  in  1830  '  the  state  of  things  had 
not  much  altered  for  the  better.'  In  March,  1831,  Bishop 
Turner  of  Calcutta  visited  the  station  and  confirmed  thirty-six 
candidates,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  the  first  Sunday 
school  was  opened. 

The  mission  was  strengthened  in  June,  1835,  by  the  arrival 
of  the  Rev.  William  Oakley.  Soon  after,  a  house  to  house 
visitation  of  the  Sinhalese  Protestant  Christians  in  Kandy 
was  started,  and  in  fifty  families  containing  about  three 
hundred  persons,  it  was  found  that  family  worship  was  only 
kept  up  in  ten,  some  were  totally  destitute  of  the  word  of 
God,  some  never  attended  divine  worship,  some  were  living 
in  open  sin,  and  others  were  found  neglecting  the  baptism 
and  education  of  their  children.  Another  investigation  of  the 
number  of  Protestant  families  that  were  not  Sinhalese  was 
made,  and  it  was  found  that  out  of  five  hundred  and  eighty 
souls  in  one  hundred  and  twenty-three  families,  eighty  children 
were  unbaptized,  and  in  between  thirty  and  forty  families,  the 
parents  were  living  together  unmarried. 

Mr.  Oakley  also  visited  the  villages,  the  hospitals  in  the 
town  and  the  Malay  soldiers  of  the  Ceylon  Rifle  regiment. 

Mr.  Browning  died  at  sea  in  July,  1838,  when  only  two 
days'  sail  from  England.  The  Bishop  of  Madras  visited  the 
mission  in  November,  1839,  and  wrote  '  My  next  visit  was  to  a 
place  very  interesting  to  me,  the  Church  Missionary  premises 
in  Kandy,  where  under  the  devoted  care  of  Mr.  Oakley  the 


work  grows  and  flourishes.  His  school  room,  which  is  also  his 
Church,  is  becoming  much  too  small  for  either  purpose.  He 
understands  his  work,  and  loves  it,  and  is  evidently  doing 
good.'  In  1840  there  were  at  Kandy  besides  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Oakley,  eighteen  native  teachers,  of  whom  two  were  women. 
There  were  twenty-two  communicants  and  thirteen  schools, 
containing  three  hundred  and  thirteen  boys  and  fifty-six  girls. 
Mrs.  Oakley,  who  died  on  July  14,  1866,  aged  fifty-one  years, 
was  a  remarkable  woman,  speaking  both  Tamil  and  Sinhalese, 
exercising  great  power  for  good  and  universally  respected. 
A  tablet  to  her  memory  was  placed  in  Holy  Trinity  Church 
by  the  congregation. 

For  many  years  Mr.  Oakley  and  the  catechists  visited  the 
district  of  Yatanuwara,  about  twelve  miles  from  Kandy,  and 
during  one  of  his  early  visits  in  1837,  a  man  who  had  been  a 
prisoner  in  the  Kandy  jail  expressed  a  wish  to  be  baptized. 
On  his  release  from  prison,  he  returned  to  Ratmiwela,  his 
village,  taking  with  him  some  tracts  and  Scripture  portions. 
He  attended  regularly  the  Sunday  services  in  Kandy.  He 
had  been  a  devil  dancer,  and  brought  all  his  books  connected 
with  devil  worship  to  the  missionary  saying,  '  With  these 
books  I  have  for  a  long  time  deceived  myself  and  the 
people.  I  shall  use  them  no  more.  God  has  shown  me 
that  I  must  give  up  all  these  things,  and  I  now  give  them 
to  you,  lest  my  family  should  get  hold  of  them,  and  also 
be  deceived.'  His  relations  were  greatly  enraged  with  him 
for  forsaking  his  old  religion,  and  one  of  his  brothers  procured 
a  gun  intending  to  shoot  him.  He  was  baptized  on  Sunday, 
June  3,  1838,  by  the  name  of  Abraham.  The  following 
August  his  eldest  son  was  baptized  by  the  name  of  Isaac, 
and  his  wife,  who  was  at  the  first  very  much  opposed  to  the 
step  which  her  husband  had  taken,  was  on  January  3,  1841, 
baptized  by  the  name  of  Sarah. 

Abraham  was  appointed  school  master  in  his  native  village, 

KANDY  73 

and  six  years  after  his  baptism,  the  brother  who  had  threat 
ened   to  shoot   him   was  baptized  by   the  name    of  Samuel. 
Samuel    built  a  new    school  in    the   village   and   in    1849  a 
resident    catechist  was  appointed.     There  were  only   three 
women  in  the  whole  district  at  that  time  who  could   read  and 
write,  and  they  were  Mary,  Martha  and  Rebecca,  the  daugh 
ters  of  Abraham.     Two  other  women  were  also  baptized  by 
the  names  of   Christina   and  Lydia,  and   the  former  became 
the  wife  of  David,  a  son  of  Abraham.     Samuel  died  in  1867, 
having  lived  a  consistent  life  from  the  day  of  his  conversion. 
In  1860   died  one,  who  had  for   forty  years  been  a   great 
strength  and  help  to  the  Kandy  mission,  Cornelius  Jayatilaka. 
From   the   very    first    he    had    connected    himself   with    the 
mission,  and  aided  in   the   erection  of  the  buildings  and   the 
formation  of  schools  and  congregations.     He   was  a  Govern 
ment  officer  of  high  rank,  a  Mudaliyar  of  the  Governor's  Gate, 
and  a  humble   and  consistent   Christian.     During  a  rebellion 
of  the    Kandyans,    he  obtained  possession    of  the    so-called 
'  tooth  of  Buddha.'     The  relic  is,  in  the  eyes  of  the  Kandyans, 
of   priceless    value.     For    its    surrender    to    the    Buddhists, 
Jayatilaka  might  have   made   his  own   terms    and   named  his 
own  price.     But  true  to  his  trust,  he  hid  the  relic  in  his  long 
hair,  made  his  way  to  the   Commandant,  and  placed  it  in  his 
hands.     The  fact  of  its  capture  broke  the  spirit  of  the  rebels, 
and  the  rising  was    at  once    quelled.     It  was  a  striking  sight 
to  see  this  man  of  high    family    and   rank    kneeling   at   the 
Lord's  Table  close  beside  two  half-naked    Kandyan    converts 
and  with  them  partaking  of    the  memorials   of  the  death  and 
passion  of  his  Saviour  and  theirs. 

During  Mr.  Oakley's  time  Trinity  Church  in  the  Mission 
compound  and  churches  at  Katukelle  and  Getambe  were 
built.  Trinity  Church  cost  about  ^"1,000  towards  which 
the  Sinhalese  gave  /~500.  Shortly  before  Mr.  Oakley's 
retirement,  Trinity  Church  was  transferred  to  the  care  of  the 


Rev.  Cornelius  Jayasinha,  and  a  council  composed  of  Sinhalese 
gentlemen  was  formed  for  the  management  of  the  affairs  of 
the  three  churches. 

From  the  commencement  of  the  Kandy  Mission  in  1818  to 
the  year  of  Mr.  Oakley's  retirement  in  1867,  the  number  of 
adults  baptized  in  connection  with  the  congregations  at  Kandy 
was  128,  viz.  seventy-four  men  and  fifty-four  women.  Of 
these  thirty-six  were  Kandyans. 

In  1872  the  Rev.  Henry  Gunasekara  (the  son  of  the  late 
Rev.  A.  Gunasekara  of  Baddegama)  was  appointed  to  Trinity 
Church,  and  for  thirty-seven  years  till  February  1909  when 
he  retired,  was  the  faithful  pastor  and  friend  of  the  congre 
gations.  The  Christians  in  1909  numbered  395,  of  whom  195 
were  communicants.  Mr.  Gunasekara  died  in  1916. 

When  the  Missionary  Conference  assembled  at  Cotta  on 
July  14,  1885,  an  incident  occurred  which  was  unique  in  the 
history  of  the  mission.  It  was  just  over  fifty  years  since 
Mr.  Oakley  had  arrived  in  Ceylon,  and  with  the  exception  of 
a  short  visit  to  India  of  three  months,  he  had  never  been  away 
from  the  island.  Past  and  present  missionaries  had  subscribed 
to  a  fund  to  provide  a  scholarship  in  connection  with  Trinity 
College,  to  bear  his  name,  and  this,  which  amounted  to 
Rs.  800,  was  presented  together  with  a  copy  of  the  Revised 
Version  of  the  Bible  and  an  illuminated  address  in  the  follow 
ing  words  : — 

We,  your  fellow-labourers,  and  others  who  have  worked 
with  you  in  this  mission,  desire  to  offer  you  our  warmest 
congratulations  on  the  completion  of  your  fiftieth  year  of 
missionary  service  in  Ceylon.  It  is  a  matter  of  deep  thank 
fulness  to  us  all,  that  in  God's  mercy  and  love  you  have  been 
allowed  to  spend  so  many  years  of  continued  labour  in  our 
Master's  cause.  During  the  long  period  you  have  been 
connected  with  this  branch  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society, 
it  has  been  your  earnest  desire  to  glorify  our  Lord  and  Saviour 




KANDY  75 

Jesus  Christ,  and  as  Secretary  of  this  Mission,  you  have 
enjoyed  the  hearty,  loving  confidence  of  your  brethren,  over 
whose  Conference  you  have  so  long  presided.  We  have  also 
a  grateful  remembrance  of  many  personal  kindnesses  received 
at  your  hands.  You  havre  been  glad  with  us  in  our  joys,  and 
in  our  troubles  you  have  always  sympathized,  while  the 
matured  wisdom  of  your  counsel  and  advice,  your  prudence, 
and  forbearing  gentleness,  have  been  used  by  God  in  great 
measure,  to  secure  that  unity  of  feeling  and  of  action  which, 
has  characterized  our  mission  for  so  many  years. 

We  wish  you  to  accept  this  volume — the  Revised  Version 
of  the  Bible — as  a  token  of  our  esteem  and  affection,  and  to 
allow  us  to  associate  with  your  name  a  prize  or  exhibition,  to 
be  known  as  the  '  Oakley'  Prize  or  Exhibition,  in  connection 
with  Trinity  College,  Kandy,  the  station  where  the  greater 
part  of  your  active  missionary  life  was  spent. 

That  our  Heavenly  Father  may  graciously  spare  you  to 
us  for  many  years  to  come,  and,  when  your  work  on  earth  is 
finished,  give  you  an  abundant  entrance  into  His  eternal 
kingdom  and  glory,  is  the  fervent  desire  and  earnest  prayer  of 
your  brethren  of  the  Ceylon  Mission.' 

Just  a  year  after,  on  July  11,  1886,  Mr.  Oakley  entered 
into  rest  at  Nuwara  Eliya,  aged  seventy-nine  years.  .  To  the 
last  he  was  the  active  Secretary  and  revered  counsellor  and 
friend  of  the  whole  mission. 

On  February  13,  1909,  the  Rev.  Gregory  S.  Amarasekara 
was  appointed  Incumbent  of  Trinity  Church,  the  congrega 
tions  connected  therewith  giving  him  a  hearty  welcome. 

In  1918  the  congregation  of  Trinity  Church  numbered  215 
adults  and  eighty -three  children,  of  whom  161  were  communi 
cants,  whilst  the  average  attendance  at  the  Sunday  morning 
service  was  105  adults.  The  annual  sale  of  work  produces 
over  Rs.  500  and  one  of  the  members  of  St.  John's  Church, 
.Gatambe,  bequeathed  one  thousand  rupees  to  that  Church. 



FOR  some  years  the  leading  Sinhalese  in  Kandy  had  been 
urging  on  the  C.M.S.  the  need  of  a  superior  school  for  the 
education  of  their  sons,  and  had  promised  their  support  and 

On  October  16,  1857,  the  Rev.  John  Ireland  Jones 
arrived  from  England  and  opened  an  establishment,  under 
the  name  of  the  Kandy  Collegiate  School.  Its  primary 
object  was  to  attract  the  sons  of  the  Kandyan  chiefs.  In 
this  it  was  not  successful,  although  many  of  the  principal 
residents  of  the  town  availed  themselves  of  its  advantages. 
The  institution  continued  in  operation  for  about  six  years, 
being  during  the  latter  half  of  the  time  under  the  charge  of 
the  Rev.  R.  B.  Tonge. 

On  January  18,  1872,  it  was  re-opened  under  the  name 
of  Trinity  College  and  Collegiate  School  with  the  Rev.  R. 
Collins  as  Principal,  and  Mr.  Alfred  Clark  as  Tutor,  and 
quickly  took  an  important  position  which  it  has  since  main 
tained.  At  the  end  of  the  same  year  there  were  120  students 
on  the  roll. 

Early  in  1877  the  latter  half  of  the  name  was  dropped 
and  from  thenceforth  it  became  '  Trinity  College,'  and  the 
Kandy  Prince  of  Wales  Reception  Fund  Committee  pre 
sented  the  college  with  Rs.  2,000  in  memory  of  his  Royal 
Highness'  visit  to  Kandy.  In  the  following  year  the  college 
was  affiliated  to  the  Calcutta  University,  and  in  1879  the 
Acting  Principal,  Mr.  Thomas  Dunn,  reported  '  The  Govern 
ment  examination  was  satisfactory,  90  per  cent  of  passes 
being  obtained.  The  Entrance  and  F.A.  examinations  were 
held  in  December.  Six  students  went  up  for  the  first,  and 
three  for  the  second  examination.' 

In  1880  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Garrett  was  appointed  Principal, 
and  the  following  year  there  were  238  students,  thirty  of 
these  being  boarders.  In  1883  the  Rev.  J.  Field  was  appointed 


KANDY  77 

Vice-Principal.  In  1885  the  Rev.  E.  Noel  Hodges,  formerly 
of  the  Noble  High  School  in  Masulipatam,  became  Principal, 
assisted  by  the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley.  In  1889  Mr.  Hodges  was 
appointed  to  the  Bishopric  of  Travancore  and  Cochin,  and 
his  post  at  Kandy  was  taken  by  the  Rev.  E.  J.  Perry,  who 
had  been  a  master  at  Merchant  Taylors'  School.  He  threw 
himself  into  the  work  with  a  bright  enthusiasm  that  augured 
great  things,  but  on  April  2,  1890,  he  was  accidentally  shot 
dead  near  Alut-nuwara,  whilst  on  a  visit  to  the  Veddahs  in. 
the  Bintenne  country.  As  a  memorial  to  him,  a  college 
mission,  known  as  the  '  Perry  Memorial  Mission  '  was  started 
in  an  outlying  district.  The  Rev.  J.  W.  Fall,  the  Vice-Prin 
cipal,  who  had  arrived  in  November  1889,  carried  on  the 
work  of  the  college,  until  the  arrival  of  the  new  Principal, 
the  Rev.  H.  P.  Napier-Clavering,  in  June  1890.  At  that 
time  there  were  298  students,  sixty-three  of  whom  were 
boarders.  Owing  to  the  increased  number  of  students  two 
blocks  of  additional  buildings  were  erected. 

In  November,  1891,  the  Rev.  J.  Carter  arrived  as  Vice- 
Principal.  The  following  year,  Mr.  Napier-Clavering  reported 
that  '  there  were  many  boys  hoping  to  be  baptized  as  soon  as 
they  became  their  own  masters  '  and  that  '  on  Advent  Sunday 
seventeen  of  the  students  were  confirmed.' 

In  1895  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde  became  Vice-Principal  till 
August  1899,  and  the  Rev.  A.  A.  Pilson  arrived  to  fill  the 
vacancy  in  March  1900.  Mr.  Pilson  died  of  typhoid  fever 
at  Nuwara  Eliya  on  April  30,  1902,  aged  twenty-nine. 
The  Rev.  H.  P.  Napier-Clavering's  resignation  on  account  of 
home  claims  in  A\igust  1900,  was  universally  regretted,  as  he 
was  popular  both  with  masters  and  boys,  and  the  college  had 
prospered  under  him.  The  period  of  his  Principalship  was 
emphatically  one  of  progress,  new  buildings  were  erected,  the 
number  of  students  increased  and  the  general  status  of  the 
college  Raised.  The  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde  succeeded  to  the 


Principalship.  The  average  daily  attendance  that  year  was 
323  out  of  a  roll  of  410.  The  primary  school,  nurtured  by 
the  college,  showed  a  daily  attendance  of  fifty-four  out  of 
eighty-three,  for  the  same  period. 

In   1902    the  Rev.  J.  Carter  became  temporarily  Principal 
and     early     the     following     year,    the    Rev.    A.    MacLulich 
MacLulich,    Vice-Principal.     During    190+   the   college  was 
carried   on  under  the   guidance   of   no  less   than  four   heads, 
succeeding  each  other.      I  Ir.  Carter  was  in   charge    until  his 
departure  for  England   on    May   6,   the    Rev.  H.  P.  Napier- 
Clavering  till  August  7,   then  the    Rev.   A.  MacLulich,  and, 
from   November   5,   Mr.   A.  G.  Fraser.     The  annual   report 
showed  that  in  the  '  highest  things  '  the  year  had  been   one  of 
prosperity  and  blessing.     It  says,  '  The  Te  Deum  has   been 
swelling  more  and  more  as  the  months  have  rolled  on.     This 
year   is   in    every    sense   an  improvement    on  last,    and    has 
been  continually   improving  on   itself.     Five   lads  have  been 
baptized,  and  thirteen  were  confirmed  by  the  Bishop.'     Under 
Mr.  Fraser's  masterly  direction  the  school  has  gone   forward 
to  a  remarkable   degree.     The   compound   has  been  extended 
by    the   acquisition    of  new    land  ;  new  buildings  have   been 
erected ;  a    magnificent   playing    field    of    several    acres    has 
been  hewn   from  a  hillside  ;  a   strong  staff  including   several 
Europeans  has  been  built  up,  and  the  school  has  been  further 
developed  as  a  boarding  school  anl  has  acquired  a  distinctive 
character  and  spirit.     These  things  have  involved  a  heavily 
increased  expenditure  and  Mr.  Fraser  has  worked  successfully 
for  the  establishment  of  the  Trinity  College   Extension  Fund 
which  has  made  these  schemes  of  development  possible. 

In  1905  a  bungalow  and  compound  known  as  Woodlands, 
adjoining  the  college  premises,  were  acquired  by  means  of 
money  collected  by  Mr.  Fraser,  thus  giving  a  residence  for 
the  Principal  and  leaving  the  college  bungalow  for  the 
Vice- Principal. 

KANDY  79 

In  August,  1906,  Mr.  Fraser  was  suddenly  ordered  home 
on  account  of  ill-health.  The  Rev.  W.  S.  Senior,  who  had 
recently  arrived,  assumed  the  office  of  Acting  Principal,  and 
was  joined  later  in  the  year  by  the  Rev.  A.  M.  Walmsley. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year  1908,  Mr.  Fraser  returned 
with  reinforcements  of  men,  viz.  the  Rev.  J.  P.  S.  R.  Gibson 
and  Messrs.  N.  P.  Campbell  and  K.  J.  Saunders,  backed  up 
by  a  wealth  of  prayer  and  sympathy.  The  aim  of  Mr.  Fraser 
and  the  methods  by  which  he  proposed  to  achieve  it  may  be 
best  expressed  in  his  own  words. 

The  Aim. — We  intend  to  make  a  serious  effort — 

First.- — To  train  Christians  in  Ceylon  so  to  present  Christ 
that  their  hearers  may  realize  Him  not  as  a  foreigner,  but  as 
the  real  and  true  fulfilment  of  all  that  is  best  and  highest  in 
their  aspirations  and  in  their  past. 

Second. — To  make  the  pupils  good  citizens  of  their  own 
land,  (a)  By  carefully  relating  all  that  is  taught  them  to  the 
needs,  problems  and  language  of  their  own  people,  (b)  By 
deliberately  striving  to  foster  and  encourage  their  sense  cf 
responsibility  and  readiness  to  act  and,  so  working,  to  produce 

The  Methods. — We  propose  (a)  The  appointment  of 
three  capable  and  accomplished  students  to  devote  them 
selves  to  the  study  of  education  in  India  and  Ceylon,  and  of 
Hindu  and  Buddhist  apologetics,  (b)  The  establishment  of  a 
good  training  college  for  Christian  teachers  in  the  Vernacular 
and  English  and  the  creation  of  a  ladder  from  the  village 
school  to  the  college  with  its  possibilities  of  leadership.  We 
hope  by  basing  our  education  on  the  Vernaculars  whilst 
teaching  English  thoroughly,  to  make  the  transition  from 
village  school  to  college  easier,  and  to  instruct  pupils  more 
readily  and  more  intelligently  from  the  basis  of  their  own 
knowledge,  (c)  The  efficient  prosecution  of  higher  education 
on  the  lines  of  the  Japanese  code  or  of  the  Arya  Samaj  in  its 


national  gurukulas,  i.e.  education  in  their  own  classics 
combined  with  that  of  the  West,  and  modern  science,  (d)  In 
all.  we  hope  to  devolve  responsibility  more  and  more  on  the 
people  themselves,  to  strictly  limit  the  number  of  our  pupils 
that  each  may  have  individual  attention,  and  that  there  may 
be  close  contact  between  teachers  and  taught.  To  sum  up  : 
'  We  are  attempting  to  translate  into  carefully  planned  action 
the  belief  that  the  hope  of  the  future  lies  with  the  native 
Christians,  and  our  energies  are  most  wisely  exercised  when  not 
directly  employed  on  Hindus,  Mohammedans  and  Buddhists, 
but  when  building  up  a  wise,  eager  and  indigenous  Church.' 

In  1909  Mr.  N.  P.  Campbell  designed  new  buildings  which 
were  erected  at  the  cost  of  ^"3000.  These  contain  a  chemi 
cal  laboratory,  a  physical  laboratory  with  gallery,  a  class 
room,  quarters  for  two  masters,  a  masters'  common  room,  and 
a  dormitory  containing  sixty  beds.  The  compound  was 
improved  and  two  acres  of  land  adjoining  were  leased  from 
Government  for  ninety-nine  years.  In  this  year,  Mr.  G.  K. 
Mulgrue,  who  had  been  on  the  teaching  staff  for  some  years, 
was  taken  into  local  connection. 

The  Rev.  L.  J.  Gaster  joined  the  staff  in  1910.  The 
following  year  Mr.  Eraser  left  on  a  visit  to  England  to  plead 
for  funds  to  carry  out  a  Training  Colony  scheme  and  during 
his  absence  the  Rev.  H.  P.  Napier-Clavering  was  Honorary 
Acting  Principal. 

In  1914  Mr.  K.  J.  Saunders  who  during  his  stay  in  Ceylon 
had  written  several  books  and  pamphlets  on  Buddhism,  left  the 
College  to  take  up  Y.M.C.A.  work  in  India.  Mr.  Campbell 
also  left  for  England  in  the  same  year  for  training  in 
connection  with  the  war,  and  Mr.  A.  C.  Houlder,  who  had 
previously  been  on  the  staff  as  a  '  short  service '  man, 
rejoined  the  college  as  missionary  in  full  connection. 

At  the  close  of  1915  the  Rev.  K.  C.  McPherson  joined  the 
teaching  staff  as  a  missionary  of  the  C.M.S.,  and  the  Rev. 

KANDY  81 

W.  S.  Senior  who  had  been  Vice- Principal  for  eight  years, 
left  to  take  charge  of  Christ  Church,  Galle  Face,  Colombo. 

The  '  Trinity  College  Annual  for  1914  '  gives  a  wonderful 
account  of  the  various  activities  and  agencies  of  the  college. 
It  consists  of  nearly  one  hundred  pages  and  many  illustrations. 
The  spiritual  side  is  put  well  to  the  front  as  the  following 
quotation  will  show :  '  Trinity  College,  while  a  public 
school  on  the  best  lines,  is  before  all  a  missionary  school.  Its 
success  is  not  indeed  to  be  measured  by  mere  numbers  of  those 
baotized  and  confirmed  or  by  the  number  of  communicants. 
It  is  rather  to  be  sought  in  the  "  atmosphere  "  and  "  tone,"  the 
outlook  on  life  and  the  general  product  of  the  place.  Yet  if 
the  general  product  never  crystallized  in  particular  results, 
our  success  would  be  questionable.  It  is  with  gratitude,  then, 
that  we  are  able  to  record  a  number  of  baptisms  in  1913,  and 
a  few  in  the  current  year.  No  pressure  save  that  of  public 
preaching  (and  the  "  atmosphere  "  alluded  to),  no  preferential 
treatment  is  ever  brought  to  bear.  Truth  is  our  one  weapon, 
and  in  several  cases  the  candidates  have  very  real  obstacles 
of  antecedents  and  circumstance  to  overcome.  As  to  Confir 
mation,  the  numbers  seem  to  increase  yearly,  and  the  annual 
Confirmation  Service  more  and  more  becomes  a  red  letter 
day  of  our  calendar.  No  one  can  be  present  either  on  the 
Sunday  evenings  when  public  baptism  is  administered,  or  on 
the  afternoons  when  the  Bishop  confirms,  without  being 
much  moved  and  much  inspired,  with  the  thought  of  the 
reality  and  value  of  the  educational  missionary  task.' 

The  students  who  are  communicants  have  a  '  Communi 
cants'  Union,'  the  Sunday  School  has  twenty-eight  classes 
and  210  students,  there  is  also  a  '  Union  for  Social  Service,' 
and  in  1914  a  'College  Hostel'  was  opened  in  Colombo, 
where  so  many  Trinity  boys  go  down  for  employment  or  to 
continue  their  studies.  There  is  also  a  College  Cadet  Corps, 
and  Cricket,  Rugger,  Boxing,  Fives  and  Tennis  are  keenly 


supported.  There  are  also  Literary  and  Reading  Associa 
tions,  and  a  Masters'  Guild. 

In  the  report  of  the  year's  work  read  at  the  Prize-giving  in 
1915,  the  Rev.  A.  G.  Eraser  said,  '  for  the  third  year  in 
succession  we  headed  the  Commercial  examination,  and  in 
the  Cambridge  Senior  Local  four  of  our  students  won  the 
first  four  places  in  the  Empire  in  Book-keeping.  In  the 
Junior  Local  we  passed  twenty  candidates,  one  obtaining 
first  class  honours,  and  we  obtained  four  distinctions.  In  the 
Senior  Local  we  passed  thirty-five  candidates,  with  two 
second  class  honours,  five  third  class,  and  ten  distinctions. 
In  the  Intermediate  in  Arts  all  our  three  candidates  passed. 
In  the  Inter  Science  we  presented  four  and  all  passed.  In 
athletics,  we  won  the  Cricket  Championship,  and  the  Inter 
collegiate  Shooting  Cup  for  the  ninth  time  in  succession. 
We  were  the  winners  also  of  the  Inter-collegiate  Shields  for 
Physical  Drill,  and  for  Military  Drill,  and  we  still  retain  the 
Boxing  Shield.  Our  Rugby  Football  team  was  again  with 
out  rivals,  and  the  only  Inter-collegiate  competition  we  have 
not  come  first  in  is  that  for  track  running,  and  in  that  we 
were  equal  second.' 

The  Rev.  L.  J.  Gaster  went  on  furlough  in  1915,  and 
returned  the  following  year.  In  his  report  as  Acting  Principal 
he  says,  '  I  had  the  privilege  of  preparing  twelve  boys  for 
confirmation,  and  a  few  for  baptism.  To  see  those  boys 
coming  forward  in  the  fa:e  of  opposition,  ready  to  confess 
Christ  in  baptism,  and  to  take  up  their  cross  and  follow  Him, 
is  something  which  does  not  fail  to  leave  its  mark  on  oneself 
also.  It  can  be  said  most  emphatically  that  the  Life  and 
Person  of  Jesus  Christ  make  a  strong  appeal,  and  an  appeal 
not  in  vain  to  the  young  life  of  Ceylon.' 

Mr.  A.  C.  Houlder  writes,  '  The  Social  Service  Union  is, 
I  believe,  the  strongest  agency  we  have  whereby  the  fulness 
of  Christ,  the  life  in  Christ,  may  be  demonstrated.  The  work 

KANDY  83 

is  voluntary,  the  motto,  "  A  patriot  can  serve  his  country  only 
when  he  makes  their  sorrows  and  disabilities  his  own."  There 
are  about  thirty  members  amongst  the  boys,  and  at  least  eight 
earnest  workers  amongst  the  masters.  We  have  made 
frequent  visits  to  villages,  treating  cases  of  sores  and  ulcers, 
and  teaching  games  to  the  boys.  We  have  also  opened  a 
school  in  an  outcaste  village.  These  people  are  mat-weavers 
by  occupation.  They  are  not  allowed  to  attend  school  with 
any  other  caste  people,  and  until  we  went  there  no  Kandyan 
of  good  family  had  been  near  them  at  all.  Our  boys  have 
visited  them  frequently,  bicycling  ten  miles,  or  walking 
seven  each  way,  to  see  the  school,  lecture  to  the  boys, 
and  help  them  in  any  way  possible,  also  visiting  their 

The  following  with  regard  to  the  great  war  is  an  extract  from 
the  Report  read  at  the  Annual  Prize  Giving  in  December,  1918: 
'  The  war  ended  almost  as  suddenly  as  it  began.  Trinity 
College  is  never  a  dull  place,  and  has  on  occasions  shown  a 
wonderful  energy  of  expression,  but  when  the  news  came 
through  that  Germany  had  signed  the  armistice  we  surpassed 
all  previous  records  in  the  irresponsible  enthusiasm  of  our 

There  are  sixty-two  names  on  our  Roll  of  Honour.  Of 
this  number  ten  were  killed  in  action  on  the  Western  Front, 
one  was  drowned  in  the  Mediterranean  on  his  way  to  England 
to  enlist,  and  one  died  of  disease  contracted  on  active  service. 
In  the  midst  of  our  rejoicings  we  think  of  these  brave  souls 
who  will  never  return  : — R.  Aiyadurai,  N.  P.  Campbell, 
F.  Drieberg,  H.  C.  Forster,  C.  F.  H.  Kent,  J.  Loos, 
K.  Murray,  A.  G.  F.  Perera,  A.  Paramananthan,  R.  Skipp, 
P.  Scott-Coates,  and  A.  J.  Wells.  They  went  forth  unafraid 
to  defend  the  right,  and  they  gave  their  lives  that  the  right 
might  triumph.  We  thank  God  for  their  courage,  their 
vision,  and  their  self-sacrifice. 


One  of  the  last  to  fall  in  the  conflict  was  Herbert  Forsteiv 
who  left  school  for  the  Front  early  last  year,  and  was  killed 
in  France  in  March  of  this  year  at  the  age  of  nineteen. 

Besides  those  who  gave  their  lives,  eighteen  of  our  number 
were  wounded  or  gassed,  and  two  were  made  prisoners. 
Those  who  received  decorations  are  J.  W.  S.  Bartholomeusz, 
who  was  awarded  the  French  Croix  de  Guerre  of  the  First 
Class,  and  Vere  Modder,  who  won  the  Military  Medal.  Capt. 
E.  C.  Squire,  who  joined  our  staff  and  was  about  to  sail  for 
Ceylon  when  war  broke  out,  has  been  awarded  the  Military 

Three  of  our  boys  on  the  Western  Front  obtained  Com 
missions,  the  last  being  Ajit  Rudra,  the  son  of  the  Principal 
of  St.  Stephen's  College,  Delhi,  and  five  of  our  Old  Boys 
recently  obtained  Commissions  in  the  I.  A.  R.  O.' 

Mr.  N.  P.  Campbell  joined  H.  M.  Forces  at  the  end  of 
1914,  obtaining  a  Commission  as  Captain  in  the  Royal  Engi 
neers,  and  was  killed  in  action  on  May  3,  1917.  An 
In  Memoriam  notice  in  the  C.M.S.  Gleaner  for  the  following 
month  says,  '  Not  only  in  the  school  but  outside  it  in  Kandy 
were  Mr.  Campbell's  energies  spent.  His  work  among  the 
poor  and  needy  and  his  keen  efforts  to  help  them,  and  to 
uplift  them,  are  well  known.  Often  was  he  seen  alone  on  a 
roadside  helping  a  lame  man  or  binding  up  a  sore  foot.  Even 
the  poor  in  hospital  knew  him  and  were  cheered  by  the 
concerts  he  organized  for  them.  He  did  not  spare  himself  in 
doing  all  he  could  for  the  needy,  among  whom  he  was  much 

Early  in  the  war  he  left  us  as  he  believed  "  no  man  had  a 
right  to  keep  away."  Nothing  could  prevent  him.  He  had 
dedicated  his  life  to  the  cause  of  freedom. 

As  He  died  to  make  men  holy 
Let  us  live  to  make  men  free, 

KANDY  85 

were  the  words  he  set  before  him.  On  his  final  mission  he 
was  called  away  to  a  Greater  Freedom  on  High.' 


THIS  institution  takes  its  root  in  the  first  century  of  C.M.S. 
work  and  looks  for  its  fruit  in  the  second.  It  is  the  product 
of  the  past,  and  the  prophet  of  the  future.  In  main  outline 
the  plan  was  conceived  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Fraser  as  far  back 
as  1906.  Into  what  it  shall  develop  none  can  prophesy,  for 
it  faces  the  problems  of  the  day  in  the  dim  though  growing 
light  of  the  future  rather  than  in  the  still  strong  but  waning 
twilight  of  the  traditional  past. 

In  the  first  place  the  Training  Colony  is  co-denominational. 
The  Church  Missionary  Society  and  the  Wesleyan  Methodist 
Missionary  Society  in  Ceylon  have  federated  as  regards  the 
governing  of  this  institution  which  is  in  the  hands  of  a 
special  Council.  The  C.M.S.  have  at  present  the  preponder 
ating  interest  on  the  basis  of  larger  capital  invested,  but 
there  is  nothing  in  the  Constitution  which  in  any  way  gives 
special  rights  or  privileges  to  either  Society. 

Students  from  both  Societies  are  admitted  and  the  whole 
policy  is  that  of  the  fullest  combination  possible  for  essen 
tially  similars,  and  not  that  of  the  mere  juxtaposition  of  radi 
cally  differents.  Students  eat  and  sleep,  work  and  play,  and 
also  worship  together  except  for  the  Sunday  morning  services, 
when  as  members  of  their  respective  Churches  the  students 
attend  their  own  Church  or  Chapel.  At  the  same  time  each 
Society  has  full  rights  and  opportunities  for  teaching  its  own 
members  such  special  doctrines  or  beliefs  as  it  feels  to  be 
its  sacred  contribution  to  the  Universal  Church.  Each 
Society  has  a  Vice-Principal  in  residence  to  whom  the  super 
vision  of  the  religious  life  of  his  flock  is  specially  entrusted. 
Of  these  two,  one  is  chosen  Principal  and  as  such  impartially 
administers  the  joint  interests  of  the  Colony.  Secondly,  the 


Colony  is  co-educational.  Men  and  women  are  trained  in 
joint  classes,  and  Sinhalese  women,  as  well  as  men,  teach 
the^e  classes*  This  is  as  real  a  step  forward  as  is  the  whole 
hearted  denominational  federation,  and  is  preparing  the  way 
for  woman  to  take  her  right  place  in  the  East. 

There  are  two  main  departments,  the  normal  training  of 
Sinhalese  teachers  for  primary  vernacular  schools,  and  the 
training  of  evangelists.  In  the  former  there  are  about  forty 
men  and  forty  women.  The  course  lasts  three  years  and  the 
objective  is  the  Government  Diploma.  Government  grants 
amounted  last  year  to  just  over  Rs.  7,000.  The  Evangelist 
Class  is  more  irregular  and  so  far  no  such  class  for  women 
has  been  started. 

The  staff  comprises  three  Europeans  and  seven  Ceylonese. 

The  main  policy  of  the  work  is  summed  up  by  the  motto 
Victory  through  self-sacrifice,'  self-expression  attained 
through  self-abnegation,  Christ  in  me  the  hope  of  Glory.  The 
vitalizing  force  in  the  Colony  is  the  half -hour  spent  corpo- 
rately  in  silent  prayer  each  morning.  From  this  observance 
flows  power  that  gives  meaning  to  the  rest  of  the  day. 

In  many  ways,  by  special  services  for  seed-sowing  and 
harvesting,  by  a  service  of  beating  the  bounds,  by  national 
music  and  art,  by  processions  and  illuminations,  we  seek  to 
enable  religious  faith  to  express  itself  in  national  forms  and 
the  spontaneity  of  the  expression  makes  one  believe  that  the 
springs  are  deep.  Apart  from  the  daily  half-hour  of  quiet, 
frequent  times  are  taken  when  staff  and  students  wait  in 
silence  upon  God,  with  the  mind  receptive  for  the  impress  of 
the  Divine.  The  medical  side  of  the  work  enables  the  idea 
of  Social  Service  to  be  developed  and  the  elements  of  First- 
Aid  to  be  acquired.  The  learning  of  pottery  painting  adds 
another  form  of  beautiful  self-expression.  The  elementary 
principles  of  agriculture  which  are  taught  send  the  men  forth 
the  better  able  to  deal  with  rural  problems. 



KANDV  87 

Drill,  games  and  mountaineering  excursions  develop  the 
body  and  open  the  mind  to  the  glories  of  Nature. 

Such  in  outline  is  the  ideal.  In  conclusion  a  few  facts  may 
be  of  interest.  The  Colony  is  on  the  site  of  the  Rosehill 
Estate,  Peradeniya  Junction,  and  contains  now  about  thirty 
acres  planted  in  tea  and  rubber.  The  buildings  comprise 
the  Principal's  Bungalow,  the  Women's  Hostel  (Laurie 
Hall),  the  Men's  Hostel  (Ashley  Hall),  and  the  main  teaching 
school  (Fraser  Hall),  the  right  wing  of  which  is  the  Vice- 
Principal's  house.  There  are  also  houses  for  the  married 
staff,  a  dispensary,  and  buildings  for  the  Evangelist  Depart 
ments  both  men's  and  women's.  The  Colony  was  acquired 
and  opened  in  1914.  Work  began  in  Laurie  Hall  in  1916,  in 
Ashley  Hall  in  1917,  and  in  Fraser  Hall  in  1918.  The  total 
capital  cost  has  been  over  Rs.  125,000. 



JAFFNA,  in  the  extreme  north,  is  a  town  of  about  50,000 
inhabitants,  and  the  northern  province,  of  which  it  is  the 
capital,  contains  a  population  of  330,000,  nearly  all  of  whom 
are  Tamils.  Jaffna  is  207  miles  from  Colombo,  and,  until  the 
railway  was  opened  in  1905,  it  seemed  to  be  cut  off  from  the 
rest  of  the  island.  A  large  fort  still  stands  which  was  built  by 
the  Portuguese  in  1624,  and  the  massive  Church  in  the  form 
of  a  Greek  cross,  with  the  date  1706  over  the  main  entrance, 
testifies  to  the  importance  of  Jaffna  in  the  Dutch  period. 
Jaffna  is  supposed  to  have  been  founded  in  the  year  A.D.  101 
and  is  thus  described  in  Casie  Chetty's  Tamil  Plutarch  :— 
'  Yalpana  was  a  minstrel  who  lived  in  the  Chola  country. 
Being  blind,  he  depended  on  the  earnings  of  his  wife.  One 
day  his  meals  were  not  ready  at  the  proper  hour,  so  he  quar 
relled  with  his  wife  and  left  the  house  saying  he  was  going  to 
Ceylon.  When  he  arrived  there,  he  was  refused  admittance 
into  the  king's  presence,  but  it  was  afterwards  arranged  that 
the  king  should  stand  behind  a  curtain  and  hear  the  blind 
minstrel's  song.  The  king,  being  greatly  pleased,  honoured 
him  with  the  gift  of  a  tusked  elephant,  and  by  the  donation  of 
a  piece  of  land  in  the  northern  extremity  of  the  island  in 
perpetuity.  This  was  no  other  than  the  present  peninsula  of 
Jaffna.  It  was  then  uninhabited  and  covered  with  jungle,  but 
he  had  it  cleared,  and,  having  induced  a  colony  of  Tamils  from 
Southern  India  to  settle  in  it,  soon  rendered  it  a  rich  country, 
which  he  called  after  his  own  professional  name  Yalpana 
Nadu,  that  is,  the  minstrel's  country.' 


Yalpana  has  been  corrupted  into  the  modern  name  of  Jaffna. 
The  climate  and  scenery  differ  from  those  of  the  other  parts  of 
tne  island.  Agriculture  is  the  main  occupation  of  the  people, 
palmyra  palms  and  tobacco  being  the  chief  products.  The 
C.M.S.,  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missions,  the 
Wesleyans  and  the  Roman  Catholics,  have  all  strong  missions 
in  the  district.  The  proportion  per  cent,  of  the  adherents  of 
each  religion  to  the  total  population  in  1911  was,  Hindus 
87-76,  Mohammedans  I'll,  Buddhists  '09,  and  Christians 

The  Rev.  Joseph  Knight,  the  first  C.M.S.  missionary, 
arrived  in  Jaffna  in  July,  1818,  and  moved  to  Nellore  in 
November.  As  soon  as  he  commenced  work  he  met  with 
difficulties  and  opposition.  The  people  thought  it  necessary 
to  bathe  themselves  and  purify  their  houses  after  the  mission 
ary's  visit,  and  it  was  usual  for  the  pundit  to  bathe  at  the 
tank  on  his  way  home  after  giving  a  lesson  at  the  Mission 
House.  The  first  printing  press  was  set  up  by  Mr.  Knight, 
and  thousands  of  tracts  were  printed  and  distributed.  The 
extent  of  their  distribution  may  be  judged  from  the  fact  that 
1,002,800  tracts  were  issued  from  the  press  in  the  years  1835- 
to  1838.  This  printing  press  was  afterwards  sold  to  the 
American  Mission. 

In  1820  there  were  270  children  in  the  schools,  and  much 
visiting  was  done.  The  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Bailey  arrived 
in  March,  1822,  but  they  were  able  to  remain  only  twelve 
months,  during  which  time  Mr.  Bailey  took  the  English 
duties  at  the  Dutch  Church. 

During  this  year  Mr.  Knight  obtained  from  Government 
an  old  Dutch  Church  with  a  piece  of  land,  adjoining  the 
mission  premises.  Of  this  building,  forty-two  feet  were  taken 
from  one  end,  for  "a  dwelling  house.  Mr.  Knight  married 
Mrs.  S.  B.  Richards  and  after  her  death,  Mrs.  E.  S.  Nichols, 
both  widows  of  American  missionaries.  He  died  at  Cotta 


and  was  buried  there  on  October  11,  1840,  aged  fifty-three. 
In  the  preface  to  Winslow's  '  Comprehensive  Tamil  and 
English  Dictionary,'  published  at  Madras  in  1862,  it  is  stated 
that  '  it  was  commenced  by  the  Rev.  J.  Knight,  late  of 

The  Rev.  W.  Adley  arrived  in  1824  and  continued  till  the 
death  of  Mrs.  Adley  in  1839,  when  he  left  for  England, 
returning  two  years  later,  but  being  compelled  owing  to  ill- 
health  to  relinquish  his  work  in  1845.  Mr.  Adley  died  in 
England  in  1889,  aged  ninety-seven  years.  In  September 
1826,  Mr.  Adley  baptized  four  young  Tamil  men,  pupils  in 
the  boarding  school  which  had  been  established  in  Nellore  in 
1823.  He  wrote,  '  I  baptized  the  boys  in  the  names  of 
Edward  Bickersteth,  William  Marsh,  Jcsiah  Pratt  and  John 
Raban,  and  afterwards  described  to  them  the  characters  of 
the  persons  whose  names  they  bore,  with  a  solemn  exhorta 
tion  that  they  would  follow  them  as  they  followed  Christ.' 

The  same  year  was  baptized  '  Samuel '  who  had  been  a 
leader  of  devil  worship,  practised  incantations,  given  offerings 
to  religious  mendicants,  given  a  cow  to  a  temple,  keeping  it  at 
his  own  house  and  giving  the  priests  the  milk  daily,  and  had 
presented  a  silver  sword  and  shield  as  an  offering  to  St.  James 
at  a  Roman  Catholic  Church.  He  became  a  most  earnest 
Christian.  He  met  his  death  one  evening  as  he  was  re 
turning  from  a  missionary  meeting,  being  bitten  by  a 
poisonous  snake.  His  father,  a  heathen,  said,  '  Before, 
he  was  a  devil,  but  after  he  gave  himself  up  to  Christ  he  put 
all  evil  away.'  Shortly  after  his  death  his  wife  received 
baptism.  The  Rev.  F.  W.  Taylor  joined  the  mission  in  1839 
and  remained  till  1841,  when  the  Rev.  J.  Talbot  Johnston 
arrived  and  stayed  eight  years. 

The  same  year  the  district  of  Chundicully  was  taken  over. 
The  old  Portuguese  Church  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  with  its 
congregation  of  ninety,  had  been  handed  over  to  the  C.M.S.  by 


their  old  Pastor,  the  Rev.  Christian  David,  who  was  a  convert 
of  the  missionary  Schwartsz,  in  South  India.  Services  were 
conducted  in  it  till  1862,  when  the  present  church  was  erected 
and  dedicated  to  St.  John  the  Baptist. 

The  Rev.  Robert  Pargiter,  who  had  come  out  as  a 
Wesleyan  missionary  and  had  left  that  body  and  been  ordained 
deacon  in  1846  and  priest  in  1847  by  Bishop  Chapman,  was 
added  to  the  missionary  band  in  1846,  spending  the  greater 
part  of  his  time  at  Chundicully,  till  his  retirement  to  England 
in  1864,  where  he  died  in  1915,  aged  ninety-eight  years.  The 
Rev.  James  O'Neil  arrived  also  in  1846  at  Nellore.  Mrs. 
O'Neil  under  whose  care  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  which 
had  been  opened  in  1842,  had  grown  and  prospered,  died  on 
December  16,  1848,  aged  twenty-seven.  A  tablet  to  her 
memory  in  Nellore  Church  says,  '  After  the  short  space  of 
two  years  and  nine  months,  spent  in  mission  labour,  she 
exchanged  earth  for  heaven.'  Mr.  O'Neil  returned  to  England 
in  1856. 

In  July,  1847,  Dr.  Chapman,  Bishop  of  Colombo,  visited 
Jaffna,  when  one  hundred  and  thirteen  candidates  were  con 
firmed.  In  1849  Copay  was  adopted  as  a  separate  mission 
district.  The  Mission  House  and  Church  were  built  on  a 
piece  of  land  given  by  Mr.  P.  A.  Dyke,  the  Government 
Agent  of  the  Province.  The  foundation  stone  of  the  church 
was  laid  on  May  9,  1850,  and  the  completed  building  opened 
on  January  9,  1852,  costing  about  ^"400.  At  the  opening 
service  three  adults  were  baptized.  The  Rev.  Robert  Bren 
arrived  at  Copay  in  1849  and  returned  to  England  in  1858. 
The  Copay  Training  Institution  for  catechists,  readers  and 
teachers  was  opened  in  1853.  In  1855  so  much  hypocrisy 
and  mercenary  conduct  appeared  among  the  Christians  in 
Jaffna,  that  it  was  proposed  to  close  the  stations  and  abandon 
the  work,  but  a  visit  from  Mr.  Knight  revived  the  spirits  of 
the  missionaries,  and  the  work  took  a  fresh  start  from  that 


time.  The  Rev.  C.  C.  MacArthur  arrived  in  1859  and  extend 
ed  the  work  till  his  retirement  in  1867.  The  Rev.  H.  D. 
Buswell  arrived  in  1862,  but  was  obliged  to  relinquish  the 
work  owing  to  ill-health  in  1865.  In  February,  1867,  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Good  came,  just  as  the  schools  had  been  closed 
and  general  work  suspended  in  consequence  of  a  visitation  of 
cholera,  and  in  January  of  the  following  year  the  Rev.  David 
Wood  arrived. 

In  September,  1863,  the  chief  catechist,  Mr.  J .  Hensman,  was 
ordained  deacon  by  the  Bishop  of  Colombo,  and  was  made  priest 
two  years  later.  The  Rev.  J.  Hensman  was  a  most  energetic 
and  enthusiastic  worker  till  his  death  in  1884.  Three  other 
catechists,  Messrs.  T.  P.  Handy,  G.  Champion  and  E.  Hoole 
were  ordained  deacons  in  1865.  In  1868  when  the  Jubilee 
of  the  Mission  was  celebrated,  the  statistics  of  the  Mission 
were,  two  European  missionaries,  four  Tamil  clergy, .  ten 
catechists,  three  readers,  thirty-four  schoolmasters,  ten  school 
mistresses,  one  biblewoman,  one  colporteur,  677  Christians, 
237  communicants,  nineteen  boys'  schools  with  961  pupils 
and  seven  girls'  schools  with  397  girls. 

The  following  year,  8640  houses  were  visited  by  the 
pastors  and  catechists,  636  meetings  held,  the  gospel  preached 
to  no  less  than  36,864  persons  and  work  commenced  in  the 
Islands  of  Mundativu  and  Allypitty.  A  Church  Council  was 
formed  and  the  amount  contributed  that  year  was  £\  18-2-1. 

In  September,  1870,  the  Bishop,  Dr.  Piers  Claughton, 
visited  the  Mission  and  the  following  account  of  the  visit  is 
given  in  the  C.  M.  Record  of  January,  1871.  '  We  are  seldom 
favoured  with  the  visits  of  our  Diocesan.  The  way  of  access 
to  Jaffna,  since  the  island  steamer  was  discontinued,  is  sc 
difficult  and  tedious  that  it  requires  no  ordinary  amount  of 
courage  and  patience,  first  to  undertake,  and  afterwards  to 
endure  the  journey.  It  is  almost  as  easy,  and  certainly  more 
pleasant,  to  go  to  England  from  Colombo,  than  to  come  from 


Colombo  to  Jaffna.  Having  received  a  telegram  from 
Mr.  Templer  of  Manaar,  that  the  Bishop  had  left  there  at  6  a.m. 
for  Jaffna,  I  drove  to  the  beach  at  3  p.m.  to  meet  him,  but  in 
consequence  of  light  winds,  or  no  wind  at  all,  there  was  no 
appearance  of  the  boat.  I  waited  till  8.30  p.m.,  and  returned 
to  Nellore.  However  I  had  the  pleasure  of  welcoming  his 
Lordship  at  12  o'clock,  midnight.  The  boat  had  grounded 
several  times,  and,  in  consequence  of  the  darkness  and  shallow 
water,  sailing  in  the  large  boat  had  become  impossible,  and 
his  lordship  wisely  hailed  a  fishing  ''  barrow,"  whose  occupant 
was  engaged  in  his  nightly  toil,  and  in  this  primitive  craft 
came  safely  to  shore. 

On  September  7,  the  Bishop  held  his  visitation  in  St.  John's 
Church,  Chundicully.  Four  Tamil  clergy,  three  English 
clergy  and  ten  churchwardens  were  present.  After  this  the 
Bishop  visited  the  English  Seminary,  and  in  the  afternoon  a 
confirmation  service  was  held  at  Nellore  when  twenty-seven 
candidates  were  presented.  Next  morning  the  Bishop  exami 
ned  the  children  of  the  schools  of  Chundicully  under  the 
mahogany  trees,  and  afterwards  held  a  confirmation  in  the 
church  when  twenty-eight  candidates  were  confirmed.  In 
the  afternoon  a  confirmation  was  held  at  Copay  where  thirty 
candidates  were  presented,  and  the  Bishop  afterwards  visited 
the  English  School  and  Training  Institution.  After  sunset  he 
attended  a  moonlight  meeting  two  miles  from  Copay,  and  at 
9  o'clock  returned  to  Nellore.  The  following  morning  his 
lordship  held  a  confirmation  in  the  temporary  church  in  the 
Pettah,  when  twenty-seven  persons  were  confirmed,  and  the 
same  afternoon  laid  the  foundation  stone  of  a  church  at 

On  Saturday  morning  the  Bishop  visited  the  Girls'  Board 
ing  School  after  which  he  examined  the  three  candidates  for 
priests'  orders,  in  the  afternoon  addressed  the  mission  work 
ers  at  Nellore,  and  in  the  evening  laid  the  foundation  stone 



of  the  Pettah  Church.  On  Sunday  morning  at  9  o'clock, 
the  Bishop  preached  in  the  Pettah,  and  at  11  o'clock  con 
ducted  the  ordination  service  at  Nellore,  preaching  from  the 
text  Titus,  1,5,"  That  thou  shouldest  set  in  order  the  things 
that  are  wanting  and  ordain  elders  in  every  city."  The  Revs. 
Handy,  Hoole  and  Champion  were  admitted  to  priests' 
orders,  and  the  Revs.  T.  Good,  D.  Wood  and  J.  Hensman 
assisted  in  the  laying  on  of  hands.  There  were  158  Tamil 
communicants.  At  four  in  the  afternoon  the  Bishop  preached 
at  the  Portuguese  service  in  the  Pettah,  and  at  5.30  in  St: 
John's  Church,  Chundicully.  The  following  day  the  Bishop 
held  a  confirmation  in  the  Court  House  at  Pallai,  twenty-five 
miles  from  Jaffna.' 

In  1871  the  Rev.  D.  Wood  removed  to  Colombo  for  a 
time  and  Mr.  Hensman  took  the  oversight  of  the  Copay 
Training  Institution.  The  following  year,  the  missionary 
reports,  '  The  dowry  system  and  caste  are  still  great  evils 
among  the  Christians.  A  man,  professedly  Christian,  will 
not  allow  his  children  to  marry  those  whom  he  considers  of 
lower  caste  than  his  own,  though  everything  else  is  in  favour 
of  such  an  alliance.' 

Mission  work  was  commenced  this  year,  1872,  in 
Vavunia  Valankullam,  by  the  sending  of  a  catechist  and 

The  Bishop,  Dr.  Jermyn,  paid  his  first  visit  to  Jaffna  in 
June  of  that  year.  Much  evangelistic  work  was  carried  on 
by  the  Jaffna  clergy  and  hundreds  of  Scripture  portions  sold. 
One  woman  offered  a  quantity  of  thread  for  a  gospel,  another 
two  leaves  of  tobacco,  whilst  a  cooly  woman  on  an  estate 
begged  her  employer  to  pay  a  penny  in  advance  out  of  her 
hire  for  the  day,  and  bought  a  scripture  portion  with  it.  An 
interesting  series  of  meetings  was  held  in  connection  with  a 
party  of  Christians  from  Tanjore,  known  as  the  '  Lyrical 
Preachers,'  and  blessing  resulted. 


On  December  24,  1874,  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Simmons,  who  had 
previously  been  fourteen  years  in  the  Tinnevelly  Mission, 
arrived  at  Nellore.  Mr.  Wood  returned  to  Jaffna  in  1875, 
and  in  1878  the  Rev.  E.  Blackmore  was  stationed  in  Chundi- 
cully,  taking  the  place  of  Mr.  Wood  who  had  been  transferred 
to  Colombo. 

Mr.  Blackmore  died  on  October  24  of  the  following  year. 
In  1878  there  were  thirty-eight  schools  for  boys  and  fourteen 
for  sirls,  with  2,152  boys  and  420  girls,  and  three-fourths  of 
the  four  pastors'  stipends  were  paid  by  the  Christians,  of  whom 
there  were  485  adults  and  285  children. 

In  December,  1880,  the  Rev.  G.  T.  Fleming  arrived,  and  the 
following  year  on  July  17,  the  Rev.  E.  Hoole  who  had  been  a 
faithful  and  successful  worker  passed  away  in  his  fifty-second 
year.  Mr.  Hoole's  father  was  the  founder  and  proprietor  of  a 
temple  dedicated  to  the  goddess  Amman,  one  of  the  wives  of 
Siva.  Every  parental  effort  was  directed  towards  the  training 
of  his  three  sons  for  their  duties  as  temple-masters.  The 
father's  greatest  ambition  was  to  see  his  elder  son  growing  in 
favour  with  the  gods,  but  one  day  he  received  a  great  shock, 
when  he  had  left  him  in  charge  of  the  household  gods  with 
strict  injunctions  as  to  the  quantity  of  food  and  flowers  to  be 
offered.  The  boy  prepared  the  offerings  and  presented  them 
to  the  images,  but  after  a  time,  seeing  they  had  not  partaken 
of  the  food,  he  expostulated,  and  threatened  them.  He  then 
took  a  hammer  and  smashed  the  gods  to  pieces.  He  had 
once  before  seen  an  image  of  Pulliar,  which  had  been  sold  for 
seven  shillings  and  sixpence  by  a  Brahman  to  a  missionary 
who  wanted  to  send  the  idol  to  England.  This  had  also 
helped  to  undermine  his  faith.  In  1837  he  was  baptized  and 
became  a  Wesleyan  minister.  The  mind  of  the  younger 
brother  was  influenced  by  the  example  of  the  elder,  and,  re 
nouncing  his  right  to  the  temple,  he  openly  professed 
Christianity  and  was  baptized  by  the  name  of  Elijah  Hoole. 


An  In  Memoriani  notice  in  one  of  the  papers  referred  to  him 
as  a  model  pastor,  profound  scholar  and  a  speaker  with  few 
equals.  Mrs.  Hoole  who  had  been  a  true  helpmate  died  on 
August  26,  1906,  in  her  seventieth  year. 

The  Rev.  E.  M.  Griffith  was  transferred  to  Jaffna  in 
February,  1882.  In  1884  the  Rev.  J.  Hensman,  and  in  May, 
1885,  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Handy,  died,  both  faithful  and  good 
men.  The  Revs.  J.  Niles  and  J.  Backus  were  ordained  in 


In  1888  during  the  month  of  March,  Colonel  Oldham  and 
the  Rev.  G.  C.  Grubb  conducted  a  Mission  in  Jaffna,  when 
'  there  were  direct  conversions,  a  great  awakening  among 
professing  Christians  and  a  great  spiritual  refreshing.' 

On  October  15,  1889,  the  foundation  stone  of  the  church  at 
Pallai  was  laid,  which  was  opened  on  November  30,  1895, 
and  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew. 

On  March  13,  1890,  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Griffith  died  and  the 
Rev.  J.I.  Pickford  was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

On  March  24,  1892,  the  Rev.  J.  Niles  died.  Few  have 
realized  more  fully  than  he  did  the  responsibilities  of  the 
pastor's  office.  The  people  and  district  committed  to  his 
charge  were  always  uppermost  in  his  thoughts. 

The  Nellore  Girls'  Boarding  School  continued  to  flourish 
and  with  101  pupils  it  was  necessary  to  erect  additional 
buildings,  whilst  the  English  school  at  Copay  had  a  hundred 
pupils,  the  fees  and  government  grant  meeting  all  expenses. 

On  Sunday,  December  31,  1893,  an  ordination  was  held 
entirely  in  Tamil  in  Christ  Church,  when  the  Revs.  G.  Daniel, 
A.  Matthias,  S.  Morse  and  C.  T.  Williams  were  admitted  to 
deacons'  orders.  A  confirmation  was  held  the  same  day  at 
Nellore  when  thirty-two  candidates  were  confirmed. 

Four  women  missionaries,  Misses  Heaney,  Saul,  Paul 
and  Case  were  appointed  to  the  district  about  this  time.  On 
January  15,  1896,  a  Girls'  English  High  School  was  opened 


at  Chundiculiy  under  the  management  of  Mrs.  J.  Carter  and 
during  the  first  year  there  were  thirty-nine  pupils.  Miss 
Spreat  assisted  in  the  school  for  a  few  months  but  returned  to 
England  and  died  there.  Miss  Goodchild  became  Principal  in 
1898  and  Mrs.  Carter,  the  founder,  whose  ability,  earnest  zeal 
and  loving  sympathy  had  won  all  hearts,  died  at  Jaffna  on 
June  8,  1899.  Seventy-three  girls  were  now  in  the  school  and 
Miss  Payne  arrived  to  assist.  Eleven  of  the  pupils  were 
confirmed  the  following  year.  At  the  first  government  exami 
nation,  forty-two  girls  out  of  the  forty-six  presented  passed. 
In  September  1904,  Miss  Goodchild  went  on  furlough  and  her 
place  was  taken  by  Miss  S.  L.  Page  who  had  been  helping  in 
the  work  since  May.  Two  Sivite  pupils  were  baptized  that 
year  and  there  were  120  pupils,  including  fifty-three  boarders. 
A  Christian  Endeavour  Society  and  a  monthly  consecration 
meeting  were  started.  Four  years  later  there  were  150  pupils, 
and  new  schoolrooms  and  dormitories  were  erected.  Miss 
.Whitney  acted  as  Principal  until  Miss  Page  returned  from 
furlough  in  December  1910.  In  1914  there  were  214  pupils, 
about  half  of  whom  were  boarders.  The  government  grant 
earned  was  six  times  as  much  as  that  earned  at  the  first 
examination.  Six  girls  passed  the  Junior  and  three  the 
Senior  Cambridge  Locals.  Fifteen  girls  were  confirmed. 
On  October  13,  1915,  Bishop  Copleston  opened  the  new 
Kindergarten  room,  which  had  cost  Rs.  2,100,  the  government 
contributing  Rs.  600  of  the  amount.  The  school  was  also 
registered  under  the  new  government  regulations  as  '  efficient ' 
and  entitled  to  receive  a  block  grant  yearly. 

In  1896  a  church  was  built  at  Pallai  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  1 1,000. 
In  1863  Mr.  John  Backus,  a  catechist,  who  was  afterwards 
ordained  in  1885,  had  been  sent  to  the  district,  his  instructions 
from  the  missionaries  being,  '  Travel  east  and  west,  north  and 
south,  exercise  your  own  discretion  prayerfully  and  fix  upon  a 
centre.'  He  made  Pallai  his  head-quarters,  putting  up  a  hut, 


twenty  feet  by  twelve,  one  half  of  which  served  as  a  school 
room,  and  the  other  half  as  a  bed  and  dining  room.  Sir 
William  Twynam  gave  a  piece  of  land,  and  soon  a  better 
school  and  house  were  built.  Mr.  Backus  continued  his 
energetic  work  till  1903,  during  which  time  the  church  and 
eleven  schools  were  opened. 

In  May,  1897,  the  Rev.  Hugh  Horsley  took  charge  of  the 
district  work.  There  were  at  that  time  seven  ordained 
pastors,  three  women  missionaries,  fifteen  catechists  and 
readers,  seven  bible  women,  1,423  Christians,  637  communi 
cants,  sixty-seven  schools  and  3,234  scholars.  Mr.  Horsley 
in  his  report  for  the  year  says,  '  If  we  may  judge  by  the  atten 
dance  at  church  and  at  the  Holy  Table,  the  spiritual  life  is 
certainly  up  to  the  average  of  that  in  England.  Family 
prayer  is  the  order  of  the  day  in  many  houses.  Considerable 
interest  has  been  shown  in  the  restoration  of  some  of  the 

A  schoolmaster  and  catechist  of  many  years  standing,  Mr. 
C.  Bartlett,  died  this  year.  He  and  his  brother  being  con 
verted  about  the  same  time,  vindicated  their  strong  convic 
tion  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  by  demolishing  the  heathen 
temple  that  was  in  their  garden  and  was  conducted  under  the 
management  of  their  parents.  They  were  the  means  also  of 
leading  their  father,  brother,  and  sisters,  to  Christ.  The 
secretary  of  the  Nellore  Church  Committee,  Mr.  Alexander 
Bailey,  died  this  year.  At  his  funeral,  Sir  William  Twynam 
a  former  Government  Agent  of  the  Province,  a  friend  and 
staunch  supporter  of  mission  work,  said  '  He  was  always  a 
steady  man  and  reliable. ' 

The  Nellore  Girls'  Boarding  School  under  Mrs.  and  Miss 
Horsley  continued  to  be  a  bright  spot.  One  of  the  girls  gave 
a  rupee  to  the  church  fund,  saying  that  she  had  worked 
during  the  holidays  at  plaiting  coconut  leaves  and  had 
brought  her  earnings.  The  Rev.  G.  Daniel  mentions  '  an 


aged  woman  who  had  heard  the  Gospel  for  twenty-eight 
years,  and  had  at  last  yielded  herself  to  the  power  of  the  Word 
of  God.'  The  Rev.  J.  Backus  mentions  the  death  of  an  old 
Christian,  who  was  well  known  as  '  the  Bishop's  good  old 
man.  '  He  was  baptized  late  in  life  and  at  the  confirmation 
service  he  was  so  ready  with  his  answers  to  certain  questions 
put  by  the  Bishop,  that  the  Bishop's  curiosity  was  aroused, 
and  he  asked  '  Who  is  that  good  old  man,  who  was  so  ready 
with  his  answers  ?  '  Although  he  lived  four  miles  from  the 
nearest  church,  he  was  always  among  the  first  at  the 

In  1901  a  church  was  erected  in  the  heart  of  the  Wanni 
at  Vavunia,  under  the  superintendence  of  the  Rev.  A. 
Matthias.  The  same  year,  Mr.  Charles  Wadsworth,  whose 
name  will  be  long  remembered  with  affection  and  esteem, 
especially  at  Copay,  where  he  worked  for  forty  years  as  Head 
master  of  the  Training  Institution,  was  called  to  his  rest.  A 
large  hall  was  built  at  Copay  as  a  memorial  to  him  and  is 
known  as  the  '  Wadsworth  Memorial  Hall.'  The  founda 
tion  stone  was  laid  by  the  Bishop  and,  on  July  10,  1912,  the 
Hall  was  opened  by  him. 

Miss  E.  G.  Beeching,  who  had  previously  worked  in  the 
N.-W.  America  Mission,  arrived  at  Copay  this  year.  In 
February,  1902,  Mr.  Horsley  was  obliged  to  return  to 
England  owing  to  failure  of  health,  and  the  Rev.  J.I.  Pickford 
filled  the  gap,  until  the  appointment  of  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan 
in  August.  The  Rev.  G.  Champion  also  retired  from  active 

The  following  year  the  Rev.  C.  T.  Williams  left  Copay  to 
work  at  Anuradhapura,  and  the  Rev.  A.  Matthias  succeeded 
him.  Mr.  Matthias  had  spent  thirty-one  years  in  Vavunia. 
When  he  first  went  there,  there  were  no  Christians,  schools 
nor  church ;  when  he  left,  there  were  seventy  Christians, 
three  schools  and  a  church  which  was  designed  by  him  and 


built  under  his  superintendence,  partly  with  his  own  hands, 
Mrs.  Hanan  was  now  in  charge  of  the  Nellore  Boarding 
School  with  ninety-two  pupils.  Miss  Case  reports  that  in 
1903  '  the  biblewomen  paid  7,536  visits  to  houses  and  read 
the  Bible,  and  taught  twenty-two  women  to  read.' 

In  August,  1905,  Mr.  Hanan  went  on  furlough,  Mr.  Pickford 
took  charge  of  the  district  and  Miss  A.  T.  Board  of  the 
Boarding  School.  The  Rev.  A.  Matthias  commenced  branches 
of  the  Gleaners'  Union  and  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  in  his  pastorate, 
and  Mr.  Backus,  who  was  now  at  Nellore,  mentions  sewing 
classes,  prayer  meetings,  moonlight  services  and  Sunday 
schools  as  being  vigorously  worked  in  his  parish.  The  Rev. 
J.  D.  Sattianadhan  was  ordained  priest  on  Trinity  Sunday, 
1906,  and  the  same  year  Miss  E.  S.  Young  took  charge  of 
the  women's  work.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hanan  returned  in  1907, 
and  the  foundation  stone  of  a  new  church  was  laid  at 
Tanniuttu,  a  village  in  the  Wanni,  which  was  dedicated  by 
the  Bishop  in  1913. 

The  Jaffna  Missionary  z\ssociation  at  this  time  was  main 
taining  four  workers  in  out-of-the-way  places,  the  President 
of  the  Association  being  Mr.  James  Hensman,  a  son  of  the 
first  Tamil  ordained  for  C.M.S.  work  in  Jaffna. 

In  1909  Mr.  Hanan  moved  to  Copay  in  order  better  to 
supervice  the  Training  Institution,  Miss  Young  went  to 
Nellore,  and  Miss  Henrys  arrived  to  superintend  the  Boarding 
School.  The  Rev.  S.  Morse  died  on  September  8,  after  forty 
years'  work,  the  Rev.  T.  D.  Sattianadhan  was  transferred  to 
the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission,  and  Mr.  S.  Somasundaram  was 
ordained  to  the  diaconate  on  June  29,  at  Nellore.  The  Rev. 
G.  T.  Weston  arrived  to  assist  Mr.  Hanan,  and  Mr.  N.  G. 
Nathaniel  was  ordained. 

The  following  year,  1910,  the  Rev.  George  Champion  died. 
He  was  one  of  the  oldest  Tamil  Christians  in  Ceylon,  having 
been  born  on  October  1,  1824.  In  1844  he  became  a  teacher 

JAFFNA  101 

at  Copay,  in  1865  was  ordained  deacon,  and  in  1870  admitted 
to  priests'  orders.  For  twenty-five  years  he  was  in  charge  of 
Kokuvil,  where  he  built  the  church.  His  record  was  one 
of  fifty-eight  years  of  active  service  for  the  Master. 

Mr.  Backus  in  his  annual  report  of  this  year,  mentions  a 
sad  case  of  apostasy  of  a  mother  and  her  three  sons  and  three 
daughters,  who  openly  denied  Christ  on  Good  Friday  in  a 
heathen  temple.  The  mother  many  years  before  had  become 
a  Christian  in  order  to  be  married,  and  apostatised  in  order 
to  marry  her  daughters  to  heathen  men. 

The  Rev.  Jacob  Thompson  had  charge  of  the  Jaffna 
District  throughout  1911  until  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan  re 
turned  in  May  1912.  Miss  Whitney  towards  the  close  of  the 
year  took  charge  of  the  Nellore  school.  About  this  time 
work  was  begun  at  Mankulam,  a  large  convict  settlement  in 
the  Wanni. 

In  1913  the  district  had  three  superintending  missionaries, 
namely,  from  January  to  March,  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan,  from 
April  to  September,  the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley,  and  from  September 
25  to  the  end  of  the  year,  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Dibben. 

It  was  decided  this  year  to  withdraw  the  European  mis 
sionary  and  to  hand  over  the  greater  part  of  the  pastoral, 
evangelistic,  and  vernacular  educational  work  to  the  various 
committees  of  the  Tamil  Churches. 

In  the  Chundicully  Pastorate,  which  includes  work  in  the 
Island  of  Mandaitivu,  the  Incumbent  was  the  Rev.  S.  S. 
Somasundaram.  The  Christians  numbered  541,  communicants 
246  and  vernacular  schools  nine.  The  Nellore-Kokuvil 
Pastorate  was  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  J.  Backus.  The  Christians 
numbered  359,  communicants  197,  and  vernacular  schools  17 
with  1,288  children. 

On  July  15,  1913,  Mr.  Backus  celebrated  his  fiftieth  year 
of  service  in  connection  with  the  C.M.S.  The  Bishop  offi 
ciated  at  the  Holy  Communion,  and  eighty-two  friends  of  the 


pastor  partook  of  the  Sacrament  with  him.  There  was  a 
Thanksgiving  Service  in  the  afternoon,  followed  by  a  social 
gathering  at  Which  Sir  William  Twynam  presided. 

In  1915  the  Rev.  A.  Matthias  retired  from  the  Incumbency 
of  the  Copay  Pastorate,  and  in  his  last  report  says,  '  The 
Christians  number  374,  communicants  161  and  vernacular 
schools  thirteen  with  919  scholars.  The  starting  of  a 
'  Christian  Union  '  greatly  helped  the  congregation.' 

The  Fev.  C.  T.  Williams  was  appointed  pastor  on  the 
retirement  of  Mr.  Matthias,  thus  returning  to  the  scene 
of  his  former  labours.  At  the  beginning  of  the  year 
Miss  A.  M.  Tisdall  took  charge  of  the  Nellore  Boarding 
School  receiving  valuable  help  from  Miss  Findlay  who 
volunteered  to  accompany  her  to  Jaffna.  There  were 
then  ninety-four  pupils  attending  the  school,  of  whom 
seven  belonged  to  the  training  class  and  seventeen  to 
the  industrial  class.  Sixty-two  were  Christians  and  thirty- 
two  Sivites. 

The  chief  event  in  the  year  1916,  in  the  Jaffna  mission, 
was  the  amalgamation  of  the  Training  Schools  for  vernacular 
teachers.  Hitherto  each  of  the  three  Protestant  Missions 
had  a  training  school  of  its  own,  the  results  from  each  being 
poor,  yet  each  Mission  was  reluctant  to  give  up  its  own 
school.  The  question  reached  a  climax  when  the  Govern 
ment  proposed  to  establish  a  well-equipped  training  school  on 
secular  lines,  which  would  have  ruined  all  three.  It  was  then 
decided  to  amalgamate,  and  the  Government  agreeing  that 
this  should  be  done  at  the  C.M.S.  training  school  at  Copay, 
necessary  buildings  and  equipment  were  procured.  It  is 
believed  that  this  combination  will  result  in  increased  effici 
ency  and  economy,  and  at  the  same  time  form  an  outward 
and  visible  sign  of  the  inward  and  spiritual  unity  which  binds 
together  the  Missions  of  North  Ceylon.  As  a  part  of  the 
scheme  sanctioned  by  Government,  Hindu  students  also  are 

JAFFNA  103 

admitted  to  a  share  in  the  secular  parts  of  the  teaching,  but 
they  are  housed  in  a  separate  hostel  of  their  own  quite  apart 
from  the  mission  compound. 


In  the  year  1823,  an  English  Seminary  for  the  higher 
education  of  Tamil  youths  was  opened  at  Nellore  by  the  Rev* 
J.  Knight  and  in  1825  was  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  W.  Adley. 
The  primary  aim  of  the  school  was  to  bring  forward  agents 
for  mission  work.  It  had,  on  an  average,  thirty  boys,  select 
ed  from  the  day  schools,  who  were  boarded,  clothed  and 
educated  free.  The  pupils  were  required  to  attend  public 
worship  and  other  religious  services,  the  Bible  was  made  the 
most  prominent  subject  of  study,  and  a  good  secular  educa 
tion  was  also  given. 

In  1841  the  seminary  was  removed  to  Chundicully  and 
in  1851  as  a  boarding  establishment  it  was  abolished.  From 
its  foundation  to  its  close,  upwards  of  two  hundred  lads 
passed  through  the  regular  course,  and  seventy  became  con 
verts  to  Christianity.  From  1851  it  was  called  the  '  Chundi 
cully  Seminary,'  and  carried  on  without  a  boarding  depart 
ment,  the  pupils  paying  fees  from  one  shilling  to  eight  shillings 
a  quarter.  A  government  grant-in-aid  was  received  until 
1862,  when,  because  of  the  introduction  of  restrictions  upon 
Scriptural  teaching,  the  grant  was  relinquished.  The  school 
was  divided  into  six  classes,  and  the  first  of  these  was  for 
boys  preparing  for  Matriculation  in  the  Madras  University, 
to  which  the  school  was  affiliated.  In  1867  the  only  two 
Jaffna  youths  who  were  successful  in  this  examination  were 
pupils  of  the  school.  About  this  time  the  pupils  numbered 

One  day  a  Brahmin  brought  his  son  to  be  admitted.  The 
Principal  said  to  him,  '  We  teach  the  Bible  and  I  .shall  make 
a  Christian  of  him  if  I  can.'  The  Brahmin  replied,  '  I  know 


it,  the  Bible  precepts  are  good  for  a  son  to  learn,  and  as  to 
his  becoming  a  Christian,  the  Christian  religion  is  good  ;  it  is 
better  than  Hinduism.  If  he  wishes  to  become  a  Christian, 
he  may,  but  I  would  rather  he  did  not,  at  least  before  I  die.' 

The  headmasters  up  to  this  date  had  been  Mr.  W.  Santiagoe, 
1841-48,  Mr.  J.  Phillips,  1848-53,  and  Mr.  R.  Williams, 

In  a  '  Retrospect  of  the  Past,'  written  fifty  years  after  by 
an  old  boy,  Mr.  F.  R.  Bartholomeusz,  we  read,  '  The  working 
of  the  Chundicully  school  was  under  the  immediate  eye  of 
Mr.  Robert  Williams.  His  sternness  was  dreaded,  but  with 
a  stout  heart  he  possessed  a  winsome  mind,  tact,  and  ability.' 

The  Rev.  R.  Pargiter  took  charge  of  the  school  in  1846, 
built  the  old  hall  in  1861  and  retired  in  1866.  In  1872  the 
number  of  pupils  was  220  and  the  following  year,  the  Governor 
of  Ceylon,  Sir  W.  H.  Gregory,  visited  the  school.  It  pursued 
the  even  tenor  of  its  way  and  in  1885  the  Principal,  the 
Rev.  G.  T.  Fleming,  gave  an  encouraging  report,  showing  that 
it  had  done  well  in  scholastic  work,  and  was  the  means  of 
spiritual  profit  to  many  of  the  scholars.  The  following  year 
the  Headmaster,  Mr.  J.  Ewarts,  who  was  an  able  man  and 
an  earnest  Christian,  passed  away.  During  the  Michaelmas 
vacation  about  a  dozen  of  the  elder  students,  members  of  the 
Y.M.C.A.,  made  an  evangelistic  tour  in  Mundativu,  a  large 
island  in  the  lagoon. 

The  year  1891  was  the  Jubilee  of  the  school  and  to  mark 
the  event  the  new  name  of  St.  John's  College  was  given  to 
the  old  Chundicully  Seminary,  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Fall  being 
Principal  at  the  time.  The  same  year,  three  students  passed 
the  Calcutta  Entrance  examination  and  three  the  Cambridge 
Local.  The  Headmaster,  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Handy,  a  son  of 
the  late  Rev.  J.  P.  Handy  of  Nellore,  was  ordained  in  May. 
The  number  of  boarders  increased  from  nine  to  forty,  and 
an  annexure  was  built  to  •accommodate  more.  In  1894 



JAFFNA  105 

Mr.  .Godwin  Arulpragasam,  who  had  served  the  College 
faithfully  for  fifteen  years,  died. 

In  1895  the  Rev.  J.  Carter,  the  Principal  writes,  '  Both  as 
Chundicully  Seminary  and  as  St.  John's  College,  this  school 
has  done  good  work  in  Jaffna.'  In  1899  the  number  of  pupils 
had  risen  to  397,  with  a  staff  of  fifteen  Tamil  masters  assisting 
the  Principal,  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde,  who  had  arrived  in 
August  and  continued  till  July,  1900,  when  he  was  succeeded 
by  the  Rev.  Jacob  Thompson. 

Mr.  Thompson  a  few  months  later  writes,  When  I  took 
charge,  the  College  buildings  were  still  in  a  state  of  pictures 
que  ruin,  while  the  walls  of  the  boarding  house  were  support 
ed  only  by  the  rafters  that  had  fallen  from  the  roof  of  the  other 
building.  The  students  were  being  taught,  some  on  the  narrow 
verandah  of  the  boarding  house,  some  in  the  vestry  of  the 
church,  others  in  the  village  girls'  school,  and  even  the  shade 
of  a  large  tree  had  been  utilized.'  By  October  of  the  follow 
ing  year,  a  new  boarding  house,  a  new  hall  with  class-rooms 
and  library,  and  a  new  dining  hall  had  been  built,  and  many 
other  improvements  effected.  Above  Rs.  10,000  were  spent 
on  the  buildings.  The  Government  Inspector  of  Schools  for 
the  province  reported  '  I  have  just  been  looking  round  the 
new  buildings,  which  are  now  complete,  not  only  externally 
but  internally.  In  accommodation  and  furnishing  they  are 
models  of  taste,  tidiness  and  comfort.  The  influence  of 
beautiful  surroundings,  apart  from  positive  training,  will,  I 
feel  certain,  tend  to  raise  the  tone  of  the  school.' 

In  addition  to  the  College,  Mr.  Thompson  was  responsible 
for  a  branch  English  school  at  Copay,  with  150  boys  (which 
was  enlarged  in  1903)  and  the  Chaplaincy  of  Christ  Church 
in  the  Pettah.  Mr.  Thompson  went  on  furlough  in  Septem 
ber,  1904,  and  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan  took  charge  till  August 
of  the  following  year,  when  he  handed  over  to  the  Rev.  J.  I. 
Pickford.  Mr.  Thompson  returned  at  the  end  of  the  year, 


and   in  1906    there    were    539    scholars  in    the  college    and 

Three  men  volunteered  for  training  for  Orders,  one  of  these 
the  son  of  the  proprietor  of  one  of  the  most  popular  temples. 
He  had  sacrificed  his  influential  position  in  order  to  become  a 
Christian  and  after  taking  his  degree  at  Calcutta  had  been  a 
master  at  the  College.  The  government  grant  for  the  two 
schools  had  steadily  increased  from  Rs.  1,300,  in  1900,  to 
Rs.  4,600  in  1907. 

The  following  year  the  College  lost  by  death  the  services 
of  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Handy,  who  for  nineteen  years  had  worked 
with  manifest  unselfishness  for  the  good  of  the  students  and 
people.  During  Mr.  Handy's  illness  the  Rev.  and  Mrs, 
A.  M.  Walmsley  gave  assistance  in  the  College,  and  Mr. 
T.  H.  Crossette  was  appointed  headmaster. 

Twenty-two  boys  passed  the  Cambridge  Locals,  one  of 
whom  obtained  honours,  with  distinction  in  Logic.  This  b  >y 
was  a  grandson  of  Mr.  Phillips  who  sixty  years  before  was- 
headmaster  of  the  school. 

In  1909  the  premises  were  further  enlarged  by  an  addition 
to  the  playground,  the  gift  of  the  Old  Boys'  Association,  in 
memory  of  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Handy.  The  Senior  Mathematical 
master,  Mr.  S.  S.  Somasundaram,  was  also  ordained  this  year. 
The  number  of  pupils  had  now  reached  600. 

During  1910  the  Rev.  Jacob  Thompson  was  absent  from 
Ceylon  for  eight  months,  during  which  time  the  College  was 
under  the  management  of  a  Tamil,  Mr.  T.  H.  Crossette,  and 
the  number  of  students  and  the  discipline  were  fully  maintained. 
On  June  21,  1911,  the  foundation  stone  of  a  new  library 
was  laid,  the  entire  cost  of  erecting  and  furnishing  having  been 
given  by  Dr.  J.  M.  Handy,  in  memory  of  his  brother.  In 
March,  1913,  the  library  was  opened  by  Mrs.  J.  M.  Handy. 
The  religious  work  of  the  College  was  being  carried  on 
quietly  under  the  auspices  of  the  College  Y.M.C.A.,  Prayer 

JAFFNA  107 

meetings  were  conducted  every  Tuesday,  Bible  classes  on 
Sunday  mornings,  Gospel  meetings  on  Saturdays,  and  a  Bible 
class  on  Sunday  afternoons.  A  Scripture  Union  with  ninety- 
six  members  had  been  started  and  a  Communicants'  Union 
met  monthly. 

In  1914  the  Vice- Principal  visited  Singapore  and  Kuala 
Lumpur,  and  collected  from  the  Tamil  settlers  about  Rs.  9,000, 
with  which  a  large  hall  and  four  airy  class  rooms  were  erected. 
The  College  was  also  re-organized  into  distinct  schools,  one 
providing  a  sound  commercial  education,  and  the  other  an, 
education  preparatory  to  University  work.  The  staff  was 
considerably  strengthened  and  a  laboratory  added. 

In  1915  the  Director  of  Education  recognized  the  uniformly 
excellent  results  of  the  Junior  School  by  granting  a  first  class 
certificate  to  Mr.  Williams,  the  headmaster. 

In  1916  there  were  over  a  thousand  boys  on  the  rolls  of 
St.  John's  College  and  its  branches,  Copai,  Urumparai  and 
Kaithady,  with  fifty-five  masters  and  one  hundred  and  thirty 



THE  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Mayor  landed  at  Galle  on 
June  29,  1818,  and  were  received  with  great  kindness  by  the 
chaplain,  the  Rev.  J.  M.  S.  Glenie.  Shortly  after,  Mr.  Mayor 
writes  to  the  C.M.S.,  '  It  is  not  their  readiness  to  welcome 
the  light  of  the  Gospel  which  must  be  your  inducement  to 
send  out  more  labourers,  but  their  great  need  of  instruction, 
and  the  positive  duty  of  a  Christian  nation  to  communicate 
the  knowledge  of  the  only  Saviour  to  all  its  subjects.  We 
have  free  access  to  the  people,  and  their  prejudices  against 
Christianity  are  not  deeply  rooted ;  they  are  willing  to  have 
their  children  taught  to  read,  and  these  children  have  an 
intellect  capable  of  the  highest  cultivation.' 

On  October  20,  Mr.  Mayor  visited  several  villages  on  the 
banks  of  the  Gindara  river  by  boat.  At  Telikada,  six  miles 
from  Galle,  the  government  schoolmaster  with  his  scholars  and 
the  headmen,  drew  up  in  line  and  saluted  him  with  three 

The  next  place  visited  was  Baddegama,  twelve  miles  from 
Galle,  where  he  was  met  by  the  Mudaliyar,  the  chief  govern 
ment  officer,  and  the  Government  School  boys.  Mr.  Mayor 
writes,  '  The  situation  of  Baddegama  appears  to  be  exceed 
ingly  convenient  for  the  residence  of  a  missionary.  The 
people,  though  nominally  Christians,  are  really  Buddhists. 
The  Mudaliyar  is  desirous  that  I  should  reside  there,  and  offers 
to  raise  a  subscription  for  the  erection  of  a  Church  and  School. 
The  Archdeacon  would,  I  believe,  very  much  approve  of  my 
residing  among  the  natives.' 


The  next  day,  Mr.  Mayor  proceeded  up  the  river  to  Mapa- 
lagama,  where  about  800  people  met  him,  and  out  of  this 
number  there  were  only  ten  who  had  riot  been  baptized.  Mr. 
Mayor  again  writes,  '  The  Dutch  have  done  much  injury  to  the 
cause  of  Christianity  by  disqualifying  all  persons  from  in 
heriting  property  who  have  not  been  baptized.  In  consequence 
of  this  law,  every  one,  whether  he  worships  Buddha  or  the  devil, 
is  eager  to  be  baptized.'  On  his  return  journey,  the  headmen 
of  Nagoda  offered  to  build  a  school  within  six  days  and  fill  it 
with  children.  At  Baddegama  he  again  preached  to  about 
150  people,  on  our  Lord's  feeding  the  five  thousand. 

On  his  return  to  Galle,  after  consultation  with  the  other 
missionaries  and  with  the  approbation  of  Government,  Mr. 
Mayor  decided  to  settle  in  Baddegama.  Accordingly  on 
August  14,  1819,  he  took  up  his  abode  in  a  small  house  in 
Baddegama.  Government  gave  a  free  grant  of  land  and  a 
substantial  house  was  finished  in  November.  The  name 
Baddegama  is  derived  from  the  Sinhalese  '  Bat  denna 
gamma,'  or  rice  supplying  village.  It  is  recorded  that  the 
monks  of  Totagamuwa  temple  subsisted  on  the  rice  which  was 
supplied  from  this  village  by  o'der  of  the  Sinhalese  kings. 

About  the  year  A.D.  1240  a  bridge  of  120  cubits'  span  was 
in  existence  over  the  river  at  Baddegama,  the  same  having 
been  constructed  by  the  minister  Patiraja  Deva,  who  was 
appointed  Governor  over  the  Southern  provinces  by  King 
Parakrama  II.  The  bridge  was  to  connect  the  road  from 
Bentota  to  Baddegama  via  Elpitiya.  Near  to  Elpitiya 
Patiraja  founded  a  college,  and  the  ancient  Sinhalese  Gram 
mar,  Sidathsangarawa,  was  written  there,  and  the  locality  is 
still  known  by  the  name  of  Patiraja  Kanda. 

The  hill  on  which  the  mission  house  was  built  was  named 
'  Church  Hill.'  It  presents  a  delightful  prospect  of  a  winding 
river,  a  fruitful  valley,  well -watered  fields  and  distant  mount 
ains.  A  large  school-room  of  stone  was  next  built,  capable  of 


holding  250  people,  and  was  used  for  public  worship  till  the 
church  was  built.  Mr.  Glenie  having  removed  to  Colombo, 
the  Lieutenant  Governor  asked  Mr.  Mayor  to  undertake  duty 
at  Galle  until  another  chaplain  could  be  provided. 

On  October  26,  1819,  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Ward,  on  account 
of  ill-health,  moved  from  Calpentyn  to  Baddegama,  and 
preached  his  first  sermon  in  Sinhalese,  ten  months  after 

On  February  14,  1821,  the  foundation  stone  of  the  church 
was  laid  by  Don  Abraham  Dias  Abeysinghe,  Guard 
Mudaliyar  of  Galle,  in  the  presence  of  a  great  concourse  of 
people.  The  chief  headman  of  the  district,  who  had  previous 
ly  sent  a  donation  of  fifty-six  dollars,  was  present  and  the 
collection  amounted  to  £2Q.  Sir  Robert  Brownrigg,  the 
Governor,  expressed  his  approbation  by  a  public  grant  and  a 
private  donation.  The  Revs.  Mayor,  Ward  and  Glenie 
addressed  the  people.  Rice  and  curry  were  provided  for  all 
who  chose  to  partake  and  350  children  were  feasted. 

The  difficulty  of  erecting  the  church  may  be  judged  from 
the  fact  that  700  Ibs.  of  gunpowder  were  required  to  blast  the 
rock  for  the  foundation.  The  church  is  a  substantial  stone 
building,  eighty-four  feet  by  forty-three,  with  a  square  tower. 
The  roof  is  supported  by  twelve  round  iron-wood  pillars,  thirty 
feet  high,  each  cut  out  of  a  single  tree.  Most  of  the  wood 
used  was  either  iron- wood  or  teak.  A  deep  verandah  surrounds 
the  church.  Before  the  workmen  commenced  each  morning, 
they  assembled  under  a  shed,  and  one  of  the  missionaries 
offered  a  prayer  and  gave  a  short  address.  The  church  was 
opened  on  March  11,  1824,  by  the  Archdeacon.  In  the  large 
congregation  were  the  chief  government  officials,  and  Sir 
Richard  Ottley,  the  Chief  Justice,  who  presented  the  Commun 
ion  plate. 

Mr.  Mayor  writes,  '  The  Church  will  remain,  I  doubt  not, 
a  monument  to  future  ages  of  the  day  when  the  Sun  of 


Righteousness  first  rose  upon  this  village.  It  is  the  first 
church  which  has  ever  been  erected  in  the  interior  for  the  sole 
benefit  of  the  Sinhalese.' 

Before  commencing  the  building  of  the  church,  Mr.  Mayor 
asked  to  be  relieved  ot  the  garrison  duty  at  Galle.  The  mis 
sionaries  had  also  undertaken  the  superintendence  of  forty 
government  schools  in  the  Galle  and  Matara  districts.  Mr. 
Ward  writes,  '  These  schools  will  give  us  access  to  many 
thousand  natives;  they  will  increase  our  influence,  and  will 
afford  us  opportunities  of  preaching  the  Gospel.' 

Mr.  Mayor,  at  one  time  when  there  was  no  medical 
officer  in  Galle,  discharged  the  important  functions  of  that 

The  following  extract  from  Mr.  Mayor's  diary  is  interesting  : 
'  August  6,  1822— Left  for  Belligama.  Here  preached  to  a 
large  concourse.  Seventy  children  present,  twelve  of  whom 
read  the  New  Testament.  Fifty  boys  repeated  their 
Catechism.  Went  to  Denipittya  and  married  twenty-three 

August  7 — Proceeded  to  Mirisse  and  preached  upon  the 
<l  fall  of  man."  Married  four  couples. 

August  8— Visited  the  Matara  School  after  preaching  ; 
examined  scholars.  Married  thirty-eight  couples.  Then  on 
to  Kottecagodde,  where  I  preached  and  married  eleven 

Mr.  Ward  gives  the  following  instance  of  the  influence  of 
caste.  '  On  Sunday,  many  came  to  have  their  banns  of 
marriage  published.  By  virtue  of  a  late  regulation  of  govern 
ment,  low-caste  women  are  authorized  to  wear  jackets  a 
privilege,  which  the  system  of  caste  had  hitherto  denied  them. 
Three  of  these  women  appeared  in  the  congregation,  each 
decently  clothed  in  a  white  cloth  jacket.  When  I  entered  the 
church,  I  perceived  the  school-girls  and  other  women  in  the 
utmost  confusion,  apparently  resolved  not  to  take  their  seats. 


Some  of  them  went  oat.  The  three  women  who  had  given  so 
much  offence  sat  at  the  opposite  end  of  the  building.  I  ex 
postulated  with  the  congregation  on  the  impropriety  of  their 
conduct,  explained  to  them  the  nature  and  tendency  of  our 
religion,  and  reasoned  with  them  upon  the  childishness  of 
taking  offence  at  others,  for  wearing  the  same  kind  of  clothing 
as  themselves.  ' 

Mr.  Ward  also  writes,  '  There  exists  prejudice  even  be 
tween  individuals  of  the  same  caste,  and  these  expect  a  distinc 
tion  in  seats.  We  have  hitherto  found  it  necessary  not  to 
indulge  them  with  an  elevated  seat,  but  with  a  distinct  one.  A 
bench  is  placed  either  in  the  front  or  on  one  side,  on  which 
the  headmen  and  higher  families  sit.  The  Mudaliyar  is  yet 
more  distinguished  by  sitting  on  a  chair.' 

The  missionaries  resolutely  set  their  faces  against  the  pre 
valent  abuse  of  the  sacred  ordinance  of  Baptism,  which  had 
led  to  the  degradation  of  the  Christian  name,  and  Mr.  Ward 
writes,  '  The  country  is  full  of  baptized  persons,  who  worship 
Buddha  and  the  devil.  We  have  resolved  to  baptize  the 
children  of  only  those  persons  who  attend  the  public  worship 
of  the  true  God.'  Seven  schools  were  commenced  with  an 
average  attendance  of  159  scholars.  A  school  for  girls  was 
commenced  in  the  verandah  of  the  mission  house,  conducted 
by  Mrs.  Mayor,  who  writes  '  The  average  number  of  girls  is 
forty.  They  sit  on  mats,  and  are  taught  to  read  and  sew. 
A  portion  of  Scripture  is  read  and  explained.  To  encourage 
them  to  attend  regularly,  we  give  them  clothes  twice  a 

Experience  taught  the  missionaries  to  view  appearances  of 
success  with  caution.  In  the  case  of  many  apparently 
genuine  seekers  after  truth,  the  hope  of  worldly  honour  and 
emolument  appears  to  have  been  the  real  inducement.  The 
missionaries  received  the  following  letter  from  the  Secretary 
of  the  C.M.S.,  brother-in-law  of  Mr.  Mavor  : 



July  19,  1824. 

'  We  anticipate  much  blessing  on  your  work,  because  the 
Lord  has  so  completely  shown  you  your  own  helplessness, 
and  is  leading  you  to  look  more  simply  to  His  sufficiency. 
He  will  never  disappoint  those  who  trust  in  Him.  We 
rejoice  to  see  your  zealous  exertions  in  preaching  the  word. 
It  is  your  grand  weipon  against  the  enemy.  You  probably 
somewhat  under-rate  education,  but  you  do  not  under-rate 
preaching  to  the  adults,  and  we  pray  God  that  there  may  be 
such  a  manifest  blessing  on  your  labours,  as  may  be  a  great 
encouragement  to  your  brethren  everywhere.  Go  on  in  the 
strength  of  the  Lord.  We  rejoice  in  your  labours,  and  sym 
pathize  in  your  sorrows.  You  are  our  joy  and  comfort,  and 
may  the  Divine  Spirit  be  poured  out  more  and  more  upon 
you  and  your  work,  and  the  Lord  Jesus  be  constantly  magni 
fied  in  you. 


The  church  was  consecrated  by  Bishop  Reginald  Heber 
of  the  occasion  of  his  visit  to  Ceylon  in  1825.  The  following 
is  an  extract  from  the  Bishop's  Indian  Journal  : — 

'  September  24,  1825.  Long  before  day-break  we  were  on 
our  way  to  Baddegama.  At  Amlangoda  we  breakfasted,  and 
at  Kennery  left  the  mam  road,  and  wound  through  very 
narrow  paths  and  over  broken  bridges,  till  we  had  arrived  at 
the  river  which  we  had  first  crossed  on  leaving  Galle,  but 
some  miles  higher  up. 

The  country  then  improved  into  great  beauty,  and  at  the 
end  of  about  two  miles  we  came  within  sight  of  a  church  on 
the  summit  of  a  hill,  with  the  house  of  one  of  the  missionaries, 
Mr.  Mayor,  immediately  adjoining  it,  and  that  of  Mr.  Ward 
on  another  eminence  close  to  it,  forming  altogether  a  land 
scape  of  singular  and  interesting  beauty.  We  ascended  by 


a  steep  road  to  Mr.  Mayor's  where  we  found  the  families  of  the 
two  missionaries  and  some  of  our  friends  from  Galle,  awaiting 
our  arrival.  At  the  foot  of  this  hill,  the  river  we  had  recently 
crossed  winds  through  what  has  the  appearance  of  a  richly 
dressed  lawn,  while  all  around  rise  mountains,  one  above  the 
other.  On  our  right  was  the  church,  a  very  pretty  building. 
The  whole  scene  was  peculiarly  interesting.  Here  we  found 
two  very  young  men,  with  their  wives  and  children,  separated 
from  all  European  society  by  many  miles  of  country,  impass 
able,  save  in  two  directions,  even  to  palanquins,  devoting 
themselves  entirely  to  the  service  of  their  Maker,  in  spreading 
His  religion  among  the  heathen  and  in  the  education  of  their 
families.  The  two  families,  indeed,  seem  to  form  but  one 
household  living  together  in  Christian  fellowship,  and  with  no 
other  object  but  to  serve  God,  and  do  their  duty  to  their 
neighbour.  I  have  seldom  been  more  gratified,  I  may  say, 
affected.  Mr.  Mayor  who  is  son  to  our  neighbour  at  Shaw- 
bury  (Rev.  John  Mayor)  was  originally  brought  up  in  the 
medical  line,  his  surgical  and  medical  knowledge  are  invalu 
able  to  himself  and  his  neighbours  and  even  during  the  short 
time  we  were  his  guests,  we  found  their  use  in  a  sudden  attack 
our  little  girl  had,  brought  on  by  fatigue  and  over-exertion.' 

The  Bishop  consecrated  the  church  and  afterwards  the 
burial  ground  on  the  morning  of  September  25.  Almost  all 
the  European  residents  from  Galle  and  a  great  number  of 
natives  were  assembled  to  witness  the  ceremony.  The 
Bishop  preached  from  Genesis  xxviii.  16  and  17  and  in  the 
afternoon  confirmed  thirteen  persons,  all  of  whom,  save  three, 
were  Sinhalese.  In  the  evening  the  Bishop  examined  some 
of  the  scholars. 

'  September  26,  1825.  We  left  Baddegama  in  palanquins 
and  made  our  way  along  the  banks  of  the  river,  which  was 
too  much  swollen  by  recent  heavy  rains  to  admit  of  our  going 
in  boats.  Indeed,  the  track  was  in  some  parts  covered  with 

BISHOP    HEBEK    IN    IS25 


water  so  deep  that  it  nearly  entered  my  palanquin  and  was 
very  fatiguing  to  the  poor  bearers.  In  the  afternoon  we 
arrived  at  Galle.' 

The  Bishop,  writing  to  his  mother  on  the  following  day 
from  Galle,  says,  '  There  are  also  some  very  meritorious  mis 
sionaries  in  the  Island.  One  of  them,  Mr.  Mayor,  together 
with  another  Shropshire  man,  Mr.  Ward,  has  got  together  a 
very  respectable  congregation  of  natives  as  well  as  a  large 
school.  He  has  also  built  a  pretty  church,  which  I  conse 
crated  last  Sunday,  in  one  of  the  wildest  and  most  beautiful 
situations  I  ever  saw.' 

Writing  to  the  Rev.  J.  Mayor,  Vicar  of  Shawbury,  Bishop 
Heber  says  '  Mrs.  Heber  and  I  had  the  pleasure  of  passing 
the  best  part  of  three  days  with  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mayor,  in  their 
romantic  home  at  Baddegama,  where  we  also  found  his 
colleague  Mr.  Ward,  with  his  wife  and  family,  in  perfect 
health  and  contented  cheerfulness.  They  are  active,  zealous, 
well-informed  and  orderly  clergymen,  devoted  to  the  instruc 
tion  and  help  of  their  heathen  neighbours,  both  enjoying  a 
favourable  report,  I  think  I  may  say  without  exception,  from 
the  Governor,  public  functionaries,  and  in  general,  from  all 
the  English  in  the  colony  whom  I  have  heard  speak  of  them.' 

Bishop  Heber  received  his  home  call  on  April  3,  1826,  at 
Trichinopoly,  in  South  India. 

Owing  to  failing  health  Messrs.  Mayor  and  Ward  left  for 
England  in  April,  1828.  Before  they  left,  a  joint  report  of 
their  work  was  issued  in  which  they  say,  '  The  Sunday 
morning  service  is  attended  by  about  100  children  and 
seventy  adults.  The  Litany  is  used  in  the  native  tongue. 
In  the  evening,  prayers  are  read  in  English  and  an  exposition 
interpreted  into  Sinhalese.' 

A  stone  tablet  in  the  church  has  the  following  inscription  : 

'  In  memory  of  the  Rev.  Robert  Mayor,   the  founder  of 
this    station,  and  by  whose  exertions  this    Church  was  built 


who  after  nearly  ten  years  of  faithful  labour  in  this  country 
was  compelled  by  the  loss  of  his  health  to  return  to  England 
where  he  afterwards  became  successively  Rector  of  Coppen- 
stall  and  Vicar  of  Acton  in  the  county  of  Chester,  at  which 
last  place  he  died  in  perfect  peace  on  the  14th  of  July  1846, 
aged  fifty-five.  His  friends  in  Ceylon  have  erected  this  tablet 
as  a  tribute  of  their  affectionate  remembrance  of  his  character 
and  labour.' 

The  Rev.  George  Conybeare  Trimnell  and  Mrs.  Trimnell 
took  charge  in  September  1826  and  soon  afterwards  the  Rev. 
George  Steers  Faught  and  Mrs.  Faught  were  associated  with 
them.  On  Easter  Sunday,  1830,  the  first  adult  convert  from 
Buddhism  in  connection  with  the  C.M.S.  in  the  district  was 
baptized,  receiving  the  name  of  Edward  Bickersteth. 

In    1833    Mr.    Trimnell    reports,    '  The    schools    are    in    a 

flourishing  state,  the  girls'  school  having  an  attendance  of  115. 

Where  all  or  nearly  all,  a  few  years  ago,   were  unlettered, 

there  ard  now  many  who  can  read  ;    where  there  was  nothing 

to  read  but  a  few  Buddhist  books  or  foolish  songs  written   on 

the  leaf  of  a  tree,  there  are  now  hundreds  of  printed  copies  of 

the  word  of  God  ;  where  there  was  no  sound  of  the  Gospel  it 

is  now  certainly  preached  and  there  are  hundreds  who  hear  it 

every  Lord's  day.     Thus  far  all  is  well,  but  we  who  cannot 

be  satisfied  with  a  change  in  externals,  or  without  an  evidence 

of    spiritual    life   among    the   people,   and    who    have    seen 

things    almost  in   their  present    state   for  years,  are    often 

much  discouraged.'     He  adds  as   a    chief  cause  of  sorrow 

'  there  is  scarcely   any   evidence   of   any   one   being    really 


On  the  return  to  England  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Faught  in  1836, 
the  Rev.  J.  Selkirk  took  charge  until  the  return  of  Mr.  Trim 
nell.  :  Mr.  Selkirk  again  took  up  the  work  after  Mr.  Trimnell 
left  for  England  in  1838,  until  set  at  liberty  by  the  arrival  of 
the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  H.  Powell  in  January  1839. 


Bishop  Corrie  of  Madras  visited  Baddegama  in  1840  and 
thus  writes  to  the  Earl  of  Chichester  :  '  Beautiful  Badde 
gama,  a  Christian  watchfire  in  a  very  dark  night,  a  Christian 
lighthouse  in  a  very  dark  place,  a  cradle  of  the  gospel  in  a 
heathen  land.' 

In  1841  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Greenwood  took  charge 
and  for  a  few  months  in  1848  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Isaiah  Wood 
were  associated  with  them.  Balapitimodera  and  Bentota, 
two  towns  of  importance  on  the  coast,  were  occupied  as  out- 

In  October,  1847,  the  first  Bishop  of  Colombo,  Dr.  Chap 
man,  visited  Baddegama,  and  writing  to  the  C.M.S.  he  says, 
'  My  visit  to  Baddegama  for  the  Confirmation  was  full  of 
interest  and  encouragement.  I  was  met  on  the  banks  of  its 
beautiful  river  by  Messrs.  Greenwood  and  Gunasekara,  your 
two  valued  missionaries,  and  all  the  catechists  and  the  youths 
of  the  Seminary,  and  up  the  hill,  close  to  the  mission  house, 
with  its  English-towered  church  and  English  scenery  around, 
by  Mrs.  Greenwood  and  above  sixty  children  of  her  native 
girls'  school.  No  welcome  could  have  been  more  characteris 
tic  or  more  pleasing.  On  the  next  day  the  church  was  filled 
for  the  Confirmation  at  eleven  o'clock.  Twenty-three  were 
confirmed  ;  one  a  poor  cripple  in  limb  but  not  in  faith,  was 
carried  to  the  Holy  Table,  and  I  trust  the  fullness  of  the 
blessing  conveyed  to  his  heart  by  faith  was  not  marred  by 
the  unworthiness  of  the  channel  through  which  it  reached 

On  June  21,  1850,  the  Rev.  C.  Greenwood,  aged  thirty- 
seven,  was  drowned  while  bathing  in  the  river,  and  his  sudden 
removal  threw  the  charge  of  the  station  upon  the  Rev. 
George  Parsons,  who  had  been  only  six  months  in  the 

A  clock  was  placed  in  the  church  in  memory  of  Mr.  Green 
wood.  Mr.  Parsons  extended  the  work  on  the  sea  coast  and 


for  some  time  left  Baddegama  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  Abraham 
Gunasekara,  taking  up  his  own  residence  at  Bentota.  Small 
congregations  were  collected  at  Bentota  and  Balapitimodera, 
but  these  were  formed  of  nominal  Christians,  not  of  converts 
from  heathenism  ;  schools  were  opened,  but  the  seed  sown 
did  not  yield  any  visible  fruit.  At  Dodanduwa,  however, 
some  enquirers  presented  themselves,  and  after  several 
months  of  instruction,  twelve  adults  were  baptized. 

The  Rev.  G.  Pettitt,  the  Secretary  of  the  Mission,  visited 
Baddegama  in  April  1850,  and  thus  writes  '  The  view  from 
Palm  Hill,  the  site  of  the  second  mission  house,  is  peculiarly 
beautiful.  The  eye  never  rests  upon  a  barren  spot,  or  even 
upon  a  foot  of  soil  or  sandy  ground,  and  all  this  loveliness  is 
perpetual,  for  there  is  no  winter  in  Ceylon.  There  are  how 
ever  disadvantages  connected  with  this  excellence  ;  it  is  not 
Paradise  after  all.  It  is  exceedingly  damp,  everything 
capable  of  it  becomes  mouldy  in  an  incredibly  short  time,  a 
little  bodily  exertion  produces  a  disagreeable  amount  of 
perspiration,  and  the  feeling  of  languor  easily  creeps  over 
the  frame,  a  short  pointed  grass  takes  advantage  of  your 
shortest  walk  to  tease  your  legs  and  demands  a  considerable 
portion  of  time  for  its  dislodgement,  a  small  leech  with  a, 
troublesome  bite  operates  without  medical  prescription,  while 
frequent  rains  either  impede  your  plans  of  usefulness,  or 
drench  you  in  adhering  to  them.  Snakes,  centipede's,  scor 
pions  and  other  noxious  insects  abound.'  From  1859  to  1862 
during  Mr.  Parson's  absence  on  furlough,  the  district  was 
under  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  A.  Gunasekara  by  whom  the 
work  was  earnestly  and  faithfully  carried  on.  Mr.  Guna 
sekara  was  born  in  1802  and  died  in  1862.  His  father 
Bastian  Gunasekara  who  was  born  in  1773  and  died  in  1853, 
came  to  Baddegama  from  Galle,  having  been  recom 
mended  to  Mr.  Mayor  by  the  Galle  Mudaliyar,  for  the  post 
of  overseer  during  the  building  of  the  church.  A  tablet 


to   Mr.  Gunasekara's   memory    was   placed    in    the   church, 
inscribed  as  follows  : — 

'  He  was  the  first  Native  Missionary  of  Baddegama 
where  he  laboured  twenty-three  years  with  zeal  and  fidelity 
in  the  Master's  service.  Deeply  sensible  of  his  unworthiness 
and  firmly  trusting  in  Jesus  his  Saviour  he  joyfully  antici 
pated  being  present  with  the  Lord.' 

It  is  related  of  Mr.  Gunasekara  that  once  as  a  Buddhist  boy 
he  went  into  the  temple  to  offer  his  evening  flower.  When  he  had 
done  so,  he  looked  into  the  idol's  face,  expecting  to  see  a  smile 
of  approval,  but  he  noticed  that  the  great  eyes  stared  on  with 
out  any  expression  of  pleasure  in  them.  He  thought  therefore 
that  so  great  a  god  would  not  condescend  to  accept  a  child's 
offering.  Soon  after  a  man  came  in,  laid  down  his  flower, 
turned  his  back  and  went  carelessly  away.  The  boy  again 
looked  in  the  idol's  face  and  thought  he  would  see  an  angry 
frown  at  this  disrespect,  but  the  eyes  stared  on  as  before. 
He  then  began  to  realize  the  fact  that  the  image  had  no  life 
in  it,  and  was  alike  powerless  to  reward  or  punish. 

In  1863  the  vernacular  institution  for  the  training  of 
catechists  was  removed  from  Cotta  to  Baddegama,  and  in  the 
following  year,  an  institution  for  the  training  of  schoolmasters 
was  opened  under  the  Rev.  S.  Coles.  These  were  carried  on 
until  1868  when  both  were  transferred  to  Cotta. 

In  November  1863,  what  is  called  the  '  Baddegama  Contro 
versy  '  began,  and  several  public  meetings  were  held  till  the 
following  February,  when  they  were  stopped  by  order  of  the 
magistrates.  Mr.  Parsons  writing  to  the  C. M.S.  says,  '  The 
spirit  of  controversy  broke  out  in  November  last,  and  though 
I  was  partly  prepared  for  it,  I  was  slow  to  believe  it  would 
become  such  a  serious  matter  until  urged  by  our  people  to 
prepare  for  a  fierce  contest.  The  result  fully  justified  their 
anxieties,  for  never  before  in  Ceylon  was  there  such  a  mar 
shalling  of  the  enemy  against  Christianity.  The  one  aim  of 


the  fifty  priests  and  their  two  thousand  followers  who 
assembled  here  on  February  8,  was  not  to  defend  Buddhism 
but  to  overthrow  Christianity.  Encouraged  by  translations 
from  Bishop  Colenso's  writings,  they  considered  the  utter 
defeat  of  Christianity  easy  and  certain.  Knowing  the  people 
we  had  to  encounter,  we  felt  that  our  victory  would  be  more 
triumphant  and  complete,  by  attacking  Buddhism,  whilst  we 
defended  Christianity.  It  was  not,  however,  till  we  were 
somewhat  advanced  in  the  controversy,  that  we  could  fairly 
estimate  the  difficulties  of  our  position,  'and  day  by  day;  we 
had  to  commend  ourselves  in  prayer  to  God  and  confide 
in  Him  for  wisdom  and  direction  at  every  step.  On  review 
ing  the  whole  controversy,  I  am  thankful  for  what  has  taken 
place,  and  believe  the  effect  upon  this  district  has  been 
healthy  and  encouraging.' 

On  November  24,  1864,  Dr.  Claughton,  the  Bishop, 
consecrated  the  new  church  at  Balapitimodera,  which  was 
originally  built  by  Dr.  Clarke,  a  former  Police  Magistrate  of 
the  place.  The  Bishop  also  held  a  Confirmation  at  Badde- 
gama  when  twenty-four  candidates  were  confirmed.  In  April 
1866,  Mr.  Parsons  was  suddenly  removed,  by  death  from  fever, 
whilst  on  a  visit  to  Colombo.  Mrs.  Parsons  who  had  dili 
gently  worked  among  the  girls  and  women,  returned  to  England 
and  died  thirty  years  after  in  November  1896.  A  beautiful 
marble  tablet  was  placed  to  his  memory  in  the  church  by  the 
Christians.  The  station  then  came  under  the  superintendence 
of  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens.  During  his  time  the  Church 
Council  system  came  into  operation,  and  Baddegama,  Balapi- 
tiya  and  Dodanduwa  were  formed  into  separate  pastorates 
under  a  district  council. 

In  1869  the  Rev.  John  Allcock  took  charge,  and  although 
work  had  been  carried  on  for  fifty  years,  the  Christians  only 
numbered  240,  of  whom  sixty-four  were  communicants,  and 
in  the  eleven  schools  there  were  457  children.  Mr.  Allcock 


in  his  first  annual  report  writes,  '  The  Church  here,  like  many 
other,  is  still  deficient  in  apostolic  simplicity,  earnest  convic 
tion,  zeal,  faith,  hope  and  charity  ;  yet  there  are  a  few  who 
earnestly  desire  to  adorn  the  Gospel  of  our  Lord  Jesus 

In  1875  a  church  was  erected  at  Dodanduwa  costing 
Rs.  2,000,  and  dedicated  to  the  Holy  Trinity. 

In  1881  two  of  the  catechists  Messrs.  A.  S.  Amarasekara 
and  G.  B.  Perera  were  ordained  deacons  and  stationed  at 
Dodanduwa  and  Balapitimodera. 

Mr.  Allcock  was  an  earnest,  simple-minded,  good  man,  full 
of  the  Holy  Ghost,  enthusiasm  and  good  works,  whose  one 
object  was  to  preach  the  Gospel,  in  season  and  out  of  season. 
The  greater  part  of  his  time  was  spent  going  from  village  to 
village,  sowing  the  good  seed.  In  one  of  his  reports  he 
writer,  I  do  not  expect  very  much  good  from  girls'  day 
schools.'  In  another,  '  Schools  are  of  little  use,  we  must 
preach  more,'  and  again,  '  Preaching  and  sowing  are  the  best 
means  of  winning  the  people.'  In  nearly  all  his  letters  he 
mourned  over  the  apathy  and  indifference  of  the  Sinhalese 
Christians,  in  not  caring  for  the  souls  of  others. 

In  1881  Dr.  Johnson,  Metropolitan  and  Bishop  of  Calcutta, 
visited  Baddegama,  and  before  leaving  wrote  as  follows,  '  I 
visited  Baddegama  on  Monday,  February  7,  1881,  driving  out 
from  Galle  with  the  Bishop  of  Colombo.  I  addressed  a  large 
congregation,  taking  for  my  subject  "  The  difficulty  of  getting 
free  from  bondage  and  the  consequent  liability  to  discourage 
ment."  A  special  service  was  held  later  in  the  day  when  I 
gave  an  address  to  the  heathen,  endeavouring  to  draw  out  the 
contrast  between  the  morality  of  Buddhism  and  that  of 
Christianity,  the  latter  being  based  upon  our  relations  with 
the  One  God,  One  Father.  It  seems  that  here,  as  in  most 
parts  of  India,  the  progress  is  slow,  the  adult  heathen  being 
only  brought  out  by  ones  and  two*.  The  schools  are  gradually 


exercising  an   influence  and  by  their  means  each   generation 
must,  it  may  be  hoped,  show  increased  results.' 

When  Mr.  Allcock  left  for  England  in  March  1883,  the 
Christians  numbered  481,  of  whom  137  were  communicants, 
and  the  schools  contained  1,353  children. 

A  few  years  after,  on  Mr.  Allcock's  death  from  fever  in 
the  Kandyan  country,  the  sum  of  Rs.  250  was  collected,  and 
a  large  bell  placed  in  the  church  tower  with  the  inscription 
*  In  memory  of  the  Rev.  John  Allcock.' 

In  November,  1882,  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding  was  transferred 
from  the  Kurunegala  district  to  take  charge  of  Baddegama. 
At  the  close  of  the  following  year  he  writes,  '  What  grieves 
me  most  is  that  in  nearly  every  village,  I  find  that  of 
those  who  at  one  time  or  the  other  have  professed  Christ 
and  been  baptized,  many  now  living  carelessly  are  worse  than 
the  heathen  around,  whilst  very  few  of  the  Christians  make  the 
slightest  endeavour  to  bring  others  to  a  knowledge  of  the  truth.' 

In  1884  a  stone  school  chapel  was  built  at  Kitulampitiya, 
and  in  1885  a  similar  building  at  Elpitiya  on  a  piece  of  land 
given  by  Mr.  Elias  Perera,  the  catechist  there. 

In  1886,  an  Ordination  Service  was  held  in  Baddegama 
Church,  when  three  deacons  were  admitted  to  the  priesthood, 
by  Dr.  R.  S.  Copleston,  Bishop  of  Colombo.  Archdeacon 
Matthew  and  ten  other  clergy  were  present.  This  was  the 
first  time  that  an  Ordination  had  been  held  in  the  Sinhalese 
language  and  in  the  midst  of  the  people  themselves. 

On  June  1,  1888,  a  Boarding  School  for  Sinhalese 
girls  was  opened  by  Mrs.  Balding,  and  from  its  commence 
ment  has  been  a  success.  Many  of  the  pupils  have  become 
teachers  in  village  schools.  In  addition  to  missionaries' 
wives,  other  European  ladies,  Miss  Binfield,  Miss  Ursula 
Kriekenbeck,  Miss  Henry  (all  three  since  dead)  and  Miss 
C.  Kerr  have  given  valuable  help  in  the  school,  whilst  Mrs. 
Wirakoon,  always  called  '  Mistress '  by  the  girls  and 


a  daughter  of  the  late  Rev.  H.  Kannangara,  has  been  the 
invaluable  head  mistress  from  the  opening  day  to  the  present 
time.  In  May.  1893,  a  lady  missionary*  Miss  Helen  P.  Philips? 
late  Principal  of  the  Clergy  Daughters'  School  at  Sydney 
and  the  first  worker  sent  out  by  the  New  South  Wales  C.M.S. 
Association,  was  appointed  to  Dodanduwa,  to  be  joined  in 
the  following  November  by  Miss  E.  M.  Josolyne.  An 
industrial  school  for  boys  and  girls,  where  printing,  carpentry, 
wood-carving,  tailoring  and  lacemaking  were  taught,  was 

On  August  14,  1894,  the  seventy-fifth  anniversary  of 
the  founding  of  the  Baddegama  mission  was  celebrated. 
Dr.  Copleston,  the  Bishop,  and  fifteen  clergy  were  present. 
At  the  morning  service,  a  sermon  was  preached  by  the  Rev. 
J.  de  Silva,  on  the  Parable  of  the  Mustard  Seed,  after  which 
the  Holy  Communion  was  administered  to  205  communicants. 
At  mid-day  the  Rev.  S.  Coles  addressed  over  600  children  in 
the  church,  and  afterwards  a  public  meeting  presided  over  by 
the  Bishop,  was  held  in  the  English  school.  In  the  after 
noon  there  was  a  garden  party,  and  in  the  evening,  a  lantern 
address  on  the  '  Holy  Land,'  by  Archdeacon  de  Winton- 
The  sum  of  Rs.  1,250  was  given  by  the  people  towards  the 
renovating  of  the  church.  A  teak  reading  desk,  lectern  and 
pulpit  were  bought,  and  a  brass  offertory  dish,  alms  bags, 
kneelers  and  an  ebony  Communion  Table  were  presented.  A 
stone  tablet  with  the  names  of  the  missionaries  who  had 
worked  in  the  district,  with  the  text  underneath  '  Whose  faith 
follow  '  was  also  placed  in  the  church. 

In  November,  1895,  two  more  women  missionaries,  Miss 
C.  N.  Luxmoore  and  Miss  M.  S.  Gedge  arrived. 

About  this  time  the  district  was  well  supplied  with  Sinhalese 
clergy,  the  Rev.  James  Colombage  in  Baddegama,  the  Rev. 
G.  B.  Perera  at  Balapitimodera  and  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Kalpage 
at  Dodanduwa. 


In  1897  over  700  people  attended  the  service  in  connec 
tion  with  the  Diamond  Jubilee  of  Queen  Victoria.  In  the 
same  year  fifty  girls 'were  presented  at  the  Government 
examination  of  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  obtaining  eighty- 
five  per  cent,  of  passes  and  in  the  Diocesan  Religious  Exami 
nation  fourteen  girls  obtained  prizes,  and  the  school  a  second  ' 
class  certificate.  One  of  the  old  girls  who  had  gone  to  India 
as  a  mission  worker,  died  of  cholera  this  year.  On  the  first 
page  of  her  Bible  was  found  written  '  My  mottoes  for  1897. 
Holiness  unto  the  Lord.  First,  suffering,  then  glory.' 

In  1898  Mr.  E.  J.  Carus  Wilson,  a  lay  missionary,  was 
stationed  at  Bentota,  Miss  Townsend  at  Dodanduwa  and  Miss 
M.  L.  Young  at  Baddegama. 

Mis?  L.  M.  Leslie  Melville  arrived  in  1899,  and  the  Rev. 
G.  B.  Perera,  who  had  been  in  Balapitimodera  for  twenty-one 
years,  moved  to  Baddegama. 

About  this  period,  the  Rev.  Professor  Mayor  of  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge,  delivered  a  lecture  on  '  Antipathies  of 
race  and  habit,'  in  which  he  said,  '  In  the  Michaelmas  term 
I  had  a  proof,  interesting  to  me  at  least,  of  the  truth  of  that 
promise,  "  Cast  thy  bread  upon  the  waters,  and  thou  shalt 
find  it  after  many  days."  A  Sinhalese  knocked  at  my  door. 
He  is  in  holy  orders  in  the  English  Church,  won  a  scholarship 
at  Selwyn  College  and  is  reading  for  the  theological  tripos 
His  first  words  were  "  My  father  was  a  convert  of  your 
father."  He  must  have  been  converted  from  devil-worship. 
Eighty-one  years  ago,  my  father  founded  a  mission-station  at 
Baddegama.  To  the  ruin  of  his  health,  labouring  under  a 
tropical  sun,  he  built  church  and  school  and  parsonage.  In 
that  village  my  sister  and  I  were  born,  in  that  church  she  and 
I  were  baptized.  Seventy-one  years  ago  we  left  Ceylon, 
where  Reginald  Heber,  an  old  Shropshire  friend  of  my 
father's  had  visited  and  blessed  his  work.  My  father  would 
have  hailed  that  one  fruit  of  his  labours  as  ample  reward  for 


shattered  health   and  an  early  grave.     My  friend  had  taken 
part  in  the  seventy-fifth  anniversary  of  the  mission.' 

In  December,  1900,  Mr.  G.  A.  Purser  arrived  to  take  charge 
of  the  Industrial  School  at  Dodanduwa,  and  in  October,  1901, 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding,  who  had  been  connected  with  the 
district  for  twenty  years,  moved  to  Cotta  to  take  charge  of 
that  station. 

When  Mr.  Balding  left,  there  were  two  Sinhalese  clergy, 
five  biblewomen,  553  Christians,  226  communicants,  thirty- 
one  schools  and  2,110  scholars.  The  Rev.  H.  E.  Heinekey 
took  charge  at  the  end  of  the  year.  In  1903  the  district 
suffered  severe  losses  in  the  home  calls  of  the  Rev.  J.  P. 
Kalpage,  and  of  Mr.  Baptist  Karunaratne  (a  son-in-law  of 
Rev.  A.  Gunasekara)  who  had  been  a  mission  worker  for  forty 
years.  The  Rev.  G.  B.  Perera  also  left  to  become  a  pastor 
in  the  Cotta  district.  This  year  the  Buddhists  became  very 
active  in  opposing  Christian  work,  and  establishing  opposition 

The  following  year  Mr.  Heinekey  reports  '  Christianity 
cannot  be  said  to  be  in  a  thriving  condition  here,  converts  are 
few,  and  the  best  of  them  seem  glad  to  get  away  to  other 
parts.  Thus,  there  are  now  only  538  Christians  against  653 
in  1901,  whilst  there  are  324  children  less  in  the  schools.' 

The  catechist,  Mr.  R.  T.  E.  A.  Gunatilake  was  ordained 
deacon  in  1904.  The  same  year  the  much- valued  matron  of 
the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  Mrs.  Mary  Perera,  or  '  old  Mary ' 
as  she  called  herself,  passed  away.  For  sixteen  years  she  had 
faithfully  filled  her  post,  and  for  many  years  previously  had 
been  a  valued  school-teacher  and  biblewoman. 

On  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Heinekey  in  1905  the  Rev. 
S.  M.  Simmons  was  appointed.  The  Buddhists  were  now 
building  schools  of  a  far  more  substantial  nature,  which  were 
thronged  with  children,  and  in  charge  of  efficient  teachers. 
Where  there  was  no  active  opposition  to  Christianity,  the 


attitude  of  the  Christians  was  one  of  utter  indifference.  The 
Dodanduwa  Industrial  School  continued  to  flourish,  and  at  the 
Galle  Agri- Horticultural  Exhibition  three  prizes  were  won 
.for  carving. 

In  1906  the  School  Chapel  and  two  schools  at  Kitulam- 
pitiya  were  handed  over  to  the  incumbent  of  Galle. 

The  following  year,  Mrs.  S.  M.  Simmons,  who  had  thrown 
herself  heart  and  soul  into  the  work,  and  won  the  love  and 
admiration  of  all,  was  called  to  higher  service,  and  Mr. 
Simmons  went  on  leave  to  England  for  a  year,  the  Rev. 
R.  H.  Phair  taking  oversight  of  the  work.  Miss  E.  M.  Josolyne 
was  at  this  time  in  charge  of  the  women's  work  in  the  district. 

Miss  Henry  carried  on  the  work  of  the  school  during  the 
year  1908,  Miss  Walker  then  being  located  to  Baddegama  as 

In  1909  the  number  of  schools  had  fallen  to  22  and  the 
scholars  to  1543. 

Mr.  G.  A.  Purser,  who  had  been  to  England  on  furlough, 
returned  to  Baddegama  in  1912,  having  been  ordained,  and 
with  Mrs.  Purser  took  charge.  The  following  year,  he 
laments  the  dearth  of  helpers,  not  a  single  Ceylonese  clergy 
man  or  lady  missionary  being  in  the  district.  In  1914  the 
Rev.  J.  P.  Ramanayake  was  stationed  at  Dodanduwa  and  in 
1915,  Mr.  W.  B.  de  Silva,  the  pastoral  catechist,  was  ordained 
deacon.  This  year  there  were  four  adult  and  fourteen  infant 
baptisms  and  several  enquirers,  and  twenty-two  candidates 
were  presented  for  Confirmation.  The  Government  grant  to 
the  schools  had  suffered  considerably  owing  to  the  continued 
Buddhist  opposition. 

Mrs.  Purser,  who  was  Principal  of  the  Girls'  Boarding 
School,  reports  forty-six  girls  in  the  school,  and  the  Inspector 
reported  '  The  results  of  the  examination  were  satisfactory 
and  reflect  credit  on  the  Lady  Principal  and  her  staff.  The 
English  recitation  and  writing  were  both  above  the  average.' 


At  the  Diocesan  Scripture  Examination  the  school  obtained 
a  first-class  certificate.  There  is  a  branch  of  the  Young 
People's  Union  in  the  school  and  a  child  is  supported  in  a 
school  at  Dohnavur. 

Mr.  Robert  de  Silva,  who  has  been  connected  with  the 
Industrial  School  since  its  commencement,  and  is  now  in 
charge  reports,  '  We  have  sixty-three  boys  and  at  the  last 
examination  the  Inspector  wrote,  "  This  is  a  very  useful, 
school.  The  work  done  is  really  very  good.  I  am  much 
pleased  with  the  work."  :  The  Bishop  and  Mrs.  Copleston 
visited  the  school,  and  wrote  in  the  log-book  '  We  saw  some 
very  good  carving,  one  boy  shewing  real  talent.  I  saw  some 
pages  of  the  Gleaner  being  printed.'  In  September,  1916, 
Miss  L.  M.  Leslie  Melville  and  Miss  Wardlaw  Ramsay 
returned  from  England,  and  the  former  took  up  the  post  of 
Principal  of  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  and  the  Rev. 
G.  A.  Purser  removed  to  Dodanduwa,  superintending  the 
district  from  that  centre. 

In  1918  there  were  twenty-one  schools  in  the  district. 
There  were  two  Sinhalese  clergy,  t\vo  catechists,  two  bible- 
women,  twenty-two  male  teachers  and  twenty -three  female 
teachers,  662  Christians,  of  whom  223  were  communicants, 
and  1,112  boys  and  568  girls  in  the  schools. 



COTTA,  or  Kotte,  about  six  miles  from  Colombo,  is  a  place 
famous  in  the  annals  of  Ceylon  as  Jayawardhanapura,  and  at 
the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  Portuguese  in  A.D.  1505  was 
the  capital  and  residence  of  the  Sinhalese  king.  Sinhalese 
kings  reigned  there  from  A.D.  1378  to  1573.  During  the 
Dutch  rule  (164-0  to  1796)  the  spiritual  interests  of  Cotta  and 
ne  ghbourhood  were  not  neglected.  Cotta,  with  six  adjacent 
villages,  formed  a  parish,  having  its  own  pastor,  supported 
by  Government,  and  superintended  by  a  Dutch  Presbyterian 
clergyman.  It  had  its  large  and  substantial  church  in  Etui 
Cotta,  on  the  site  where  the  C.M.S.  girls'  school  now  stands, 
well  attended,  for,  with  few  exceptions,  all  the  inhabitants  had 
been  •  baptized  and  many  were  communicants.  There  was 
also  a  school,  with  three  teachers  and  a  singing  master,  who 
also  led  the  singing  in  church.  The  Dutch  minister  attended 
periodically  from  Colombo  to  perform  religious  rites  and  to 
examine  the  school. 

The  post  of  pastor  was  for  a  long  time  filled  by  a 
Mr.  Philipsz,  a  Sinhalese  gentleman,  who  had  been  educated 
and  ordained  in  Holland.  There  was  also  a  resident 
registrar  whose  duty  was  to  collect  the  people  for  baptism 
and  marriage  on  the  periodical  visits  of  a  Proponent.  On 
such  occasions  fathers  and  sons,  who  had  been  married  for 
years,  came  to  have  their  '  wedlock  christianized '  and  their 
children  and  grandchildren  baptized.  Their  names  were  then 
entered  in  the  Thombuwa,  or  Register,  and  a  fee  of  three 
fanams,  or  three  pence,  was  levied  for  each  entry,  in  payment 

COTTA  129 

for  the  registrar's  trouble.  The  following  extract  from  the 
deed  conveying  the  land  to  the  Dutch  minister  is  interesting  : — 
*  On  April  23,  1721,  the  Honourable  Isaac  Augustin  Rumpf, 
ordinary  Counsellor  of  the  Dutch  Indies  and  Governor  and 
Director  of  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  of  his  own  free  will  and 
from  motives  of  affection,  resolved  and  thought  proper  to 
make  a  present  of,  for  the  service  and  benefit  of  the  new- 
built  native  Reformed  Church  at  Cotta,  a  certain  garden,  his 
property  in  the  hamlet  Etui  Kotte,  to  the  Rev.  Wilhelmus 
Koning,  the  only  officiating  minister  in  Chingalee,  through 
whose  knowledge  in  the  said  Chingalee  language  accompanied 
by  a  great  and  good  zeal  to  preach  and  propagate  the  true 
reformed  religion  amongst  the  Chingaleese  and  other  natives, 
this  Church  was  expressly  commenced  to  be  built  about  a 
year  ago,  for  which  reason  also  full  power  and  authority  is 
given  by  the  said  Honourable  Donator  to  the  said  reverend 
gentleman  to  act  and  do  with  the  said  gardens  as  he  should 
deem  most  proper  for  the  service,  greater  airiness  and 
embellishment  of  the  said  church  and  its  compass.'  The 
transfer  of  the  Government  to  the  British  in  1796  produced 
a  great  change.  Evangelization  was  laid  aside.  The 
churches  and  schools,  including  those  of  Cotta,  were  abandon 
ed  and  allowed  to  fall  into  decay,  and  the  people  returned 
to  Buddhism  and  its  companions,  kapuism  and  devil  worship. 
The  proponent  system  was  soon  abolished,  having  left,  how 
ever,  an  almost  indelible  stamp  on  the  religion  of  the  country, 
handing  down  from  generation  to  generation  a  nominal  pro 
fession  of  a  belief  in  Christianity  where  none  was  felt.  The 
last  of  the  proponents  who  officiated  in  Cotta  was  Don 
Abraham  of  Talangama. 

The  first   English  minister    who    exerted    himself   for  the 

benefit  pf  the  people  of  Cotta  was  Mr.  Chater  of  the  Baptist 

Mission,  but  his    efforts  were  attended    with  so   little  success 

that  in  the   year   1820  he   closed  the   school  he   had  started, 



and  retired  from  the  place.  In  1822  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Lambrick,  who  was  one  of  the  first  four  C.M.S.  missionaries 
to  Ceylon,  and  who  on  arrival  had  been  stationed  in  Kandy, 
moved  to  Cotta.  A  piece  of  high  and  waste  land,  named 
Thotepallekannatte,  on  the  border  of  the  Cotta  lake,  Diwas- 
nahwa  or  Juwannawa,  was  purchased  from  Government,  and 
eight  other  pieces  of  land  adjoining,  from  villagers,  in  order 
to  build  mission  premises.  The  Government  deed  of  convey 
ance  is  dated  July  13,  1822,  and  signed  by  the  Governor  of 
Ceylon,  Sir  Edward  Paget,  K.G.C.B.,  and  stipulates  that  the 
Rev.  Samuel  Lambrick  '  shall  and  do  take  good  care  and 
preserve  for  the  care  and  benefit  of  the  Crown  all  the  cinna 
mon  trees  which  are  now  growing  or  which  may  hereafter 
grow  on  the  said  spot  of  ground.' 

Soon  after  taking  possession  Mr.  Lambrick  wrote  to  the 
C.M.S. ,  '  Cotta  has  a  water  communication  with  Colombo 
by  means  of  a  canal  connecting  the  Calany  with  the  Calpera 
and  Pantura  rivers  ;  there  is  also  a  bridle  road  with  wooden 
bridges  over  two  branches  of  the  canal,  but  in  the  rainy  season 
this  road  is  frequently  impassable.  It  is  sufficiently  distant 
from  Colombo  to  avoid  the  evils  connected  with  a  large  town.' 

The  following  year  the  Rev.  Joseph  Bailey  was  transferred 
to  Cotta  from  Jaffna.  Buildings  were  erected,  and  a  printing 
press  set  up,  from  which  15,000  tracts  were  issued  during  the 
first  year. 

On  November  8,  1827,  Sir  Edward  Barnes,  Governor 
of  Ceylon,  laid  the  foundation-stone  of  a  theological  college, 
called  the  Cotta  Institution,  to  train  Ceylonese  for  Christian 
work  among  their  own  people.  Most  of  the  civil  and  military 
residents  from  Colombo,  the  Archdeacon,  the  Chaplains  and 
many  others  were  present.  On  the  opening  of  the  Institution 
fifteen  pupils  were  admitted  '  who  were  to  receive  -a  good 
education  in  English,  Science,  Mathematics,  Philology,  Latin, 
Greek  and  Pali.' 

COTTA  131 

The  first  student  admitted  was  Abraham  Gunasekara  who 
was  ordained  in  1839  and  worked  at  Baddegama  till  his  death 
in  1862.  The  Rev.  James  Selkirk  arrived  in  1826,  and,  on 
his  retirement  in  1839,  became  Curate  of  Middleton  Tyas, 
in  Yorkshire,  and  in  1844  published  his  '  Recollections  of 

In  October,  1828,  the  first  school  for  girls  only  was  estab 
lished  under  the  superintendence  of  Mrs.  Lambrick,  who 
had  arrived  in  the  Island  the  previous  year  as  Miss  Stratford, 
and  had  been  married  to  Mr.  Lambrick.  Great  reluctance 
had  always  been  shown  by  the  mothers  to  send  their  daughters 
to  '  learn  letters  '  as  they  called  it,  and  Mrs.  Lambrick  went 
to  all  the  houses  in  the  villages  inviting  the  girls  to  attend. 
At  the  end  of  the  year  there  were  thirty-three  girls  attending. 

In  the  same  year,  Mr.  William  Lambrick,  a  nephew  of  the 
Rev.  S.  Lambrick,  was  appointed  classical  teacher  in  the 
Institution  and  in  1831  the  Rev.  Joseph  Marsh  arrived  from 
Madras  to  help. 

The  Cotta  missionaries  also  prepared  a  translation  of  the 
Bible  into  colloquial  Sinhalese,  and  on  November  14,  1833, 
it  was  issued  from  the'  press  and  is  known  as  the  '  Cotta 
Bible.'  To  help  in  the  printing  of  the  Bible,  a  Mr.  Riddes- 
dale  came  out  from  England  and  had  charge  of  the  printing 
press  for  six  years.  It  may  be  here  stated  that  the  lir.-,t 
edition  of  the  whole  Bible  in  Sinhalese  was  published  by  the 
Bible  Society  in  1823,  in  three  volumes,  quarto,  of  3,350 
pages,  the  price  per  copy  being  ^3-1-6,  but  as  this  edition  was 
found  to  be  too  expensive  and  cumbersome  for  general  use, 
and  as  the  need  of  a  glossary  shewed  that  it  required  revision, 
a  revised  and  more  portable  edition  was,  in  November,  1830 
published  in  one  octavo  volume  of  1,212  pages,  the  price  being 
•only  eleven  shillings  and  sixpence. 

The    C.M.S.    missionaries    in    1824,    considering  that  this 
edition    contained  so  many  words  derived  from  the  Sanscrit 


and  Pali  languages,  words  common  in  Sinhalese  books  and 
intelligible  to  persons  of  learning,  but  not  to  the  great  body  of 
the  people,  and  so  many  inflections  of  words,  different  from 
those  in  common  use  so  as  to  render  them  difficult  to  be 
understood,'  determined  with  the  sanction  of  their  Parent 
Society,  to  prepare  and  print  at  their  own  expense  and  at 
their  press  at  Cotta  a  new  version  of  the  Bible  in  familiar 
Sinhalese.  Thus  there  were  two  distinct  versions  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  in  circulation,  the  older  one,  '  Tolfrey's, ' 
prepared  under  the  auspices  of  the  Bible  Society  in  Colombo,, 
and  the  '  Cotta '  version  by  the  C.M.S.  For  some  years  it 
was  found  impossible  to  reconcile  either  of  the  respective 
translators  to  the  use  of  the  other  version,  although  both 
parties  felt  that  it  was  desirable  that  there  should  be  but  one 
standard  version. 

The  controversy  lasted  until  1852,  when,  at  a  meeting  held 
.  in  the  Dutch  Church,  Colombo,  under  the  presidency  of  the 
Governor,  Sir  George  Anderson,  it  was  announced  that  all 
differences  had  terminated  and  that  both  sides  would  join  to 
prepare  one  uniform  Sinhalese  version.  The  Rev.  G.  Peltitt 
of  the  C.M.S.  and  the  Rev.  D.  j!  Gogerly  of  the  W.M.S. 
were  elected  joint  Secretaries  of  the  Bible  Society,  and  the 
second  period  of  translation  and  revision  began.  An  ad  in 
terim  version  of  the  Bible  was  first  prepared  and  a  revised 
edition  issued  in  1857.  A  re-translation  of  the  whole  Bible  was 
begun  in  1858,  by  the  Rev.  D.  J.  Gogerly,  but  this  translation 
was  not  altogether  approved,  so  the  re-translation  was  started 
again  in  1887,  with  the  Rev.  S.  Coles,  C.M.S.,  as  chief  reviser. 
The  work  was  performed  with  the  most  painstaking  care,  but 
when  Mr.  Coles  suddenly  died  on  September  13,  1901,  whilst 
waiting  for  the  assembling  of  the  Revision  Committee  in  the 
vestry  of  Galle  Face  Church,  the  revision  had  been  complet 
ed  only  as  far  as  the  end  of  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles.  Bishop 
R.  S.  Copleston  took  the  place  of  Mr.  Coles,  and  had  com- 

COTTA  133 

pleted  Romans  and  Galatians,  when  he  was  appointed  Metro 
politan  of  India.  It  was  not  until  1911  that  the  whole  work 
of  re-translation  was  finished,  and  the  new  Bible  published. 

The  first  public  examination  of  the  Cotta  Institution  took 
place  in  1831,  and  is  thus  noticed  in  the  Government  Gazette 
of  December  17,  'A  breakfast  was  given  this  morning  by  the 
Cotta  Church  missionaries  to  His  Excellency  the  Governor 
(Sir  R.  J.  Wilmot  Horton)  and  Lady  Wilmot  Horton,  at 
which  all  the  civil  and  military  authorities  and  a  great  num 
ber  of  the  officers  of  the  regiments  stationed  here  were  pre 
sent.  After  breakfast  the  company  adjourned  to  the  Institu 
tion  to  hear  the  examination  of  the  pupils  in  English  reading, 
geography,  geometry,  arithmetic,  Latin,  and  Greek.  About 
.two  hours  and  a  half  were  devoted  to  the  examination.  His 
Excellency  expressed  the  pleasure  and  gratification  that  had 
been  afforded  him  by  an  exhibition  of  so  much  talent,  which 
did  equal  honour  to  those  who  taught  and  to  those  who  re 
ceived  tuition.  He  could  not  express  his  own  opinion  more 
clearly  than  by  referring  to  a  passage  that  had  just  been  con 
strued  by  the  Latin  class  :  Nullum  tnunus  reipublicae  afferre 
•niajus  meliusve  possumus,  quam  si  doceamus  ct  enidiamus 
jtiventiitetn, — we  can  confer  no  greater  benefit  upon  the 
country  than  by  the  education  of  youth.'  On  November  11, 
1834,  the  Bishop  of  Calcutta,  Dr.  Wilson,  visited  and  with 
his  chaplain  spent  two  hours  in  examining  the  Institution 
students  in  geography,  trigonometry,  geometry,  Latin,  Greek 
and  the  Hebrew  Bible. 

In  1835  the  Rev.  S.  Lambrick  returned  to  England  and 
became  domestic  chaplain  to  the  Marquis  of  Cholmondeley, 
and  died  in  1854,  aged  85. 

On  the  retirement  of  Messrs.  Lambrick  and  Selkirk,  the 
Revs.  J.  Bailey  and  F.  W.  Taylor  carried  on  the  work  of  the 
various  departments  of  the  district  with  the  assistance  of  the 
Rev.  Cornelius  Jayasinha,  who  had  been  ordained  by  Bishop 


Spencer  of  Madras.  After  twenty  years'  trial  it  was  found 
that  the  object  for  which  the  Institution  was  established  had 
not  been  fully  effected,  as  many  of  the  students,  after  having 
completed  their  course,  made  choice  of  the  more  lucrative 
and  popular  employments  at  the  disposal  of  the  Government. 

In  1851  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Fenn  (who  died  in  1913  in  England 
at  the  age  of  90)  was  appointed  and  it  was  decided  to  make 
the  Institution  more  comprehensive  by  changing  it  into  a 
kind  of  Grammar  School.  It  was  thought  that  in  this  way 
many  more  than  formerly  would  be  brought  under  Christian 
influence  and  instruction.  In  1853  there  were  106  pupils 
on  the  list  with  an  average  attendance  of  seventy.  Of  these 
twenty  were  boarders,  one  paid  nine  -.hillings,  nine  paid  seven 
shillings  and  sixpence,  and  four  paid  four  and  sixpence 
monthly,  three  were  pupil  teachers  receiving  food  and  four 
shillings  each  monthly,  and  three  were  free  students. 

After  ten  years  of  trial  of  the  plans  worked  out  by  Mr.  Fennr 
it  was  manifest  that  although  greater  numbers  were    under 
instruction,  there  was  no  better  supply  of  mission  workers,, 
and  owing  to  the  opening  of  the  Government  Academy,  after 
wards  the  Royal  College,  in  Colombo,  and  other  Colleges,  boys 
stayed  a  much  shorter  time  in  the  Institution  than  formerly. 
It  was,    therefore,    decided   not    to   keep    up   an   expensive 
institution,  and  the    present   English   school  took   its  place. 
The   total  number   of  students    educated   in    the    Institution 
amounted  to   nearly  two  thousand.     Of  these,  seventeen  be 
came  ordained  ministers,  forty-one  catechists,   six  Scripture 
readers,    sixty-seven    school    masters,    two    advocates,   one 
magistrate,  eight  proctors,  six  mudaliyars,  sixty-eight  govern 
ment    employees,     and    many    others    merchants,     clerks, 

In  1841  Mr.  Bailey  was  suddenly  removed  by  death,  and 
the  Rev.  H.  Powell  was  transferred  from  Baddegama  to 
Cotta.  Two  years  later  no  less  than  sixty-nine  adults  and 



COTTA  135 

128  children  were  baptized  during  the  year  and  110  candi 
dates  were  confirmed  by  the  Bishop,  and  the  accounts  of  the 
work  were  so  encouraging  that  the  annual  report  of  the 
Parent  Society  for  that  year  speaks  of  Cotta  as  '  the  heart  of 
the  Ceylon  Mission. ' 

From  1848  till  1861  the  Rev.  Isaiah  Wood  was  in  charge. 
During  this  period  the  printing  establishment  was  closed  and 
the  press  sold.  In  1861  the' Rev.  J.  H.  Clowes  arrived,  and 
the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones  was  the  Superintending  Missionary. 

During  the  eighteen  months  that  followed,  mission  work 
throughout  the  entire  low-country  underwent  a  severe  sifting 
process,  which  brought  to  light  an  amount  of  heathenism  and 
hypocrisy  among  those  who  called  themselves  and  were  re 
garded  as  Christians,  which  was  hardly  credible.  A  Buddhist 
revival  took  place  during  which  public  lectures  were  given 
for  the  avowed  purpose  of  overthrowing  Christianity,  and 
leading  the  converts  back  to  their  original  faith.  The  result 
was  that  hundreds  of  those,  whose  names  had  stood  on  the 
congregational  lists  of  the  various  missionary  societies,  for 
sook  all  connection  with  the  Christian  church.  The  one 
bright  feature  of  all  this  was  that  the  revival  of  Buddhism 
seemed  to  accomplish  what  missionaries  for  years  had  been 
labouring  in  vain  to  effect.  It  taught  many  that  it  was 
utterly  inconsistent  to  call  themselves  Christians  while  they 
were  Buddhists  in  heart. 

In  1863  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens  removed  from  Kandy 
and  took  charge.  The  unsatisfactory  character  of  many 
of  the  people  he  felt  deeply,  and  in  order  to  discover  how 
many  there  were  who  were  really  Christian,  and  to  draw 
a  line  of  demarcation  between  them  and  the  heathen,  he 
instituted  a  test  which  he  required  the  Christians  to  sign.  It 
was  a  declaration  that  they  believed  Christianity  to  be  the 
only  true  religion,  that  they  regarded  Buddhism  as  false,  and 
that  they  had  renounced  all  connection  with  heathenism  and 


all  practice  of  its  ceremonies.  Out  of  one  thousand  profess 
ing  Christians,  only  342  persons  signed  this  test,  and  of  these 
many  were  in  the  employ  of  the  Mission. 

In  1865  Mr.  Clowes  was  in  charge  and  had  a  zealous 
helper  in  the  Rev.  J.  de  Livera.  The  following  year  the 
Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones  returned  with  instructions  '  to  pursue 
vigorously  the  work  of  reorganization.  '  The  Rev.  Cornelius 
Jayasinghe  who  had  been  in  charge  of  Talangama  removed 
to  Kandy. 

Three  years  later,  when  the  Mission  Jubilee  was  celebrated, 
there  were  440  adults  who  professed  to  have  given  up  all  faith 
in  Buddhism.  The  schools  numbered  twenty,  with  seven 
hundred  children  attending,  the  number  on  the  lists  being 
about  one-half  more.  The  communicants  numbered  175. 

In  1869  the  Rev.  R.  T.  Dowbiggin  was  appointed  and 
remained  in  charge  for  the  next  thirty  years. 

In  June,  1871,  Mrs.  Dowbiggin  (who  was  a  daughter  of  Sir 
C.  P.  Layard,  Government  Agent  of  the  Western  Province) 
opened  a  Girls'  Anglo- Vernacular  Boarding  School  which 
continues  to  flourish  to  the  present  day,  and  has  been  a  benefit 
and  blessing  to  many.  Up  to  the  end  of  the  year  1916,  860 
girls  had  passed  through  the  school.  In  1886  the  Rev.  S. 
Coles  had  charge  of  a  class  for  training  catechists,  with  seven 

Two  years  later  the  Rev.  H.  de  Silva,  the  Pastor  of 
Talangama  and  Welikada,  the  Rev.  G.  S.  Amarasekara,  the 
Pastor  of  Cotta  and  Nugegoda,  and  the  Rev.  W.  L.  Botejue, 
the  Pastor  of  Mampe,  gave  cheering  and  encouraging  accounts 
of  the  work  in  their  Pastorates. 

In  1897  Miss  A.  Dowbiggin  was  working  as  a  missionary 
among  the  women  and  girls. 

In  the  same  year  the  Revs.  Joseph  Perera,  Theodore  Perera 
and  W.  E.  Botejue  were  appointed  to  Colombo,  Talangama 
and  Mampe  respectively.  At  the  close  of  1900  Mr.  Dowbiggin 

COTTA  137 

.gave  a  survey  of  the  work   of   the  district  during  his  thirty 
years'  superintendence  with  the  following  statistics  : — 

1870  1900 

Christians  ...  ...        874         1,361 

Communicants       ...  ...         144  412 

Contributions         ...  ...  Rs.  750         3,230 

Girls  in  G.  B.  S.    ...  ...          29  76 

Boys  in  English  School        ...          60  268 

Vernacular  School  Pupils     ...     1,082         3,300 
Early  in  the  following  year  the  missionary    was  called   to 
higher   service  after  a  painful  illness   patiently   borne  and  a 
memorial  brass  in  the  Cotta  Church  bears  these  words — 





MARCH  STH  1901.  AGED  63  YEARS. 



On  March  1  the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones  was  appointed  to 
Cotta,  but  the  death  of  the  Rev.  S.  Coles  in  September 
necessitated  his  return  to  Colombo,  when  the  superintendence 
of  the  district  was  handed  over  to  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding 
who  had  been  for  many  years  in  Baddegama. 


A  portion  of  the  district  was  cut  off  in  1909  and  placed  in 
the  independent  charge  of  the  Rev.  G.  S.  Amarasekara,  and 
called  the  Nugegoda  Pastorate.  This  consisted  of  St.  John's 
Church,  Nugegoda,  Christ  Church,  Mirihana,  and  six  verna 
cular  schools.  During  his  incumbency,  Mr.  Amarasekara 
collected  funds  and'  built  a  parsonage.  On  the  appointment 
of  Mr.  Amarasekara  to  Kandy  in  1908,  the  Rev.  J.  H. 
Wikramayake  of  Mampe  succeeded  him. 

The  following  year  the  Rev.  G.  B.  Perera  moved  to  Cotta 
and  the  same  year  a  long-felt  want  was  met  by  the  starting  of 
a  girls'  English  day  school  by  Mrs.  Balding. 

In  1905  the  Sinhalese  Women  Teachers'  Vernacular 
Training  School,  which  had  been  started  in  a  hired  house 
in  Colombo  by  Miss  H.  P.  Phillips,  was  moved  to  Cotta 
under  the  superintendence  of  Miss  K.  Gedge.  Mr.  Balding 
went  on  furlough  this  year  and  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde 
took  charge.  In  1908  the  re-built  Church  of  St.  Matthias, 
Boralesgamuwa,  was  opened,  and  a  new  church,  dedicated 
to  St.  John,  was  built  at  Homagama  through  the  liberality  of 
Mr.  J.  C.  Ebert. 

In  1909  Mr.  Balding  writes,  '  The  Buddhist  opposition  to 
Christian  work  is  severe  and  intense,  and  our  means  to  combat 
it  are  limited.' 

ThelMen  Teachers'  Training  School,  established  some  years 
previously,  was  this  year  transferred  to  Colombo,  where  a 
hostel  was  opened  and  the  students  attended  the  Government 
Training  College.  After  the  marriage  of  Miss  K.  Gedge  to  the 
Rev.  H.  P.  Napier-Clavering  in  1909,  Mrs.  Balding  had 
charge  of  the  Women  Teachers'  Training  School  for  some 
months  till  the  appointment  of  Miss  Leslie  Melville. 

In  1910  Mrs.  Dowbiggin  went  to  England,  and  Miss  Leslie 
Melville  with  the  help  of  Miss  G.  Hutchinson  managed  the 
Girls'  Boarding  School.  Mrs.  Dowbiggin  was  missed  by  all. 
She  had  a  remarkable  way  of  keeping  in  touch  with  the  old 

MRS.    R.   T.    DOWBIGG1N 


COTTA  139 

girls  and  a  wonderful  power  of  winning  and  retaining  the  love 
of  her  pupils. 

In  1911  there  passed  away  in  one  week  two  of  the  best 
and  oldest  workers  of  the  district,  both  good  men,  full  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  and  good  works,  whose  praise  was  in  all  the 
churches,  William  de  Silva,  son  of  Thomas  de  Silva,  a  former 
catechist,  who  for  fifty-two  years  had  been  Headmaster  of 
the  Cotta  English  School,  and  Hendrick  de  Silva,  a  catechist 
for  fifty-one  years. 

At  the  end  of  the  same  year  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  A.  M. 
Walmsley  took  charge  of  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  the 
staff  was  strengthened,  the  buildings  renovated,  and  some 
necessary  equipment  added.  The  spiritual  side  of  the  work 
was  not  neglected  as  the  following  letter  to  the  missionary's 
wife  will  shew,  I  regret  very  much  to  let  you  know  that  I 
have  made  out  from  the  letters  sent  by  my  two  girls  that  you 
have  infused  into  their  childish  brains  the  teachings  of  your 
religion,  and  have  nearly  succeeded  in  attempting  to  revert 
their  minds  to  same.  We  sent  the  girls  to  your  school  to  get 
them  educated  only.  We  never  expect  that  our  children 
become  Christians.  Therefore  I  hereby  give  you  notice  with 
thanks  that  I  am  going  to  withdraw  said  two  girls  by  the  end" 
of  March.' 

The  last  visit  of  the  Metropolitan,  Dr.  R.  S.  Copleston, 
took  place  in  1912,  when  about  400  people  met  in  the 
Mission  compound  for  a  garden  party  and  assembled  for 
Evening  Service  in  church  when  His  Lordship  gave  an 

One  of  the  best  catechists,  Peter  de  Silva,  a  man  of  little 
education  and  no  training,  but  whose  life  was  a  living  witness, 
was  called  Home  during  this  year. 

The  following  year,  Miss  Wardlaw  Ramsay,  who  had  been 
a  missionary  in  Palestine  for  some  years,  came  to  reside  with 
Miss  Leslie  Melville  in  Cotta,  and  gave  much  voluntary  help 


in  every  good  work.  The  Rev.  G.  B.  Perera  moved  to 
Colombo,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  R.  T.  E.  A.  Guna- 
tilaka.  The  Talangama  Pastorate,  consisting  of  St.  Matthew's 
Church,  Talangama,  St.  Mark's  Church,  Kotewegoda,  and 
St.  Stephen's  Church,  Upper  Welikada,  with  nine  vernacular 
schools,  was  cut  off  from  the  Cotta  district,  and  became  an 
independent  incumbency  under  the  Rev.  D.  L.  Welikala. 

When  Mrs.  Dowbiggin  returned  from  England  in  1911 
she  made  her  home  in  Liyanwala,  a  corner  of  the  district 
where  a  good  work,  inaugurated  by  her  husband,  had  been 
carried  on  for  some  years.  With  the  help  of  a  companion  and 
a  staff  of  Biblewomen,  she  still  carries  on  her  self-denying 
.labours,  going  in  and  out  among  the  people  carrying  the 
Word  of  Life,  tending  them  in  their  sicknesses  and  encourag- 
,ing  the  teachers,  working  independently  but  in  close  co-opera 
tion  with  the  Superintending  Missionary. 

The  Buddhist  opposition  continued  active  throughout  the 
district,  and  not  only  had  they  their  day  schools,  but  all 
Christian  methods  were  adopted,  such  as  Sunday  schools, 
fancy  bazaars,  Scripture  examinations,  prize  givings,  etc. 
A  Buddhist  priest,  writing  to  a  local  Buddhist  paper,  said, 
Christianity  is  an  epidemic  which  is  spreading  far  and  wide.' 

In  June,  1914,  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding  left  on  furlough  and 
the  Rev.  A.  M.  Walmsley  took  charge  until  the  arrival  of  the 
Rev.  S.  M.  Simmons  in  July.  Unfortunately  Mr.  Simmons 
was  invalided  home  in  September,  when  the  Rev.  A.  E. 
Dibben  took  the  oversight  until  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  J.  W. 
Ferrier  in  1915. 

Mr.  Ferrier  in  his  first  report,  referring  to  the  Boys'  School, 
writes,  '  Here  is  an  Institution  the  glories  of  the  past  of 
which  are  without  parallel  in  the  annals  of  the  Mission.  It 
has  made  an  indelible  mark  in  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  life 
of  the  Island.  Nearly  every  C.M.S.  Pastor,  Catechist,  and 
Teacher  prior  to  the  year  1900  has  been  helped  in  it.' 

COTTA  141 

Of  Liyanwala  he  writes,  '  A  very  earnest  congregation  \ 
worship  at  St.  Paul's  Church,  which  is  the  centre  of  an 
efficient  group  of  schools.  One  great  advantage  to  the  work 
is  the  residence  there  of  Mrs.  Dowbiggin  and  her  helper, 
Miss  Hutchinson.  Both  itinerate  in  the  villages,  visiting  the 
schools  and  cheering  the  teachers,  and  in  the  house-to-house 
visiting  are  assisted  by  several  Biblewomen.'  From  April, 
1915  to  September,  1916,  Mr.  Ferrier  motor-cycled  6,000  miles 
in  connection  with  his  work. 

The  '  Baptismal  Register  '  of  the  Cotta  district  records  the 
baptism  of  nearly  six  thousand  persons  since  the  commence 
ment  of  the  Mission.  This  does  not  include  the  baptisms  in 
the  churches  of  the  separate  incumbencies  which  have  been 
made  in  recent  years.  The  first  entry  is  the  following, 
'  Samuel,  an  adult  Jew,  on  the  credible  profession  of  faith  in 
Christ.  He  was  known  before  by  the  name  of  Joseph  Judah 
Misrabi,  and  is  a  native  of  Cochin  on  the  Malabar  Coast. 
Baptized  on  November  4,  1827,  by  me,  Samuel  Lambrick.' 

The  first  entry  in  the  Register  of  Marriages  is  '  James  Ford,, 
late  a  Private  in  H.M.'s  16th  Regiment,  and  Anachy  Anna 
Kangany  married  at  Cotta  on  December  22,  1827,  by  me, 
James  Selkirk,  Church  Missionary.'  The  '  Register  of 
Burials'  records  the  burial  of  212  persons,  in  the  little 
churchyard  in  Cotta.  In  the  graveyard  there  are  only 
sixteen  stones  to  mark  their  resting-places,  and  four  of  these 
are  in  memory  of  two  European  missionaries  and  two  English 
children,  so  196  Sinhalese  have  no  memorial  stones. 

The  burials  during  the  first  twenty  years  of  the  Mission  do 
not  seem  to  have  been  recorded.  The  first  entry  is  '  Anna 
Maria,  wife  of  Maddamahallinnaygay  Juan  de  Silva,  aged 
34  years,  buried  December  8,  1844,  by  me,  Henry  Powell, 
Church  Missionary.' 

One  of  the  first  four  C.M.S.  missionaries  to  Ceylon  lies 
buried  in  the  churchyard,  and  the  following  is  the  inscription 


on  the  tomb-stone,  '  Sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Knight— born  October  17,  1787,  died  October  11,  1840— he 
laboured  as  a  missionary  in  connection  with  the  C.M.  Society 
at  Jaffna  for  more  than  twenty  years.  Was  wrecked  off  the 
Cape  on  his  way  Home  in  1838,  when  he  is  thought  to  have 
contracted  an  affection  of  the  lungs,  of  which  he  died  shortly 
after  his  return  to  Ceylon.  His  end  was  peace.' 

Although  work  was  commenced  in  1822  and  ten  churches 
have  been  built  in  the  out-stations,  at  the  headqtiarters  in 
Cotta  there  has  never  been  a  proper  church  building,  and 
the  services  have  been  held  in  the  large  hall  of  the  Boys' 
English  School.  In  August,  1904,  the  Rev.  J.  \V.  Balding 
determined  to  raise  money  to  build  a  church  and  issued  an 
appeal  supported  by  the  Metropolitan  and  the  Bishop  of  the 
Diocese.  A  sum  of  about  Rs.  20,000  has  been  received  from 
about  2,500  contributors,  and  a  further  Rs.  10,000  is  needed 
for  the  work. 

On  December  31,  1918,  there  were  in  the  whole  Cotta 
District  four  Ceylonese  clergy  ;  109  lay  workers  ;  thirty-four 
schools  with  1,412  boys  and  1,156  girls,  making  a  total  of 
2,568  pupils;  1,687  Christians,  of  whom  680  were  communi 
cants.  Of  these  Christians  397  were  in  the  Talangama 
Pastorate  and  590  in  the  Nugegoda  Pastorate. 



WORK  in  the  Kandyan  Sinhalese  Itinerancies  was  com 
menced  in  the  year  1853,  and  now  covers  the  greater  part  of 
the  Central,  North-Central  and  North-Western  Provinces  and 
a  portion  of  the  Sabaragamuwa  Province.  For  the  previous 
thirty-five  years  the  work  carried  on  at  the  Kandy  Station 
had  been  almost  entirely  confined  to  the  Low-country  Sinhalese 
resident  in  the  town  and  neighbourhood.  Very  few  Kandyan 
families  resided  in  the  town  itself,  and  the  object  of  this  new 
effort  was  to  convey  the  Gospel  to  the  Kandyans  in  their 
villages.  The  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens  commenced  the  work  in 
July,  1853,  in  the  district  of  Harispattu,  as  being  the  most 
populous  for  its  size  of  the  Kandyan  districts.  The  name 
Harispattu  means  the  '  country  of  the  four  hundred.' 

According  to  tradition  it  received  its  name  from  its  having 
been  originally  peopled  by  four  hundred  captives  brought 
from  the  Coromandel  Coast  by  King  Gaja  Bahu  (113-li>5 
A.D.)  in  lieu  of  those  whom  the  sovereign  of  that  country  had 
carried  off  from  Ceylon  during  the  reign  of  his  father.  The 
country  of  the  '  four  hundred  '  is  now  a  division  with  44,000 

Mr.  Higgens  entered  on  the  work  single-handed,  but  in  the 
first  year,  repeated  attacks  of  jungle-fever  compelled  him  to 
take  a  sea  voyage  to  the  Cape.  On  his  return  he  found  that 
his  wife  had  passed  away  during  his  absence,  but  he  vigor 
ously  resumed  his  preaching  in  Harispattu,  visiting  every 
village  in  turn.  Permanent  outstations  were  commenced  in 
Kurunegala  in  1854  and  at  Hanguranketa  in  1855,  and  the 


Itineration  was  extended  to  other  parts  of  the  country,  includ 
ing  the  populous  districts  of  Uda  Nuwara  and  Yata  Nuwara.. 

Robert  Knox,  who  was  a  prisoner  in  the  interior  of  Ceylon 
from  1659  to  1679,  on  his  escape  from  captivity,  wrote  the 
first  account  we  have  of  Ceylon  in  the  English  language,  in 
which  he  says  of  Uda  Nuwara  and  Yata  Nuwara,  '  These 
two  counties  have  the  pre-eminence  of  all  the  rest  in  the  land. 
They  are  most  populous  and  fruitful.  The  inhabitants  there 
of  are  the  chief  and  principal  men,  insomuch  that  it  is  a  usual 
saying  among  them  that,  if  they  want  a  king,  they  may  take 
any  man,  of  either  of  these  two  counties  from  the  plough,  and 
wash  the  dust  off  him  and  he  by  reason  of  his  quality  and 
descent  is  fit  to  be  a  king.  And  they  have  this  peculiar  privi 
lege,  that  none  may  be  their  Governor  but  one  born  in  their 
own  country.' 

The  great  body  of  the  people,  when  the  Mission  was  com 
menced,  were  entirely  ignorant  of  Christianity. 

In  1854  Mr.  E.  R.  Clarke  joined  the  Mission  and  worked 
in  Yata  and  Uda  Nuwara  for  a  couple  of  years. 

At  Hanguranketa  and  Maturata  small  congregations  had 
been  collected,  and  at  the  former  place  was  built  a  little 
church,  by  a  Sinhalese  gentleman,  Mr.  C.  H.  de  Soysa. 

In  1861  the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones  joined  in  the  work, 
living  on  an  abandoned  coffee  estate  in  Harispattu. 
Mr.  Higgens,  owing  to  repeated  attacks  of  fever,  removed  to 
the  low-country,  and  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Clowes  took  his  place. 
The  Kandyans  of  Harispattu  were  not  responsive  to  the 
Gospel,  so  Mr.  Jones  removed  to  Kurunegala,  about  twenty- 
seven  miles  from  Kandy,  and  made  it  his  centre. 

The  congregation  at  Kurunegala  assumed  a  more  settled 
character  and  a  small  church  was  erected  where  Europeans 
and  Sinhalese  united  in  worship.  The  Rev.  J.  A.  de  Livera 
was  appointed  Pastor,  and  by  his  diligence  the  congregation 
made  further  advance. 





On  Mr.  de  Livera's  removal  in  1862,  Mr.  Jones  again  took 
up  his  residence  there  and  visited  the  villages  around. 

In  one  of  these,  Talampitiya,  some  five  years  previously,  a 
New  Testament  had  been  left,  which  had  been  read  by  the  vil 
lagers.  The  Holy  Spirit  had  blessed  the  reading,  and  when  the 
missionary  visited  them  again,  a  crowd,  attentive  and  earnest, 
listened  to  the  glad  tidings.  Within  a  few  months  thirteen 
men  were  baptized,  one  of  them  formerly  a  Buddhist  priest. 
These  converts  became  missionaries  to  their  own  people, 
with  the  result  that  fourteen  more  adults  were  baptized. 
About  this  time  Mr.  Jones  was  compelled  to  return  to 
England  and  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens  again  took  charge. 
The  Rev.  John  Allcock  also  arrived.  The  Church  at  Talam 
pitiya  continued  to  prosper,  and  up  to  1867  fifty  converts 
from  Buddhism  had  been  baptized,  some  of  them  men  of 
much  intellect  as  well  as  deep  spirituality.  One  of  the  first 
converts  was  Elandege  Abraham,  whose  Christian  life  and 
character  showed  the  reality  of  his  faith.  He  became  an 
earnest  evangelist  and  in  later  years  often  accompanied  the 
missionaries  in  their  preaching  tours.  He  passed  to  his  rest 
on  December  13,  1891,  and  was  buried  in  the  Talampitiya 
churchyard.  In  1866  Mr.  Higgens  was  transferred  to  another 
district,  and  Mr.  Allcock  became  Superintendent. 

In  1870  Mr.  Jones  was  again  in  charge  and  the  work  was 
extended  to  Anuradhapura,  the  ancient  capital  of  the  Island. 
Two  catechists  visited  it  and  the  country  round  for  a  con 
siderable  distance,  preaching  and  distributing  tracts.  The 
journey  was  undertaken  •  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Louts 
Liesching,  a  Government  official  there,  who  collected  the 
money  to  pay  the  travelling  expenses  of  the  workers. 
Mr.  Jones  also  spent  the  month1  of  April  visiting  the  villages. 
At  the  close  of  the  same  year  a  Girls'  Boarding  School  was 
begun  in  Kandy  by  Mrs.  Jones  with  seven  boarders  ;  the 
following  year  there  were  thirteen.  Catechists  were  stationed 


at  Ruanwela,  Kegalle  and  Nawalapitiya.  A  church  com 
mittee  was  formed  at  Gampola,  and  efforts  were  made  to  pay 
the  salary  and  house-rent  of  the  catechist. 

In  July,  1872,  the  Rev.  S.  Coles  took  charge,  at  which  time 

there  were  eight  catechists  and  six   readers  and  a  number  of 

village  schools.     In  1877  the   Rev.  G.   F.   Unwin,  who  had 

been  for  a  short  time  in  Kegalle,  moved  to  Anuradhapura,  but 

owing  to  ill-health  had  to  return  to   England  the   following 

year.     Mr.  Coles  was  now  left  single-handed   in   the  district 

with  twenty-seven  congregations,  forty  day  schools  and  1,200 

Christians.     In  1880  Mr.  Coles  broke  down,  and   Mr.  Jones 

again    took    charge,   residing    at    Kurunegala.      The    Holy 

Emmanuel   Church    was   built   and   opened   in    1881.     The 

Rev.   G.    L.  P.   Liesching   arrived  in    1882,  and   worked  in 

the    Kegalle   and    Kurunegala   districts  for   nearly  nineteen 

years.     During  his  time  a  Mission  House  was  purchased  at 

Kegalle,   and   a   Girls'    Boarding    School    opened   on    June 

1,   1895.     The  Rev.  J.    Allcock  had  charge  of  the  Central 

District   from    1884    till    his    death    in    Kandy    in    March, 

1887.     In  the   year   1886  sixty-five  adults   and  twenty-two 

children  were  baptized  by  Mr.   Allcock  and  eleven  adults  and 

nineteen  children  by  Mr.  Liesching.     The   following  year  the 

invasion   of  the   district  by   the    Salvation   Army  caused   a 

division  among  the  Talampitiya  Christians. 

In  1888  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Garrett  took  charge  of  the  Central 
District,  residing  in  Kandy,  and  for  twenty-three  years  with 
enthusiasm  and  earnestness  threw  his  very  best  into  the  work. 
Early  in  1911  he  returned  to  Dublin  to  undergo  an  operation 
and  shortly  after  was  called  to  his  eternal  rest.  • 

The  centre  of  women's  work  in  the  Central  District  is  the 
Mowbray  Home.  This  embodies  a  development  of  the  village 
work  begun  by  Miss  Denyer,  who  first  came  out  in  1889  with 
Miss  Bellerby  and  Miss  James  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  but  after 
wards  attached  herself  to  the  C.M.S.  as  an  honorary  worker. 

MOWBRAY    GKOUP.    1916 



After  some  years  of  itinerating  work  with  Kandy  as  her  centre, 
she  was  joined  in  1897  by  Miss  A.  L.  Earp  from  the  parish 
of  Mowbray,  S.  Africa.  During  their  village  work^tbey,  &v 
•came  convinced  that  it  was  necessary  to  get  enquirers  away 
from  their  heathen  surroundings,  at  any  rate  until  their  faith 
was  established,  and  to  this  end  they  obtained  help  from  Miss 
Earp's  home  parish  and  took  up  their  quarters  in  various 
rented  houses  one  after  another.  Here  they  gathered  round 
them  various  grades  of  enquirers,  some  with  their  families, 
and  also  received  village  women  sent  on  from  the  C.E.Z. 
Mission  in  Gampola  to  be  tested  and  taught.  There  were 
some  real  conversions,  and  some  converts  of  that  day  are  still 
Christian  workers,  as  are  also  their  children.  Rescue  work 
was  attempted,  but  experience  showed  that  it  could  not  be 
carried  on  with  the  other  work  and  accordingly  it  was  handed 
over  to  the  Salvation  Army.  The  work  found  a  permanent 
home  in  1906  after  the  purchase  and  adaptation  of  the 
bungalow  and  grounds  now  known  as  Mowbray.  Here 
enquirers  from  many  villages  were  taken  in  and  taught,  not 
only  Christianity,  but  elementary  secular  subjects  and 

Miss  Hargrove  came  out  in  1908  and  was  located  to 
Mowbray  for  language  study.  In  1910  Miss  Earp  writes  :— 
'  Sixteen  have  been  admitted  into  the  Home  this  year,  and 
two  of  the  girls  baptized.  These  two  are  the  first  fruits  of  an 
old  girl's  work  in  a  village  school.  Five  of  the  girls  confirm 
ed  at  Kegalle  were  sent  to  school  there  from  Mowbray,  and 
another  girl,  confirmed  at  Gampola,  is  a  prcbationary  Bible- 
woman  there.  Three  of  the  old  girls  are  now  employed  as 
teachers  in  the  Home.  There  have  been  no  less  than  six 
Christian  marriages  this  year,  five  of  them  with  C.M.S. 
workers.  The  new  Maternity  Home  and  Biblewomen's 
House  are  nearing  completion  and  the  Mission  House  in 
Hurikaduwa  is  finished.' 


In  1911  Miss  Earp  mentions  the  opening  of  a  Training. 
Home  for  Biblewomen  and  the  admission  of  four  women 
for  training.  She  also  reports  the  baptism  of  seven  con 
verts.  Miss  Earp  resigned  in  1914  and  Miss  Denyer,  with 
the  help  of  Miss  Findlay,  an  honorary  worker  from  S. 
Africa,  carried  on  the  work,  the  Biblewomen's  Training 
Class  being  given  up.  Miss  Hargrove  returned  from  fur 
lough  early  in  1915  and  was  put  in  charge  of  the  '  Home  ' 
work,  Miss  Josolyne  also  living  at  Mowbray  and  doing 
evangelistic  work  among  the  women  and  girls  of  the  district- 
Miss  Denyer  left  for  England  in  1915  after  sixteen  years  of 
faithful  and  devoted  honorary  service  in  the  Mission. 

In  his  last  annual  report  at  the  close  of  1910  Mr.  Garrett 
gives  the  following  statistics  :  '  Sixteen  catechists  and  lay 
readers,  two  Biblewomen,  712  Christians,  312  communicants,, 
fifty-three  men  teachers,  twenty-seven  wTomen  teachers,  forty- 
four  schools  and  4,878  scholars.'  In  another  part  he  writes,. 
'  The  schools  are  crowded  out  with  the  very  children  we  want 
to  reach.'  '  But  till  a  Spirit-filled  Sinhalese  evangelistic 
agency  is  raised  up  the  work  will  not  grow.'  The  whole 
community  in  a  village  gathered  to  witness  the  first  two 
baptisms  ever  seen  in  the  place.  Two  young  men,  aged 
eighteen  and  fifteen,  answered  most  satisfactorily,  showing  a 
grasp  of  the  teaching  as  to  the  Holy  Spirit.  The  scene  was 
most  impressive,  a  schoolroom,  i.e.,  a  shed  on  rough  posts, 
with  mud  walls  four  feet  high,  a  clay  bench  all  along  three 
sides,  a  sloping  board  nailed  on  two  posts  for  a  school  desk,  the 
village  fathers  all  in  a  long  line  along  one  mud  bench  which 
forms  half  our  school  furniture  ;  the  children,  twenty-seven  in 
number,  along  the  opposite  side  behind  the  desk ;  several 
little  ones  on  the  floor  looking  up  at  the  bowl  of  water  on  my 
white  table  cloth  :  the  mothers  all  lining  the  wall  outside, 
looking  over  the  children's  heads  ;  the  catechist  and  school 
master  on  our  two  school  chairs,  the  only  ones  in  the  village, 


behind  the  little  children,  facing  the  table.  My  Christian 
servant  and  Mark,  a  new  convert  from  a  neighbouring  village, 
formed  the  Christian  congregation.  I  read  all  the  service 
carefully  and  explained  almost  every  clause,  after  which  my 
two  brothers,  Richard  and  Thomas,  came  and  knelt  on  a  mat 
before  the  table,  and,  pouring  a  handful  of  water  over  them, 
I  admitted  them  into  the  fellowship  of  the  people  of  Him  who 
died  for  them,  and  I  believe  they  are  indeed  living  members 
•of  His  body.' 

In  September,  1891,  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  G.  Liesching  left 
and  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Dibben  took  charge  of  the  Western 
Itinerancy  until  June,  1893,  when  Mr.  Coles  became  respon 
sible  until  Mr.  Liesching's  return.  In  January,  1895,  the 
Itinerancy  which  had  hitherto  been  divided  into  two  districts, 
the  Central  and  the  Western,  was  further  divided,  and  a  new 
one  called  the  Northern  Itinerancy  was  formed  and  placed  in 
•charge  of  the  Rev.  H.  E.  Heinekey. 

In  July,  1898,  Major  Mathison,  an  honorary  lay  missionary, 
was  appointed  to  evangelistic  work  in  the  Dumbara  portion 
of  the  Northern  Itinerancy,  while  the  Rev.  J.  Colombage  was 
working  in  Anuradhapura  and  the  Rev.  F.  W.  Daundesekara 
in  Kegalle. 

Mr.  Liesching  returned  to  England  in  July,  1899,  and  the 
Rev.  S.  M.  Simmons  took  his  place  in  January,  1900,  and 
shortly  afterwards  Miss  S.  C.  Lloyd  and  Miss  M.  S.  Gedge 
were  appointed  to  work  in  the  district.  In  1903  the  Rev. 
C.  T.  Williams  became  Pastor  at  Anuradhapura,  and  Major 
Mathison  had  charge  of  the  evangelistic  and  school  work. 
During  his  superintendence  a  new  mission  house  costing 
about  Rs.  12,000  was  built.  The  same  year  Mr.  Simmons 
was  invalided  home  and  the  Rev.  W.  G.  Shorten  took  up  his 
residence  in  Kegalle. 

Mr.  Heinekey  whilst  in  Anuradhapura  was  instrumental  in 
•collecting  a  large  proportion  of  the  money  for  the  building  of 


a  church,  the  foundation-stone  of  which  was  laid  by  the 
Bishop  on  August  26,  1905.  On  St.  Andrew's  Day  of  the 
following  year  the  building,  which  had  cost  over  Rs.  16,000, 
was  consecrated  as  St.  Andrew's  Church.  When  Major 
Mathison  left  on  furlough  in  1908,  there  were  191  Christians, 
fifty-seven  communicants,  twenty-eight  enquirers,  five  cate- 
chists  and  four  schools  with  196  scholars. 

The  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde  succeeded  Major  Mathison,  and  had 
just  prepared  the  mission  house  for  the  residence  of  himself  and 
family,  when  he  passed  away  after  a  short  illness  in  Colombo. 
In  1907  Miss  A.  K.  Deering  and  Miss  Bennett  were  working 
in  Kegalle,  whilst  the  following  year  Miss  M.  S.  Gedge  and 
Miss  S.H.M.  Townshend  had  charge  of  the  women's  work.  In 
June,  1909,  the  Rev.  R.  H.  Phair  made  Kurunegala  his  head 
quarters,  and  the  Rev.  C.  Wijesinghe  was  appointed  Pastor,, 
but  on  the  return  of  Mr.  Shorten,  Mr.  Phair  moved  to  Anura- 
dhapura  and  took  over  the  Northern  Itinerancy.  The  Rev. 
A.  M.  Walmsley  for  eight  months  had  been  spending  a  week 
each  month  in  the  district  in  addition  to  his  work  at 
Trinity  College. 

In  1911  the  Rev.  J.  P.  S.  R.  Gibson  paid  periodical  visits 
and  the  Rev,  J.  D.  Welcome  was  Pastor  in  Anuradhapura. 

On  the  death  of  Mr.  Garrett,  the  Rev.  W.  G.  Shorten  was 
appointed  to  the  Central  Itineration  and  Miss  M.  S.  Gedge 
took  charge  of  the  Kegalle  Girls'  Boarding  School. 

The  following  year  Mr.  Walmsley  was  in  charge  of  the 
Northern  Itineration  for  six  months,  after  which  the  Rev.  and 
Mrs.  T.  S.  Johnson  took  up  their  residence  in  Anuradhapura. 
In  the  annual  report  for  1913  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson 
says,  '  Anuradhapura  may  be  regarded  as  the  most  interesting 
town  in  the  Island.  Here  is  a  buried  city  of  ancient  fame 
and  splendour,  where  Sinhalese  kings  reigned  at  the  zenith 
of  Sinhalese  history  and  where  to-day  ruins,  rivalled  only  by 
those  of  Egypt,  lift  themselves  skyward  from  the  mass  of 


jungle  and  scrub  with  which  thousands  of  square  miles  of 
country  is  covered.' 

The  Rev.  R.  H.  Phair  was  again  back  as  Superintendent  of 
the  Western  Itinerancy,  and  in  1913  writes  : — '  The  Buddhist 
opposition  has  been  bitter  and  persistent.  Those  who  are  at 
variance  in  every  other  matter  are  united  in  opposition  to  the 
cause  of  Christ.  False  stories  backed  by  false  witnesses  and 
fabrications  of  all  sorts  are  alleged  against  us  and  our 
teaching.  The  Jesuits  in  some  places  add  their  rivalry  to 
Buddhist  opposition  and  in  face  of  all  this  there  is  a  lack  of 

In  1915  the  Kegalle  Girls'  Boarding  School  was  again  in 
charge  of  Miss  M.  S.  Gedge  with  the  assistance  of  Miss  de 
Vos,  and  Miss  E.  M.  Josolyne  was  released  for  work  at 

Mr.  Shorten  went  on  furlough  in  May,  1915,  the  Rev.  A.  M. 
Walmsley  taking  charge  of  the  Central  Itinerancy.  At  the 
close  of  the  year  he  gives  the  following  statistics: — 'One  Sinha 
lese  clergyman,  four  catechists,  three  readers,  three  Bible- 
women,  141  teachers,  830  Christians,  335  communicants, 
nineteen  adults  and  forty-two  children  baptized,  fifty-seven 
catechumens,  forty  confirmed,  forty-four  schools  and  5,378 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Itinerancy  the  missionary  had  to 
tramp  from  village  to  village  or  use  a  springless  bullock  cart 
as  his  means  of  locomotion.  The  present-day  missionary  has 
his  motor  cycle  and  Mr.  Walmsley  writes  : — '  In  rain  and 
shine,  up  hill  and  down  dale,  by  day  and  by  night,  it  has  been 
my  constant  companion  and  scarcely  ever-failing  friend.  It 
hardly  ever  grows  weary,  and  still  more  rarely  grumbles. 
We  have  travelled  together,  during  the  past  year,  over  seven 
thousand  miles,  and  have  never  yet  broken  an  engagement.' 

On  October  6,  1916,  Mr.  Phair,  then  in  charge  of  the 
Northern  Itinerancy,  met  with  a  serious  accident  whilst  riding 


his  motor  cycle.  He  collided  with  a  bullock  cart  and  his 
injuries  were  so  serious  that  his  right  leg  had  to  be  amputated. 
From  the  shock  of  this  operation  he  never  fully  recovered. 
In  January,  1917,  he  left  for  England  and  returned  to  his 
work  in  February,  1918,  before  physically  fit  to  resume  it. 

Several  of  the  old  mud-and-thatch  school  buildings  have 
been  replaced  by  more  substantial  ones  during  the  last  few 
years.  Just  before  leaving  Mr.  Shorten  made  the  following 
entry  in  the  log-book  of  Gonagama  School  which  was  re-open 
ed  in  June,  1915  : — '  This  building  has  an  interesting  history. 
The  site  is  our  own  property.  The  zinc  for  the  roof  was 
given  by  Mr.  L.  W.  A.  de  Soysa.  The  sawing  expenses 
were  paid  by  Mr.  Williams,  a  planter.  The  trees  were  given 
by  Government,  except  for  one  jak  tree  which  was  given 
by  Mr.  Soysa.  The  teacher  got  the  villagers  to  transport  all 
the  timber — some  2,000  square  feet — free,  from  a  jungle  four 
miles  away,  the  best  bit  of  work  I  have  ever  got  done 
through  a  teacher.  The  zinc — 1  ton,  4  cwts — was  brought 
by  the  school  children,  three  miles  away  over  a  mountain 
pass,  without  costing  me  a  cent.  Mr.  R.  E.  S.  de  Soysa 
transported  it  from  Kandy  to  Hanguranketa  at  the  same  rate. 
When  I  visited  this  place  on  March  5  three  or  four  coolies 
were  leisurely  clearing  the  ground  or  site  for  the  new  build 
ing.  All  the  timber  was  then  growing,  except  two  trees, 
which  had  been  cut  down  the  previous  week.  The  dressed 
stones  for  the  pillars  were  still  solid  rock,  and  neither  sand 
nor  lime  were  collected.  This  is  May  7,  and  the  building  is 
now  practically  finished.  The  success  of  the  effort  is  largely 
due  to  the  zeal  and  hard  work  of  the  head  teacher.1 

Mr.  Walmsley  writes  : — '  We  can  say,  in  all  humility  and 
thankfulness  to  God,  that  the  work  is  progressing.  I  am 
sure  that  the  men  and  women  working  away  quietly  in  scores 
of  villages  are  testifying  by  word  and  life,  and  that  we  shall 
continue  steadily  to  reap  the  fruits  of  their  labours  in  the 


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Lord.  In  one  village  I  found  a  bright  sweet-faced  woman 
with  eight  children,  who  gave  evidence  of  an  earnest  desire  to 
become  a  Christian.  She  is  learning  regularly,  and  seems  to 
drink  in  what  one  says.  I  remember  what  a  joy  it  was  to 
watch  her  face,  as  I  told  her  recently  of  Christ's  sacrifice  for 
her  sins.  We  have  as  many  enquirers,  catechumens  and 
candidates  for  confirmation  as  we  can  well  deal  with,  con 
sidering  the  amount  of  time  available  for  that  side  of  our 
work,  and  so  we  thank  God  and  take  courage. 

If  one  were  determined  to  look  on  the  dark  side  of  things 
there  is  always  enough  to  break  one's  heart.  Indeed,  Ceylon 
has  always  been  a  heart-breaking  place,  from  a  missionary 
point  of  view.  Why  it  should  be  so,  I  have  been  trying  for 
nearly  ten  years  to  find  out,  but  so  far  unsuccessfully. 
Doubtless  a  great  deal  of  the  difficulty  is  accounted  for  by  the 
inexpressible  inertia  of  Buddhism.  It  seems  impossible  to  get 
a  move  on,  to  make,  the  dry  bones  live.  Men  who  come  to 
face  Ceylon  Buddhism  must  realize  that  God  only  wants  men 
who  can  do  the  impossible,  men  who  can  do  all  things  through 
Christ,  Who  strengtheneth  them.' 

In  1916  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson,  who  had  for  three  and  a 
half  years  ministered  in  three  languages,  was  transferred 
from  Anuradhapura  to  the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission,  while  still 
remaining  in  charge  of  the  Anuradhapura  district. 

The  Rev.  J.  N.  Seneviratne,  who  as  curate  to  the  incumbent 
of  Gampola,  has  the  pastoral  oversight  of  the  work  of  that  town 
and  in  addition  is  in  charge  of  St.  Andrew's,  Nawalapitiya,  in 
his  report  for  1916,  says: — 'The  Pastorate  consists  of  three 
congregations,  English  and  Sinhalese  at  Gampola,  and 
Sinhalese  at  Nawalapitiya.  The  membership  is  as  follows  : — 
English — sixty  adults,  twenty  communicants ;  Sinhalese 
(Gampola) — eighty-five  adultsj>  sixty-four  communicants ; 
Sinhalese  (Nawalapitiya) — forty-six  adults,  eighteen  communi 
cants.  The  contributions  to  the  pastorate  amounted  to 


Rs.  1,561  during  the  year.  A  Confirmation  Service  was  held 
at  Nawalapitiya  in  three  languages,  when  thirty-eight  candi 
dates  were  presented.  From  1906  to  the  present  date  the 
attendance  at  St.  Andrew's  Church  has  been  steadily  increas 
ing,  and  the  building  is  not  large  enough  to  accommodate  the 
congregation.  A  Building  Committee  has  been  appointed  and 
it  is  hoped  to  raise  Rs.  25,000  during  the  next  three  years  in 
order  to  build  a  new  church.' 



THERE  are  several  theories  of  the  derivation  of  the  name 
Colombo.  Some  connect  it  with  the  Kelani  River,  which 
enters  the  sea  near  Colombo,  by  others  it  is  said  to  be  derived 
from  Calamba,  a  seaport  or  fortified  place.  The  derivation 
most  generally  received  is  that  the  village  and  port  were 
originally  known  as  Colontota,  from  the  Sinhalese  words 
Cola — amba — tota,  '  mango  leaves  port.'  The  Portuguese, 
finding  a  name  so  like  that  of  their  famous  navigator  Chris 
topher  Columbus,  called  the  city  Colombo. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  the  Khalif  of  Baghdad,  in  the  tenth 
century,  hearing  that  the  Moorish  traders  settled  in  Colombo 
were  not  very  orthodox  Mohammedans,  sent  a  priest  to  instruct 
them,  who  also  built  a  mosque  for  their  use. 

A  writer  in  1344  described  Kalambu  as  the  finest  town  in 

At  the  first  census  of  the  people  of  Ceylon,  of  which  there 
is  any  record,  in  1824,  the  population  of  Colombo  is  given  as 
31,188  ;  in  1871  the  population  had  increased  to  95,843  ;  and 
in  1911  to  211,274. 

Percival,  writing  in  1803  of  Colombo,  says  : — '  There  is  no 
part  of  the  world  where  so  many  different  languages  are 
spoken,  or  which  contains  such  a  mixture  of  nations,  manners 
and  religions.'  This  description  remains  true  to-day. 

At  the  census  of  1911,  persons  of  seventy-eight  different 
races  were  enumerated  in  Colombo  ;  these  included  2,374 
British,  110  French,  97  Germans,  13,485  Burghers  and 
Eurasians,  2,495  Kandyan  Sinhalese,  91,590  low-country 


Sinhalese,  15,252  Ceylon  Tamils,  36,717  Indian  Tamils, 
24,4S1  Ceylon  Moors,  13,688  Indian  Moors  and  5,364  Malays. 
Among  the  other  races  represented  were  Americans,  Australi 
ans,  Arabs,  Boers,  Chinese,  Canadians,  Japanese,  Egyptians, 
Parsees,  Kaffirs,  Zulus,  Maldivians,  Burmese  and  Maoris. 

The  proportion  per  cent  of  the  adherents  of  the  four  chief 
religions  to  the  total  population  in  Colombo  in  1911  was 
Buddhists  30-89,  Christians  28-31,  Mohammedans,  21-56  and 
Hindus  19-07.  The  Church  Missionary  Society  did  not 
commence  a  settled  work  in  Colombo  until  the  year  1850, 
although  it  was  their  intention  that  one  of  the  four  missionaries 
first  appointed  to  Ceylon  should  be  stationed  there.  The  first 
missionaries  thought  it  more  desirable  to  occupy  villages  near 
large  towns  than  the  towns  themselves.  In  1828  the  Rev. 
A.  Armour,  Chaplain  of  St.  Paul's  Church  in  Colombo, 
addressed  a  letter  to  the  Conference  assembled  at  Cotta 
urging  them  to  begin  work  in  Colombo,  but  the  invitation  was 
not  accepted.  In  1843  a  C.  M.  S.  Association  was  formed 
under  the  patronage  of  Sir  Colin  Campbell,  the  Governor,  in 
Colombo,  to  help  the  Mission  with  funds. 

In  1850  the  Parent  Society  reviewed  their  missions  and 
said  :  '  While  most  of  the  missions  have  enlarged  themselves, 
the  Ceylon  Mission  has  remained  almost  stationary.  Exten 
sion  in  a  mission  must  be  looked  for,  and  in  this  respect  at 
least,  the  Ceylon  Mission  has  proved  unsatisfactory.  Inviting 
fields  present  themselves  continually  in  other  parts  of  the 
world,  and  when  these  are  put  in  contrast  with  the  Ceylon 
Mission,  a  temptation  to  withdraw  its  forces  for  employment 
under  brighter  prospects  arises. 

The  Home  Committee  could  not  entertain  the  idea  of  with 
drawal  until  their  best  efforts  should  have  been  made  for  its 
improvement.  For  this  purpose  they  have  adopted  a  new 
system  of  management  for  the  mission.  A  Central  Committee, 
Avith  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  as  its  President,  has  been 


appointed,   and    its    permanent     Secretary     will     reside    in 

The  Secretary  here  referred  to  was  the  Rev.  G.  Pettitt, 
who  arrived  from  Tinnevelly  in  April,  1850,  and  visited  the 
stations  before  taking  up  his  residence  in  Colombo  in 
November  of  the  same  year. 

He  found  a  few  Sinhalese  catechists  at  work  in  Colombo 
and  a  few  converts,  and  these  were  organized  under  the  Rev. 
C.  Jayasinghe.  Tamil  work  was  commenced  and  a  catechist 
employed.  The  duties  of  Mr.  Pettitt,  as  Secretary  to  the 
Central  Committee,  did  not  include  any  ministerial  work,  and 
he  suggested  that  a  church  should  be  built,  where  the  Secre 
tary  might  take  regular  English  duty.  A  sub-committee  was 
appointed  to  enquire  whether  there  was  room  in  Colombo  for 
another  church,  and  the  facts  ascertained  were  such  as  to  lead 
to  the  conclusion  that  the  building  of  another  church  was  a 
great  desideratum. 

The  Parent  Committee  agreed  and  gave  ^"700  on  condition 
that  local  assistance  should  also  be  given.  An  appeal  was 
issued  in  September,  1851,  and  on  January  21,  1853,  the 
foundation-stone  was  laid.  The  land  was  purchased  for  £225 
1  on  the  Esplanade  of  the  Fort  called  the  Galle  Face,  near  to 
the  bridge  which  passes  from  it  into  Slave  Island,  and  on  the 
edge  of  the  lake.  With  the  sea  at  a  distance  of  about  three 
hundred  yards  in  front  and  the  lake  close  behind  it,  the  situa 
tion  is  both  cool  and  pleasant.' 

On  October  13,  of  the  same  year,  the  church  was 
opened  for  Divine  Service  by  Bishop  Chapman,  who  preached 
a  sermon  from  Malachi  i.  11,  '  From  the  rising  of  the  sun 
even  unto  the  going  down  of  the  same,  My  name  shall  be 
great  among  the  Gentiles.' 

In  the  next  annual  report  of  the  C.M.S.  the  Rev.  Henry 
Venn,  the  Secretary,  referred  to  this  service  as  '  affording 
a  happy  illustration  of  one  of  the  main  objects  of  the 


erection   of  the  church— the  union  of  races   in    the    Church 
of  Christ.' 

The   total  expenditure  for   the   site,    the   church   with  its 
fittings,  and  the  churchyard  wall  was  ^1,566. 

The  Rev.  G.  Pettitt  ministered  to  the  English  and  Tamil 
•congregations  of  Christ  Church  until  January,  1 355,  when  he 
left  for  England,  and  the  Rev.  H.  Whitley,  Curate  of  Sapcote, 
Leicester,  was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

In  1857  a  piece  of  land  was  acquired  adjoining  the  church 
premises  upon  which  a  parsonage  was  built.  The  Parent 
•Committee  made  a  grant  of  /"600  which  was  supplemented 
by  local  funds  and  subscriptions  of  ^"450  towards  this 
purpose.  The  house  was  completed  by  the  end  of  September, 
1860.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Whitley  took  possession  in  October,  but 
on  November  10  Mr.  Whitley  received  fatal  injuries  through 
the  falling  of  a  wall  in  the  church  premises.  Bishop 
Chapman  wrote  to  the  C.M.S.:— '  The  last  sad  offices  were 
solemnized  by  myself  on  the  following  evening  amid  more 
universal  sorrow  than  I  have  witnessed  on  any  previous 
occasion.  The  pall  was  borne  by  persons  of  the  highest 
position  in  the  Colony.'  A  tablet  in  the  Church  records  that 
4  Mr.  Whitley  ministered  to  congregations  worshipping  in 
three  different  languages '  and  that  '  he  was  also  a  faithful 
and  earnest  preacher  of  the  Gospel  to  the  heathen  population 
of  the  town.'  A  memorial  stone  set  in  the  floor  of  the  school 
room  at  Galle  Face  records  the  circumstances  of  his  death. 
Early  in  1861  the  Rev.  C.  C.  Fenn  removed  from  Cotta  to 
Colombo,  and  carried  on  the  work  until  the  end  of  the  year, 
when  he  was  joined  by  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands.  Mr. 
Rowlands  was  directed  to  give  his  attention  to  the  study  of 
Tamil  and  to  assist  Mr.  Fenn  in  the  English  services,  which 
he  did  until  October,  1862,  when  he  was  transferred  to  the 
Tamil  Cooly  Mission.  The  following  year  Mr.  Fenn  left  for 
England,  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Clowes  was  appointed  to  Christ 


Church   and   in   January,   1864,    Mr.  Rowlands   returned    to 

In  1866  Mr.  Clowes  left  and  the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones, 
while  residing  at  Cotta,  assisted  in  the  work.  In  1867  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  Mill  was  appointed  to  Colombo  and  with  Mr. 
Rowlands  worked  among  the  Tamil-speaking  population. 

In  February,  1865,  the  Government  made  a  grant  of  land 
situated  in  the  Cinnamon  Gardens  near  the  Borella  Road  for 
the  erection  of  a  mission  house  and  school.  To  erect  these 
buildings  the  Parent  Committee  made  a  grant  of  .£"600,  the 
Local  Fund  ^"50,  while  £133  raised  some  years  before  for  a 
Sinhalese  Boarding  School  was  appropriated,  a  Sale  of  Work 
in  the  Colombo  Racquet  Court  produced  ^246  and  nearly 
-£"700  was  received  by  subscriptions.  The  mission  house 
and  school  were  soon  built  and  on  December,  1867,  the 
first  pupils  were  admitted  to  the  Tamil  Girls'  Boarding 
School,  Borella,  the  foundation  of  which  had  been  laid  by 
Mrs.  Temple  on  the  previous  June  14. 

In  his  report  of  the  following  year  Mr.  Rowlands  (who  had 
been  mainly  instrumental  by  his  own  efforts  and  liberality  in 
procuring  the  Borella  land  and  buildings)  writes  : — '  There 
cannot  be  a  doubt  that  if  we  are  enabled  to  carry  on  the 
school  as  we  desire,  and  if  the  Divine  blessing  follow  our 
efforts,  the  school  will  tend  very  much  to  improve  the  condi 
tion  of  the  young  women  of  the  upper  classes,  and  thereby 
confer  a  benefit  which  cannot  easily  be  over-estimated  upon 
the  Tamil  people  generally.' 

In  July,  1870,  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens  took  charge  of  the 
English  work  at  Christ  Church,  the  evangelistic  work  among 
the  Sinhalese  and  the  management  of  the  Sinhalese  schools, 
and  the  Rev.  H.  Gunasekara  was  appointed  Pastor  of  the 
Sinhalese  congregations. 

Preaching  was  carried  on  in  the  streets  and  lanes,  in  the 
'coftee-curing  establishments  and  at  the  Police  Court,  and  the 


hospitals  and  jails  were  visited.  Services  were  held  by  Mr. 
Gunasekara  in  school-rooms  at  Maradana,  Hunupitiya  and 
Borella,  whilst  the  Sunday  afternoon  service  at  Christ  Church 
had  an  average  attendance  of  fifty-three  Sinhalese. 

The  Tamil  work  was  vigorously  carried  on  by  Mr.  Row 
lands  ;  work  was  started  on  the  coconut  and  cinnamon 
estates  in  the  Negombo  district,  and  a  congregation  of  fifty 
Christians  living  at  Thiverlei  was  taken  over.  Preaching  was 
carried  on  in  the  streets  and  coffee  stores.  There  were  also 
four  congregations  of  Tamil  Christians,  numbering  478  persons. 

In  September,  1871,  Mr.  Rowlands  sailed  for  England  and 
the  Rev.  D.  Wood  took  charge.  This  year  the  Rev.  C. 
Jayasinghe  was  the  Pastor  of  the  Christ  Church  Sinhalese 

The  Rev.  H.  Newton  became  Incumbent  of  Christ  Church 
in  February,  1877,  and  the  following  year  the  Rev.  J.  I. 
Pickford  arrived  to  strengthen  the  Tamil  Mission. 

Both  the  Boys'  and  Girls'  Boarding  Schools  at  Borella  were 
full  of  children,  and  the  number  of  Christians  on  the  congre 
gational  lists  was  1,092.  Their  subscriptions  in  1879  amounted 
to  Rs.  1,189-02.  Miss  M.  Young  arrr  ed  in  1879  to  take 
charge  of  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  and  was  married  in 
1880  to  the  Rev.  J.  I.  Pickford.  The  same  year  the  average 
number  present  at  Christ  Church  English  service  was  144  in 
the  morning  and  130  in  the  evening  on  Sundays,  and  49  at  che 
Wednesday  evening  service.  The  Rev.  J.  Gabb  was  assisting 
at  the  Tamil  services. 

In  1881  Miss  M.  Hall  arrived  to  help  in  the  Girls'  Boarding 
School.  She  was  not  only  the  youngest  missionary  ever  sent 
out  by  the  C.M.S.  but  the  only  lady  worker  sent  out  that  year 
to  any  mission  field.  Three  years  later  she  was  married  to 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding. 

On  June  30,  1881,  St.  Luke's  Church,  ^Borella,  was 
opened,  when  the  Rev.  J.  I.  Jones,  who  had  also  laid  the 




foundation-stone  in  the  previous  year,   preached   the  sermon. 
Services  are  now  held  there  in  Sinhalese,  Tamil  and  English. 

The  Rev.  H.  Newton  on  his  retirement  from  Ceylon  sug 
gested  to  the  Parent  Committee  the  holding  of  '  Missionary 
Missions '  or  '  Special  Missionary  Weeks,'  and  he  was 
appointed  one  of  the  first  missioners.  The  first  '  Special 
Missionary  Week  '  was  held  in  England  in  December,  1883, 
when  the  Rev.  S.  Coles  of  Ceylon,  who  was  at  home  on 
furlough,  was  one  of  the  missioners. 

In  1883  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens  again  took  charge  of  Christ 
Church  and  the  Rev.  S.  Samuel  assisted  with  the  Tamil 

During  the  year  1886  over  four  thousand  persons  visited  the 
mission  room  in  the  Pettah  to  converse  on  the  subject  of 
Christianity.  This  room,  to  quote  the  words  of  a  Tamil 
Christian,  was  '  like  a  good  well  of  water  cut  in  a  dry  plain.' 

The  Rev.  J.  I.  Pickford  left  for  England  in  1887  and  the 
Rev.  D.  Wood  early  in  1888,  when  the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley  took 
charge  of  the  Colombo  Tamil  work. 

Miss  Eva  Young,  who  arrived  in  1884,  began  work  among 
the  Hindu  and  Mohammedan  women  assisted  by  five  Bible- 

In  1890  the  Tamil  work  was  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  J.  D. 
Thomas.  Miss  Thomas  superintended  the  Biblewomen  and 
was  assisted  by  Miss  B.  Child  who  arrived  in  1891. 

A  house  and  garden  for  the  Slave  Island  pastor  was  bought 
by  the  Tamil  Christians,  and  at  Wellawatte  a  school  chapel 
and  residence  for  a  Tamil  worker  erected.  A  piece  of  land 
was  also  purchased  at  Maradana,  on  which  were  erected  a 
school  and  a  house. 

It  is  interesting  to  mention  here  that  the  month  of  Decem 
ber,  1893,  marked  a  great  epoch  in  the  history  of  the. Uganda 
mission  in  Africa.     Pilkington,  one  of  the  missionaries,  there, 
received    into  his  soul  $  message,  from  God  through  .a  little 


book  written  by  V.  D.  David,  a  Tamil  evangelist,  which  led 
to  a  great  spiritual  revival  in  Uganda.  David  was  for  some 
years  a  worker  in  the  Tamil  mission  in  Colombo. 

In  1895  the  Tamil  clergymen,  the  Revs.  S.  Samuel  and  P. 
Peter,  died  within  six  weeks  of  each  other.  The  Rev.  G.  T. 
Fleming  took  over  part  of  the  Tamil  work,  but  in  the  follow 
ing  year  both  he  and  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Thomas  were  called  to 
higher  service.  Mrs.  Thomas  remained  in  Ceylon,  continuing 
in  missionary  work.  The  school  hall  adjoining  St.  Luke's 
Church,  Borella,  was  erected  as  a  memorial  to  Mr.  Fleming. 

In  1895  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Dibben  took  charge  of  Christ 
Church  and  the  work  among  the  Portuguese.  A  branch  of 
the  Boys'  Brigade  was  started  and  also  a  branch  of  the 
Gleaners'  Union. 

In  1897,  owing  to  the  fall  of  part  of  the  west  wall  and  the 
generally  unsatisfactory  state  of  the  fabric  of  Christ  Church, 
it  was  pulled  down,  entirely  re-built,  and  re-opened  on  March 
18,  1899. 

In  1899  the  English  work  was  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  J. 
Thompson  and  the  Tamil  work  in  charge  of  the  Rev.  J.  I. 
Pickford.  In  the  following  May  the.  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens, 
who  first  came  to  Ceylon  in  1851,  retired. 

Mr.  John  Daniel,  the  Headmaster  of  the  Tamil  Boys' 
Boarding  School,  was  ordained  this  year,  and  the  mission 
suffered  a  serious  loss  by  the  death  of  Lieut. -Colonel 
Meaden,  who  was  honorary  treasurer  of  the  mission,  a 
member  of  the  Finance  Committee,  and  treasurer  of  the 
C.M.S.  Colombo  Association. 

The  pastorates  of  the  Sinhalese  congregations  of  Christ 
Church  and  St.  Luke's  Church  were  separated  from  the  Cotta 
district  and  placed  under  the  Rev.  D.  J.  Perera  as  pastor. 

It  had  been  felt  for  some  years  that  the  work  in  Colombo 
needed  supplementing  by  the  establishment  of  a  high-class 
educational  institution  for  girls,  and  therefore  in  February, ' 


1900,  the  Ladies'  College  was  opened  in  a  large  bungalow  in 
Union  Place,  with  Miss  L.  E.  Nixon  as  Principal,  and  Miss  E. 
Whitney  as  Superintendent.  Progress  was  at  first  slow,  and 
only  twelve  pupils  were  in  the  school  at  the  end  of  the  first 
year,  representing  Tamil,  Sinhalese,  Jewish  and  English 

In  1901  the  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens,  who  had  been  mainly 
instrumental  in  starting  the  Ladies'  College,  died  in  England 
on  June  11.  For  the  last  few  .years  of  his  life,  before  his 
retirement,  he  had  resided  at  the  Galle  Face  Mission  House, 
undertaking  the  duties  of  the  Secretariat.  But  the  old  love  of 
evangelization  remained  and  constantly  he  was  to  be  seen  in 
the  streets  and  public  places  with  the  catechists,  preaching  and 
inviting  the  heathen  to  come  to  Christ. 

The  Rev.  S.  Coles,  who  was  in  charge  of  the  Sinhalese 
station  in  addition  to  the  work  of  revising  the  Sinhalese  Bible, 
also  received  his  Home  call  this  year.  One  more  diligent  in 
business,  fervent  in  Spirit,  and  earnest  in  serving  the  Lord,  it 
would  be  difficult  to  name.  A  brotner  missionary,  after 
spending  some  time  in  his  company,  remarked,  '  How  that 
fellow  does  work.  I  never  saw  anything  like  it.' 

And  that  work  continued  to  the  last  moment  of  his  life. 
On  the  morning  of  September  23  he  spent  some  two  hours 
preparing  for  the  meeting  of  the  Revision  Committee 
appointed  to  take  place  on  that  day.  At  the  hour  appointed 
he  walked  from  the  mission  house  to  the  vestry  of  Christ 
Church,  declining  proffered  help,  and  saying  in  his  bright 
way  that  he  '  felt  like  a  young  man.'  These  were  his  last 
words.  He  took  his  seat  in  the  vestry,  and  had  only  just 
done  sos  when  with  hardly  a  sigh  or  a  sound  he  was  gone. 
Mr.  Coles  came  out  to  Ceylon  in  1861.  His  chief,  if  not  his 
only  recreation  was  to  get  for  a  time  among  children.  His 
appearance  among  a  crowd  of  young  people,  enjoying  the 
freedom  of  play  hour,  was  greeted  with  shouts  of  welcome. 


For  the  children's  benefit  he  used  to  good  purpose  his 
remarkable  gift  of  versification  in  Sinhalese.  The  Rev. 
J.  I.  Jones  returned  to  Ceylon  and  took  over  the  Sinhalese 
work  in  May,  1900,  Miss  A.  Higgens  and  Miss  E.  M.  Josolyne 
were  working  among  the  women,  and  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan 
among  the  Tamils,  assisted  by  Mrs.  J.  D.  Thomas,  Miss 
E.  S.  Young  and  Miss  E.  J.  Howes. 

The  Rev.  A.  R.  Virasinghe  having  resigned,  the  Rev. 
J.  V.  Daniel  was  appointed  to  succeed  him  as  Tamil  pastor. 

The  following  year  Mr.  Pickford  returned  to  superintend 
the  Colombo  Tamil  work. 

This  year  the  Government  acquired  for  railway  extension 
purposes  the  land  on  which  St.  John's  Church,  Maradana,  had 
been  erected  a  few  years  before,  thus  necessitating  the  demoli 
tion  of  the  little  church.  Mr.  Chellappah,  who  had  been  head 
master  of  the  Girls'  Boarding  School  for  about  twenty-eight 
years,  died  this  year.  He  was,  as  he  once  said,  '  a  Christian 
from  conviction,'  and  he  had  to  suffer  for  his  conviction. 

In  June,  1903,  Mr.  J.  W.  Ferrier  arrived  from  Australia  as 
mission  accountant.  He  also  took  charge  of  a  Sunday 
School  in  the'Kew  Police  Barracks,  re-started  the  Gleaners' 
Union,  and  gave  help  in  taking  services  in  and  around 

On  November  12  the  Rev.  J.  Ireland  Jones,  who  had 
been  connected  with  Ceylon  since  1857,  was  called  to  his 
eternal  rest.  Mr.  Jones  had  acted  on  three  separate  occa 
sions  as  Bishop's  Commissary,  and  also  taken  a  leading  part 
in  the  ecclesiastical  settlement  made  at  the  time  of  the 
disestablishment  of  the  Church  in  Ceylon.  His  '  Handbook 
of  Sinhalese '  has  been  useful  to  many  a  student  of  the 
language,  and  his  booklet,  '  The  Wonderful  Garden,'  a  story 
designed  to  convince  Buddhists  of  the  existence  of  a  Creator, 
has  been  a  blessing  to  many.  Of  a  very  gentle  and  loving 
disposition,  he  yet  never  made  any  compromise  where  he 


considered  the  honour  of  the  Lord  or  the  truth  of  His  word 
to  be  concsrned.  This  year  the  Tamil  work  in  Galle  was 
strengthened  by  the  appointment  of  Miss  E.  C.  Vines  and 
Miss  H.  E.  Payne. 

In  January,  1904,  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde  took  charge  of  the 
Sinhalese  work  and  the  Rev.  W.  Booth,  who  had  come  out  in 
1901,  of  the  Tamil  work.  At  the  end  of  the  same  year 
Miss  Young  and  Miss  A.  E.  Thomas  were  working  among  the 
women.  The  following  extract  from  a  letter  written  by  the 
latter  will  give  some  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  work  and  of  the 
blessing  that  rested  upon  it : — '  I  had  between  200  and  300 
houses  on  my  list  to  visit.  In  addition  to  the  pupils  many 
men,  women  and  children  have  heard  the  Gospel.  In  the 
course  of  the  work  I  have  realized  the  truth  of  the  promise, 
"  Cast  thy  bread  upon  the  waters  and  thou  shalt  find  it  after 
many  days."  Taken  by  one  of  the  Biblewomen  to  see  a 
young  Christian  women,  I  was  told  that  some  years  ago  she 
was  a  learner.  After  a  time  she  expressed  a  wish  to  become 
a  Christian,  but  her  parents  strongly  opposed,  and  prevented 
her  learning  with  the  Biblewoman  by  leaving  that  neighbour 
hood.  But  she  had  learnt  to  read  and  had  a  Scripture 
portion  which  she  used  to  read  secretly.  Then  the  mother 
married  her  to  a  man  who  had  been  baptized  in  his  infancy, 
but  apparently  was  not  a  Christian  except  in  name.  These 
two  went  back  to  the  man's  native  village  in  Tinnevelly. 
There  she  had  more  opportunity  of  learning,  so,  getting  her 
husband's  consent,  she  became  a  candidate  for  baptism,  and 
was  baptized  by  my  brother-in-law,  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Douglas. 
When  they  returned  to  Colombo,  she  begged  the  Biblewoman 
to  come  and  read  the  Scriptures  and  pray  with  her.  Her 
father  was  dead,  but  her  mother  was  living  with  her.  Her 
mother  is  still  opposed  to  Christianity,  and  would  not  stay  in 
the  room  when  I  read.  Two  days  afterwards  the  Bible- 
woman  asked  if  I  remembered  seeing  another  heathen 


woman  there,  who  listened  most  attentively  while  I  was 
speaking.  She  said,  after  I  had  left,  that  woman  exclaimed, 
"  Oh,  why  was  I  never  told  this  before  ?  Why  did  no  one 
ever  teach  me  about  these  things  ?  You  must  come  and 
teach  me,  I  want  to  hear  more."  ' 

I-i  1906  the  Rev.  A.  MacLulich  was  appointed  to  assist 
at  Christ  Church,  the  Rev.  G.  T.  Weston  and  Miss  A.  M. 
Tisdall  to  Tamil  work,  Miss  Sparrow  to  Sinhalese  work  and 
Miss  Henrys  to  work  in  Galle.  The  Rev.  G.  M.  Arulanan- 
tham  was  also  appointed  to  the  Tamil  mission. 

A  special  mission  was  held  at  Christ  Church  in  October  by 
the  Rev.  H.  Pakenham  Walsh  (afterwards  Bishop  of  Assam) 
assisted  by  the  Rev.  C.  R.  Burnett.  The  services  were  well 
attended  and  deep  interest  was  manifested,  especially  by 
European  men,  whose  hearts  were  so  stirred  that  a  number 
of  them  forthwith  organized  a  weekly  meeting  at  the  house 
of  each  in  turn  for  Bible  study  and  prayer.  These  meetings 
were  continued  with  much  success  till  they  were  broken  up 
by  the  interference  of  military  duties  consequent  on  the  out 
break  of  the  Great  War  in  1914. 

The  following  year  (1907)  the  Rev.  H.  P.  Napier-Clavering 
was  Incumbent  of  Christ  Church  and  Secretary  of  the 
Mission,  and  Miss  L.  M.  Leslie  Melville  was  superintending 
the  Biblewomen. 

In  September,  1908,  Mr.  MacLulich  resigned  and  accepted 
the  Incumbency  of  Holy  Trinity  Church,  Colombo,  and  on 
Mr.  Dibben's  return  from  furlough  Mr.  Napier-Clavering 
took  up  his  new  sphere  of  work  as  Planters'  Chaplain  at 
Pussellawa.  The  Rev.  J.  Ilsley  took  over  the  Tamil  work  in 
May.  In  August,  1909,  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde  died  in 
Colombo.  His  knowledge  of  Sinhalese,  his  literary  ability, 
and  varied  experience,  added  to  his  gifts  of  character  and 
charm  of  manner,  had  made  him  a  most  valuable  missionary 
and  caused  his  loss  to  be  greatly  felt. 




The  Rev.  A.  K.  Finnimore  arrived  in  August  to  take  charge 
of  Christ  Church  having  been  in  his  early  days  a  Ceylon 
planter  and  afterwards  a  C.M.S.  missionary,  first  in  South 
India  and  then  in  Mauritius. 

In  1910  Mr.  J.  W.  Ferrier  returned  to  Australia  and  Miss 
M.  A.  Ledward  joined  the  Tamil  Mission. 

This  year  the  Rev.  D.  J.  Perera  was  given  a  more  indepen 
dent  position  by  being  placed  in  full  charge  of  the  Sinhalese 
congregations  of  Christ  Church  and  St.  Luke's.  He  had 
360  Christians  under  his  care,  lt>0  of  whom  were  communi 

The  Rev.  G.  M.  Arulanantham  was  in  charge  of  what 
had  now  come  to  be  called  the  Tamil  Northern  Pastorate, 
which  included  the  congregations  of  Hultsdorf,  Mutwal  and 

The  Rev.  J.  V.  Daniel  was  in  charge  of  the  Tamil  Southern 
Pastorate,  which  included  the  congregations  of  Slave  Island 
and  Wellawatte.  The  Slave  Island  congregation  worshipping 
in  Christ  Church  numbered  319  persons,  of  whom  112  were 

The  three  ladies,  Mrs.  Thomas,  Miss  Tisdall  and  Miss 
Ledward,  working  among  the  Tamils,  were  living  at  '  The 
Lodge,'  whilst  Miss  A.  Higgens  and  Miss  H.  E.  Hobson  were 
working  among  the  Sinhalese.  The  Ladies'  College  had  been 
growing  yearly,  and  as  the  work  was  hindered  by  cramped 
accommodation  and  noisy  surroundings,  it  was  deemed  essential 
that  more  suitable  premises  should  be  secured.  In  addition 
to  Miss  Nixon  and  Miss  Whitney,  Miss  Hall,  Miss  C.  E. 
Browne,  Miss  Clarke,  Miss  A.  Horsley  and  others  had  helped 
to  make  the  school  a  success.  So  in  1910  the  College  was 
established  in  its  own  new  quarters  in  Flower  Road. 

The  money  for  the  purchase  of  the  land  and  bungalow  was 
largely  obtained  through  the  exertions  of  Miss  Nixon,  also 
funds  for  the  erection  of  class-rooms,  drill-hall,  assembly-hall, 


kindergarten  rooms  and  dormitory  accommodation.  The  late 
Rev.  C.  L.  Burrows,  when  on  a  visit  to  Ceylon  with  Bishop 
Ingham,  gave  ,£"1,000  towards  the  extension  in  memory  of 
his  wife.  At  the  time  of  the  transfer  there  were  eighteen 
teachers  and  237  pupils.  These  included  fifty  little  boys 
between  the  ages  of  four  and  ten  in  the  school  for  young 
boys  attached  to  the  College,  a  class  for  the  training  of 
kindergarten  teachers,  and  about  twenty  boarders.  A  class 
for  '  Old  Boys  '  on  Sundays,  and  a  monthly  '  At  Home '  for 
'  Old  Girls,'  a  '  Students'  Union  '  and  a  prayer  meeting  for 
girls  were  also  inaugurated.  The  students  also  supported  a 
catechist  in  the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission. 

In  1913  in  the  Cambridge  Local  Examinations,  nine 
students  passed,  four  in  the  Senior,  one  with  honours,  and 
five  in  the  Junior.  Sixty-four  girls  entered  for  the  Trinity 
College  of  Music  Examination,  all  of  whom  passed,  twenty- 
four  with  honours. 

In  April  of  the  following  year  Miss  Nixon  resigned  after 
fourteen  years  of  devoted  work  and  building  up  of  the 

Miss  Wardlaw- Ramsay  kindly  consented  to  act  as  Princi 
pal,  and  with  the  help  of  Miss  A.  E.  Kent,  who  had  arrived 
from  England,  the  College  continued  to  prosper.  It  was 
this  year  placed  under  Government  as  a  grant-in-aid  institu 
tion  and,  subsequently,  classed  as  a  '  fully  organized  second 
ary  school.'  Miss  Kent  resigned  on  her  marriage  in 
December,  1915,  Miss  G.  L.  F.  Opie  arrived  as  prospective 
Principal  from  New  Zealand  and  Miss  E.  Morgan  arrived 
from  England  about  the  same  time.  Miss  Whitney  returned 
from  Nellore  to  the  College  early  in  1916  as  acting-Principal, 
afterwards  becoming  Warden  of  the  Hostel. 

A  library  of  reference  books,  mainly  collected  through 
the  efforts  of  Miss  Nixon,  numbers  over  a  thousand 




In  1917  only  four  girl-students  in  the  whole  of  Colombo 
passed  the  Senior  School  Certificate  Examination,  and  two  of 
these  were  pupils  of  the  Ladies'  College. 

In  1910  the  men  teachers  who  had  been  in  training  in  the 
school  at  Cotta  were  removed  to  Colombo,  and  resided 
in  the  Teachers'  Hostel  at  Bambalapitiya  whilst  attending 
lectures  at  the  Government  Training  College.  The  hostel 
was  given  up  when  the  training  of  men  teachers  was  com 
menced  at  the  Training  Colony.  On  September  19,  1912, 
the  new  Holy  Emmanuel  Memorial  Church  at  Maradana 
was  consecrated  by  the  Bishop  in  the  presence  of  a  large 
gathering  of  Tamil  Christians.  The  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands 
preached  from  Psalm  32,  v.  7-8,  and  133  communicants 
partook  of  the  Holy  Communion.  The  church  has  accommo 
dation  for  about  six  hundred  people,  and  is  the  gift  of 
Mr.  Rowlands  to  the  Tamil  Christians  as  a  memorial  to  his 
wife  who  died  in  Colombo  in  1877. 

On  September  17,  1912,  the  Rev.  D.  J.  Perera,  who  for 
some  years  had  been  pastor  of  the  Sinhalese  congrega 
tions,  died. 

In  1914  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan  was  appointed  acting-Incum 
bent  of  Christ  Church,  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Dibben,  the  Secretary 
of  the  Mission,  left  on  furlough  for  Australia  in  March,  and 
the  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding  was  acting-Secretary  till  the  end  of 
the  year,  when  Mr.  Dibben,  who  had  returned  from  Australia 
in  September,  resumed  office.  The  Rev.  G.  B.  Perera  was 
appointed  Incumbent  of  the  Sinhalese  congregations,  and 
Miss  Townshend  took  charge  of  the  Sinhalese  women's 

This  year  the  Tamil  catechist  stationed  at  the  Ragama 
Camp,  where  coolies  from  India  on  their  way  to  tea  and 
rubber  estates  are  detained  for  a  few  days  by  the  medical 
authorities,  discovered  869  Christians  and  reported  their 
arrival  to  their  future  pastors.  This  work  was  commenced 


through  the  liberality  of  a  Colombo  lady,  who  gave  Rs.  5,000 
in  memory  of  her  husband,  towards  the  salary  of  a  Christian 
worker,  who  should  seek  out  the  Christian  coolies  who  came 
from  India,  shepherd  them  while  in  the  Camp,  and  send 
their  names  and  addresses  to  the  clergyman  who  lived  nearest 
the  estate  they  were  bound  for. 

A  few  years  ago  work  was  commenced  among  the  Maiayali 
people  who  come  over  from  Travancore  to  find  work.  There 
are  about  5,000  of  these  people  in  Colombo  alone.  A  congre 
gation  of  over  sixty  has  been  gathered  together,  who  hold 
their  services  in  Holy  Emmanuel  Church,  and  a  Malayalam 
catechist  works  among  them.  Open-air  services  are  also  held 
for  the  Maiayali  coolies  working  on  the  railway. 

Much  of  the  progress  in  this  work  is  due  to  the  devoted 
service  of  the  catechist,  Mr.  K.  E.  Ephen,  who  suddenly  died 
in  1915  from  an  attack  of  cholera,  whilst  on  a  visit  to  his 
relatives  in  India. 

The  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan  in  his  report  for  1915  says,  '  I  must 
give  one  illustration  of  modern  persecution.  My  Tamil 
congregation  at  Mutwal  consists  largely  of  road  and  rickshaw 
coolies.  Not  far  from  Mutwal  school  is  a  rickshaw  stand, 
where  about  twenty  coolies  wait  for  customers.  Three  of  these 
are  Christians.  On  a  Hindu  festival  day  the  others  decided 
that  a  present  must  be  sent  from  that  rickshaw  stand  to  a 
Hindu  temple,  and  that  all  must  subscribe.  The  three 
Christians  refused  saying  that  their  religion  did  not  allow 
them.  They  were  threatened  that  they  would  be  driven  from 
the  stand,  and  that  complaints  would  be  made  to  the  Police 
constable  near,  who  would  soon  find  an  excuse  for  locking 
them  up.  They  remained  firm,  so  the  aid  of  the  constable 
was  invoked.  He,  being  a  Hindu,  entered  into  the  spirit  of  the 
thing,  and  told  the  Christians  that  if  they  did  not  subscribe  he 
would  have  them  in  jail  before  a  week.  The  Christians  then 
appealed  to  me  to  help  them,  and  sent  a  petition  with  an 


account  of  their  difficulties  and  the  number  of  the  constable. 
I  sent  it  to  the  Inspector-General  of  Police  and  asked  for  an 
enquiry.  That  very  day  one  of  the  Christians  was  arrested 
by  the  constable  on  a  false  charge  and  put  in  prison.  I 
engaged  a  Christian  proctor  to  defend  him  and  went  with  a 
copy  of  the  petition  to  the  Police  Court.  It  was  proved  to 
the  satisfaction  of  the  Magistrate  that  the  charge  was  a  false 
one,  and  the  man  was  acquitted.  The  Christian  coolies  are 
poor  ignorant  men,  unable  to  read  or  write,  unable  perhaps  to 
give  a  reason  for  the  faith  that  is  in  them  that  would  satisfy 
many  of  the  modern  professors  of  Christianity,  but  willing  to 
suffer  loss  and  imprisonment  for  the  sake  of  Christ.' 

The  Rev.  W.  J.  Hanan,  who  had  been  acting-Incumbent  of 
Christ  Church  for  two  years,  relinquished  this  position  in  May, 
1915,  and  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Dibben  took  charge  until  the 
appointment  of  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Senior  in  September  of  that 

Miss  Margaret  Keith,  who  had  been  the  organist  for 
twenty-five  years,  left  for  England  in  November,  whilst  in 
December,  by  the  death  of  Sir  William  Mitchell,  the  Church 
lost  one  of  its  oldest  and  most  influential  members. 

The  Rev.  G.  B.  Perera,  the  Incumbent  of  the  Sinhalese 
Churches,  retired  on  account  of  old  age  in  June,  1916,  and  the 
Rev.  D.  L.  Welikala  was  appointed.  Mr.  Perera  was  one  of 
a  Buddhist  family  who  lived  in  Talangama  in  the  Cotta 
district  and  had  four  brothers  and  four  sisters.  It  was  their 
custom  to  relate  stories  as  they  lay  on  their  mats  in  the 
evening.  One  night  the  mother  told  the  children  a  story 
which  she  had  heard  from  an  old  woman  in  the  village  who 
was  a  Christian.  The  mother  also  told  them  that  it  was  a 
story  from  the  Bible.  Next  morning  Mr.  Perera,  who  was 
then  a  boy  of  eight,  on  going  to  school,  tried  to  find  the  story, 
which  was  the  parable  of  Dives  and  Lazarus.  His  teacher 
found  it  for  him,  and  the  Holy  Spirit  so  blessed  the  boy's 


reading  that  he  became  a  Christian.  Soon  after  this  he  had 
an  attack  of  fever,  and  the  mother  brought  in  a  devil  priest  to 
perform  a  ceremony  over  him,  but  the  boy  threatened  to  jump 
from  the  bed  and  make  himself  worse  if  any  ceremony  was 
performed.  The  mother  was  angry  and  scolded  him,  but  to 
her  surprise  he  recovered  without  the  ceremony. 

Mr.  Perera's  wife,  who  was  a  true  helpmeet  and  earnest 
Christian,  died  in  1915,  after  fifty-one  years  of  married  life. 
She  had  a  similar  story  to  tell  of  her  early  days.  She  became 
a  Christian  whilst  a  pupil  in  the  C.M.S.  school  at  Baddegama, 
and  her  parents  and  three  brothers  and  five  sisters  were  all 
Buddhists.  On  one  occasion  when  she  had  an  attack  of  fever, 
her  people  got  some  charmed  oil  to  be  rubbed  on  her  forehead, 
but,  knowing  that  she  did  not  believe  in  such  things,  put  the 
charmed  oil  on  one  side  in  order  to  rub  it  on  when  she  fell 
asleep.  The  girl,  overhearing  their  plans,  got  out  of  her  bed 
quietly,  took  the  cup  and  poured  the  oil  on  the  ground.  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Perera  were  able  by  God's  grace  to  lead  their  parents 
and  many  other  members  of  their  families  to  Christ ;  and 
many  of  their  children  and  children's  children  are  now 

The  Sinhalese  evangelistic  and  school  work  was  handed 
over  to  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  D.  L.  Welikala  at  the  end  of 
1917,  his  Church  Committee  not  seeing  their  way  to  shoulder 
ing  this  responsibility. 



THE  existence  of  the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission  is  very  closely 
connected  with  the  fame  which  Ceylon  acquired  as  a  coffee- 
producing  country  soon  after  the  British  took  possession. 

Coffee  planting  was  first  commenced  in  the  Kandyan 
country  in  the  year  1820,  and  the  first  regular  plantation 
was  opened  in  1827.  The  export  of  coffee  that  year  was 
16,000  cwts.  Ten  years  later  in  1837  the  exports  reached 
34,600  cwts.,  in  1849  they  had  reached  373,368  cwts.,  and 
the  Government  had  sold  287,360  acres  of  forest  land, 
suitable  for  the  cultivation  of  coffee.  Many  speculators 
suffered  from  their  inexperience.  But  still,  Coffee  became 
King,  and  in  1870  the  annual  export  had  risen  to  974,333 
cwts.,  valued  at  ,£"5,000,000. 

In  1840  Major  Skinner  from  the  top  of  Adam's  Peak 
looked  down  on  a  dense  pathless  forest  and  foretold  that  this 
region  was  destined  to  become  the  garden  of  Ceylon  and 
peopled  with  Europeans  as  well  as  Asiatics.  His  prophecy 
has  been  largely  fulfilled. 

We  now  come  to  the  people  by  whom  the  labour  market  is 
supplied  and  on  whom  the  planters  are  dependent  for  the 
cultivation  of  the  estates. 

Mr.  C.  R.  Rigg,  in  an  article  in  the  Journal  of  the  Indian 
Archipelago  and  Eastern  Asia,  Vol.  VI,  No.  3,  writes: — 
'  When  planting  first  came  into  vogue,  the  Kandyans  flocked 
in  hundreds  to  the  great  distribution  of  rupees,  but  this 
source  of  labour  was  soon  found  to  be  insufficient,  and  of  too 
.precarious  a  nature  to  be  relied  on.  The  Kandyan  has  such 


a  reverence  for  his  patrimonial  lands,  that,  were  his  gain  to 
be  quadrupled,  he  would  not  abandon  their  culture.  It  was 
only  during  a  portion  of  the  year  that  he  could  be  induced 
even  by  the  new  stimulus — money — to  exert  himself.  Next 
came  the  Sinhalese  from  the  maritime  provinces,  who 
have  a  stronger  love  of  gain,  a  liking  for  arrack,  and  a 
rooted  propensity  for  gambling.  In  1841-3  thousands  of 
these  people  were  employed  on  estates  ;  they  generally  left 
their  homes  for  six  months  at  a  time,  and  then  returned  with 
their  earnings.  The  sudden  access  of  wealth  amongst  them 
soon  engendered  as  much  independence  as  was  to  be  found 
in  the  Kandyans.  This  source  of  labour  became  dried  up? 
and  the  lowlanders  were  only  known  in  the  central  provinces 
as  domestics,  artificers,  traders  and  carters.  Southern 
India  stepped  forward  to  fill  up  the  vacancy  occasioned  by 
the  cessation  from  labour  of  the  sons  of  the  soil.' 

The  arrivals  of  Tamil  coolies  at  Ceylon  ports  from  South 
India  for  the  years  1841  to  1846  were  190,074  men,  3,083 
women  and  1,614  children,  a  total  of  194,771,  whilst  the 
departures  were  110,704  men,  2,331  women  and  1,421 
children,  a  total  of  114,456.  During  that  period  the  coolies 
remitted  to  their  country  about  ^"400,000,  whilst  the  value 
of  rice  imported  during  the  same  period  was  valued  at 
^"2,116,189.  In  the  year  1900,  the  immigrants  numbered 
207,995.  For  their  enterprise  in  migrating,  the  Tamils 
have  been  called  the  Scotchmen  of  the  East.  The  coolies 
live  on  the  estates  in  long  rows  of  buildings  called  'lines'. 
They  have  plenty  to  eat,  their  doctors,  houses,  and  teachers 
cost  them  nothing,  and  their  other  wants  are  few.  At  early- 
dawn  they  are  summoned  by  tom-tom  or  horn  to  the  muster- 
ground  and  then  proceed  to  work.  At  about  four  in  the 
afternoon  they  finish  for  the  day,  first  having  their  names 
entered  on  the  check-roll.  In  the  evening  the  women 
prepare  the  evening  meal  of  curry  and  rice,  and  all  retire  early. 


Missionary  work  had  been  carried  on  for  many  years 
among  the  Tamils  of  Southern  India,  and  had  been  most 
productive,  so  that  among  those  who  came  over  to  Ceylon 
there  were  many  Christians.  In  the  year  1851  the  Rev. 
J.  T.  Tucker,  a  missionary  in  Tinnevelly,  wrote  : — '  In  July 
last,  finding  no  means  of  getting  a  living,  twenty-seven  of 
our  Christians  went  to  Ceylon,  but  previously  appointed 
one  of  themselves  to  act  as  their  reader,  and  took  a  Testa 
ment  and  Prayer  Book  with  them.  Twenty-five  of  them 
returned  at  the  end  of  the  year.  They  had  maintained,  as 
far  a-;  I  can  learn,  their  Christian  character,  notwithstanding 
they  were  absent  from  almost  all  means  of  grace.'  In  1846 
two  of  the  South  Indian  missionaries,  Messrs.  Pettitt  and 
Thomas  visited  Ceylon  to  ascertain  if  there  were  any 
means  of  reaching  the  coolies  when  away  from  their  homes. 
But  no  opening  at  that  time  presented  itself. 

In  1854  the  Rev.  W.  Knight,  one  of  the  C.M.S.  Secre 
taries,  visited  Ceylon,  and  was  invited  by  the  proprietors 
of  some  estates  in  the  district  of  Matale,  in  company  with 
Dr.  John  Murdoch,  who  was  interested  in  the  spiritual  welfare 
of  the  coolies,  to  consider  the  subject.  The  result  was,  that 
some  of  the  planters  agreed  to  support  and  bring  over  from 
Tinnevelly  trained  catechists  and  arranged  that  the  C.M.S. 
should  supply  a  missionary  to  superintend  the  work.  Pending 
the  appointment  of  a  superintending  missionary,  the  Rev. 
E.  T.  Higgens,  who  was  then  engaged  in  the  Kandyan 
Sinhalese  Itineration,  consented  to  do  what  was  necessary. 

Dr.  Murdoch  went  over  to  Tinnevelly  and  laid  the  subject 
before  the  missionaries  and  Christians,  and  invited  cate 
chists  to  volunteer  for  the  work.  Eight  men  offered  them 
selves  and  at  the  close  of  the  year  six  came  over  to  Ceylon. 
The  Rev.  J.  Thomas  thus  describes  their  departure: — 'We 
had  an  interesting  dismissal  of  the  catechists  to  Ceylon, 
when  instructions  were  delivered  to  them  as  to  the  mode  of 


pursuing  their  work.  Each  departing  catechist  addressed 
the  meeting.' 

They  arrived  in  Kandy  in  November,  1854,  and  were 
located  as  follows :— Annathan  to  Cabragalla,  Joseph  to 
Kinrara,  Gnanamuttu  to  Pitikanda,  Arumanayagam  to 
Hoolankanda,  Vethanayagam  to  Elkaduwa,  Gnanapragasam 
to  Rajawela.  The  owners  of  these  estates  kindly  undertook 
to  pay  their  salaries  of  ,£"2-10-0  per  month. 

The  following  March  the  catechists  went  over  to  Thine  - 
velly  and  brought  back  with  them  their  families  in  July. 

In  November,  1855,  the  Rev.  Septimus  Hobbs,  who  had 
for  thirteen  years  been  a  missionary  in  Tinnevelly,  arrived 
with  Mrs.  Hobbs,  and  became  Superintendent  of  the  Tamil 
Cooly  Mission. 

The  C.M.S.  took  charge  of  the  work,  a  local  committee 
of  planters,  comprising  me i  of  various  denominations,  under 
taking  to  defray  all  expenses,  except  the  stipends  and  allow 
ances  of  the  European  missionaries. 

The  Committee  met  quarterly,  all  matters  of  importance 
were  freely  discussed,  and  much  practical  good  resulted  from 
this  system  of  management.  It  was  also  decided  that  instead 
of  being  confined  to  single  estates,  the  catechists  should 
itinerate,  according  to  a  regular  cycle,  through  all  the  districts 
within  a  reasonable  distance.  This  plan  was  adopted  only  as 
a  temporary  measure,  and  in  later  years  the  number  of 
stationed  catechists  has  been  steadily  increasing.  The 
catechist  is  now  appointed  to  take  charge  of  some  thirty 
estates,  and  lives  in  the  centre  of  the  district. 

He  is  able,  therefore,  to  visit  each  estate  at  least  once  a 
month,  and  has  opportunities  for  becoming  much  more 
intimately  acquainted  with  each  individual  Christian,  and  for 
instructing  each  one  more  thoroughly. 

The  catechist  only  preaches  on  those  estates  where  fte  has 
the  permission  of  the  Superintendent,  and  generally  at 


six  o'clock  in  the  morning  for  about  twenty  minutes  when 
the  coolies  assemble  at  '  muster. '  He  also  visits  the  '  lines,' 
reading  and  speaking  to  the  sick,  or  any  other  people  he  may 
find  there,  visits  the  schools  and  gives  addresses  to  the 
children,  distributes  tracts  and  portions  of  Scripture,  visits 
and  instructs  the  Christians,  and  prepares  catechumens  for 
baptism,  and  in  the  absence  of  a  missionary  or  pastor 
conducts  the  Sunday  Services. 

Mr.  Hobbs  remained  in  charge  for  seven  years,  until  the 
close  of  the  year  1862,  when  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands 
became  responsible  until  the  arrival  of  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  J. 
Pickford  in  January,  1864.  Mrs.  Pickford  soon  made  her 
influence  felt  upon  the  women  and  girls  who  came  within 
her  reach,  regularly  met  the  wives  of  the  catechists,  estab 
lished  a  Tamil  girls'  school  in  the  Kandy  bazaar,  and  '  did 
what  she  could  '  until  her  death  on  May  6,  1866. 

The  Rev.  D.  Fenn  was  in  charge  for  a  few  months  in 
1867,  and  Mr.  Pickford  had  finally  to  retire  in  March,  1868, 
owing  to  ill-health.  The  Rev.  W.  Clark,  who  had  been 
eighteen  years  in  the  Tinnevelly  Mission,  took  charge  in 
November,  1868,  assisted  by  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Griffith,  who 
had  been  appointed  in  consequence  of  an  appeal  made  by  the 
local  committee  for  a  second  European  missionary  and  who 
was  the  first  T.C.M.  missionary  to  take  up  his  residence  in 
the  Uva  district. 

This  year,  'the  twelfth  since  the  commencement  of  the 
work,  there  were  eighteen  workers  and  600  estates  under 
visitation,  whilst  there  had  been  394  baptisms  during  the 
twelve  years. 

About  this  time,  in  May,  1869,  orange-coloured  spots 
appeared  on  the  coffee  leaves — a  disease  called  Hemeleia 
vastatrix — which  rapidly  spread  over  the  whole  coffee  region, 
whilst  grubs  attacked  the  roots,  and  brown  bugs  sapped  the 
life-blood  of  the  trees.  In  a  few  years  King  Coffee  fell  and 


was  a  thing  of  the  past.  With  the  grit  and  gold  of  the 
British,  other  products,  cinchona,  cocoa,  cardamoms,  vanilla, 
camphor  and  tea  were  planted  experimentally,  and  in  a  few 
years,  tea — Camelia  Theifera — had  the  supremacy  and 
became  Queen  over  the  fair  fields  of  Ceylon.  In  1873 
only  23  Ibs.  of  tea  were  exported,  in  1911  about  184  million 
pounds,  380,000  acres  of  land  being  under  tea  cultivation. 
Four  years  later,  in  1915,  the  export  of  tea  had  risen  to  over 
211  million  pounds. 

The  tea  shrubs  are  planted  in  rows,  and  owing  to  constant 
pruning  never  grow  to  a  great  height.  The  tender  leaves  or 
shoots  are  called  the  '  flush,'  and  women  and  children  working 
in  gangs  under  '  kanganies  '  or  overseers  pick  the  flush  and 
carry  it  in  baskets  to  the  factories.  It  is  there  withered, 
rolled,  fermented  and  fired,  and  is  graded  as  broken  orange 
pekoe,  orange  pekoe,  pekoe,  pekoe  souchong,  souchong, 
congou  and  dust.  It  is  then  packed  and  forwarded  to 
Colombo,  where  it  is  shipped  to  all  countries  of  the  globe,  as 
it  has  won  universal  favour  as  the  '  best  tea  in  the  world.' 

The  Tamil  Cooly  Mission  continued  to  prosper,  and  in 
1878  there  were  42  catechists,  34  school  masters,  955  adult 
Christians,  442  Christian  children,  378  communicants  and 
32  schools  with  354  pupils.  A  church  had  also  been  built  in 
Hil!  Street  in  Kandy,  which  was  in  charge  of  a  Tamil  pastor, 
and  two  Tamil  clergy,  the  Revs.  P.  Peter  and  G.  Gnanamuttu, 
were  stationed  at  Pelmadulla  and  Dickoya. 

During  the  next  ten  years  the  Mission  was  divided 
into  three  districts  under  the  superintendence  of  the  Revs. 
J.  D.  Simmons,  J.  D.  Thomas  and  H.  Horsley.  The 
Christians  had  increased  to  1,705,  the  communicants  to  418, 
and  the  school  children  to  867.  During  part  of  this  period, 
the  Revs.  A.  R.  Cavalier,  W.  P.  Schaffter,  V.  W.  Harcourt 
and  F.  Glanvill  had  worked  in  the  Mission.  Mrs.  Glanvill 
died  and  was  buried  in  Haputale  after  a  few  months  of 


.narried  life  in  1882,  and  the  following  year  Mr.  Glanvill, 
after  two  years'  work,  retired,  and  died  in  Bristol  in  1914, 
after  doing  good  work  as  an  Organizing  Secretary  and  Vicar. 
Dr.  Stock,  in  his  C.M.S.  History,  writes  : — •'  Glanvill  was 
a  most  lovable  character  and  a  model  Organizing  Secretary. 
It  was  said  that  he  had  more  real  personal  influence  in 
Durham  and  Northumberland  than  bishops,  deans,  arch 
deacons  or  canons,  and  when  he  was  brought  to  London,  he 
quickly  won  the  hearts  of  the  clergy  with  whom  he  came  in 

In  1898  the  Revs.  J.  D.  Simmons,  J.  Ilsley  and 
W.  Welchman  were  the  Superintending  Missionaries.  Mr. 
Welchman  had  worked  in  the  T.C.M.  for  five  years  and 
writes  as  follows  : — 

'  The  number  of  the  Christians  on  the  estates  is  constantly 
increasing.  There  are,  of  course,  amongst  them  not  only  the 
earnest,  but  the  lukewarm  and  the  backsliders.  The  mission 
aries  are  often  wonderfully  encouraged  by  the  consistency  of 
the  great  mass  of  Christians.  Many  planters  will  come 
forward  and  give  the  highest  testimony  as  to  their  lives,  and 
there  are  many  ways  by  which  the  sincerity  of  their  faith  may 
be  tested.  Not  only  do  the  Christians  give  liberally  to  the 
Church  Fund  and  to  the  building  and  maintenance  of 
-churches,  but  are  themselves  supporting  several  catechists 
who  are  working  amongst  the  heathen  on  the  estates.  One 
man,  a  conductor,  spent  Rs.  100  in  purchasing  a  magic  lantern, 
and  Rs.  900  on  slides  representing  the  life  of  Christ,  and  now 
goes  about  the  estates  preaching  to  the  coolies.  It  is  no 
easy  matter  for  a  cooly  to  get  up  and  walk  ten  miles  to  church 
.and  ten  back  in  the  burning  sun,  and  yet  this  is  what  very 
many  of  them  do.  Nor  is  it  a  trifling  matter  for  the 
catechists  and  schoolmasters  to  give  up  their  time  and  all  to 
the  work  when  they  could  get  much  more  remunerative 
•employment  elsewhere,  or  for  the  Christians,  as  they  often  do 


to  stand  up  in  the  open  air  and  testify  for  Christ.  An  over 
seer  on  an  estate  built  a  small  room.  Day  by  day  he  gathered 
coolies  together  and  read  God's  word  to  them.  On  being 
asked  his  reason  for  so  doing,  he  replied,  "  God  has  taken  six 
of  my  little  children  to  Himself,  now  I  want  to  win  six  souls 
for  Him."  Not  long  ago  a  youth  who  had  learnt  about  Christ 
in  one  of  the  schools  was  turned  out  of  his  father's  house 
for  refusing  to  take  an  offering  to  the  little  idol-house,  and 
another  man  was  beaten  very  severely  for  going  to  the 
schoolmaster's  house  to  read  the  Bible  and  learn  about  Christ.' 

The  Christians  in  1898  numbered  2,932,  the  communicants 
1,070,  the  schools  48,  the  scholars  1,893,  whilst  the 
income  from  all  sources  amounted  to  Rs.  10,934.  During 
this  last  decade  the  Revs.  W.  J.  Hanan,  J.  W.  Fall  and 
H.  C.  Townsend  were  workers  for  different  periods,  whilst  in 
1899  the  Rev.  J.  I.  Pickford  and  in  1904  the  Rev.  A.  N.  C. 
Storrs  gave  valuable  help.  The  Rev.  W.  Booth  joined  the 
Mission  in  1901. 

The  Rev. J.D. Simmons  retired  in  1903  and  died  in  1914,  and 
an  '  In  Memoriam  notice  '  in  the  C.  M.  Review  for  June,  1914, 
said: — '  Few  men  have  more  decidedly  left  their  mark  upon  the 
Tamil  Cooly  Mission  than  he  has.  His  sterling  character 
and  entire  devotion  to  the  work  he  had  in  hand  were  highly 
appreciated  by  the  European  planters,  even  by  those  who 
were  not  in  a  position  to  estimate  his  spiritual  qualifications 
at  their  true  value,  while  his  gentlemanly  bearing  and  kindly 
disposition  won  for  him  the  affectionate  esteem  of  many  of 
chem.  The  catechists  and  schoolmasters  could  not  fail  to 
realize  that  in  him  they  had  a  teacher  and  guide  of  no 
ordinary  spiritual  power.' 

In  1904  the  Rev.  J.  llsley  was  in  charge  of  the  Central 
Division  and  part  of  the  Southern  Division,  residing  at 
Nanuoya.  and  the  Rev.  R.  P.  Butterfield,  who  arrived  in 
Ceylon  in  1900  and  had  rendered  help  in  Haputale,  St.  John's 


College,  Jaffna,  and  Colombo,  assumed  charge  of  the  Northern 
Division,  together  with  the  Sabaragamuwa  portion  of  the 
Southern  Division.  Working  in  Kandy  among  the  Tamil  and 
Mohammedan  women  were  Miss  Franklin,  Miss  Howes  and 
Miss  Finney.  On  the  departure  of  the  latter  to  England, 
Miss  Poole  (who  afterwards  became  Mrs.  W.  S.  Senior)  was 
associated  with  Miss  Howes  in  the  same  work. 

Until  1895  this  work  had  been  carried  on  under  the 
superintendence  of  the  wives  of  the  missionaries  stationed 
in  Kandy.  It  was  greatly  handicapped  for  many  years  by 
having  no  '  Home,'  to  which  enquirers  and  others  could  be 
brought  for  instruction  or  protection.  In  1906  the  need  was 
supplied  by  the  renting  of  the  '  Snuggery '  as  the  head 
quarters  of  the  Women's  Work,  and  the  '  Home  '  thus  provided 
has  proved  the  mean>  of  much  blessing.  Miss  Howes  in 
one  of  her  annual  letters  speaks  of  it  as  being  the  most  fruit 
ful  part  of  her  work.  In  the  early  days,  lace-making  was 
taught  as  a  means  of  livelihood  for  the  converts,  and  was 
brought  to  a  high  degree  of  perfection,  but  of  later  years 
the  '  Home  '  has  gradually  assumed  the  character  of  a  school, 
thus  showing  that  there  is  in  Kandy  an  opening  fora  boarding 
school  for  Tamil  girls.  Several  converts  have  gone  from  the 
'  Snuggery  '  to  be  trained  as  nurses  in  the  American  Mission 
Hospital  for  Women  at  Uduvil,  Jaffna,  and  in  all  140  girls 
have  passed  through  the  'Home,'  54  of  whom  were  Hindus 
and  12  Mohammedans. 

The  visiting  in  the  slums  of  Kandy  has  gone  on  regularly 
and  many  Mohammedan  women  have  learnt  to  read  the  Bible. 
Definite  results  have  not  been  obtained,  but  the  way  of  Life 
has  been  opened  to  many.  As  Mis?  Howes  writes  :  '  It  is 
difficult  for  the  women  to  make  any  stand  for  Christ  as  they 
are  so  much  in  the  power  of  their  relations '  and  again 
'  definite  results  are  precluded  largely  because  the  men,  their 
'husbands,  are  untouched.'  In  1910,  150  Mohammedan 


women  were  being  taught  regularly.  Visiting  has  been  done 
in  Gampola,*  Nawalapitiya,  Matale,  Peradeniya,  but  when, 
as  has  frequently  occurred,  one  missionary  has  had  to  carry 
on  alone,  the  outstation  work  has  had  to  be  dropped.  Miss 
Case,  Miss  Henrys,  Miss  Tisdall  and  Miss  Led  ward  have  all 
worked  in  Kandy  at  different  times.  The  lace  school  in 
Brownrigg  Street,  carried  on  for  many  years  as  part  of  the 
women's  work  and  attended  mainly  by  Hindu  and  Moham 
medan  girls,  was  handed  over  to  the  Kandy  Tamil  Pastorate 
in  1913. 

The  numerical  weakness  of  the  staff  of  missionaries  in  the 
T.C.M.  became  very  marked  in  1905  when  the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley 
having  left  for  England,  the  burden  of  the  whole  work  fell  on 
the  Rev.  R.  P.  Butterfield  and  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson,  who 
later  in  the  year  took  charge  of  the  Southern  Division.  On 
the  return  of  the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley  the  T.C.M.  had  once  more  its 
normal  complement  of  three  missionaries.  This  state  of  things 
however  only  lasted  for  a  brief  while,  for  in  March,  1906, 
the  Rev.  J.  Ilsley  left  the  mission  and  the  work  again 
devolved  on  his  two  younger  colleagues. 

But  in  1907  the  T.C.M.  received  a  very  welcome  accession 
to  its  staff  in  the  person  of  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands,  who 
had  had  so  much  to  do  with  its  earlier  development  and  who, 
after  a  lengthy  spell  of  23  years  in  parish  work  in  England, 
now  returned  to  the  land  and  the  people  he  loved  so  well. 

The  Rev.  and  Mrs.  R.  P.  Butterfield  left  on  furlough  in 
1908  and  for  two  years  the  T.C.M.  was  managed  by  the  Rev. 
W.  E.  Rowlands  and  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson.  During  this 
period  however  a  marked  advance  was  made  in  the  organi 
zation  of  the  Tamil  congregations  into  nine  definite  pastorates^ 
In  1907  the  Kelani  Valley  had  become  a  vigorous  pastorate 
under  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Doss.  This  was  a  comparatively  new 
district  having  been  first  opened  for  evangelistic  work  among 
the  coolies  in  1884  by  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Simmons,  when  there 

OF    THE   T.M. 


were  reported  to  be  45  Christians,  whose  contributions 
amounted  to  Rs.  13-40.  In  1917  there  were  813  Christians, 
and  their  contributions  amounted  to  Rs.  2, 129' 59.  We  also 
find  the  Rev.  A.  Sathianathan  at  Dickoya,  the  Rev.  A.  Pakkia- 
nathan  in  Dimbula  and  the  Rev.  C.  T.  Williams  in  Kandy. 

In  1908  the  Christians  in  the  whole  T.C.M.  had  increased  to 
3,934,  the  communicants  to  1,400,  the  schools  to  107  and  the 
scholars  to  5,551.  The  statistics  of  the  mission  do  not  always 
fully  represent  the  year's  work,  as  sometimes  it  happens  that 
a  larger  number  of  Christians  than  usual  return  to  '  the 
coast,'  or  a  larger  number  arrive.  During  recent  years  the 
cultivation  of  para  rubber  (Hevea  Brasiliensis]  has  been 
taken  up  by  the  planters.  In  1898  only  ten  tons  of  rubber 
were  exported  ;  thirteen  years  after  in  1911,  six  million  pounds 
weight,  valued  at  over  28  million  rupees,  left  the  country. 
Four  years  later,  in  1915,  the  exports  in  rubber  had  reached 
the  enormous  amount  of  forty-six  million  pounds  weight. 

'  Rubber  is  obtained  from  the  trees  by  what  is  called  tapping. 
Spiral  or  herringbone  cuts  are  made  in  the  tree  to  the  height 
of  about  six  feet,  and  the  milk  or  latex  then  runs  down,  is 
collected  in  tins,  removed  to  the  factory,  mixed  with  creosote 
and  acetic  acid,  and  clotted  into  sheets  of  rubber,  which  are 
placed  in  the  hydraulic  press  and  compressed  into  blocks  about 
two  inches  thick.  The  wounds  on  the  tree  are  re-opened  at 
the  next  tapping  by  shaving  off  a  small  slice.'  (Dr.  Willis.) 

Rubber  will  grow  almost  anywhere  in  Ceylon  below  an 
elevation  of  3,000  feet,  and  Sinhalese  villagers  seem  to  be 
attracted  to  work  on  rubber  estates. 

The  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson  left  on  furlough  in  1909,  and  his 
place  in  Kandy  was  filled  by  the  Rev.  W.  Booth,  who  had 
also  returned  from  furlough,  while  the  Rev.  R.  P.  Butterfield 
assumed  charge  of  the  Central  Division. 

The  Ceylon  Observer,  established  in  1834,  and  since  1859 
owned  by  the  Ferguson  family  (Messrs.  A.  M.  and  J.  Ferguson) 


has  from  its  commencement  been  a  warm  supporter  of 
all  Christian  work.  It  had  a  leading  article  on  the 
Tamil  Cooly  Mission  in  its  issue  of  April  24,  1911,  from 
which  the  following  is  an  extract  : — '  The  report  of  the 
Tamil  Cooly  Mission  constitutes  a  very  effective  reply  to 
that  diminishing  number  of  people,  who  are  still  sceptical 
or  doubtful  of  the  use  and  value  of  Christian  work  in  the 
planting  districts  of  the  island.  There  are  still  some  who 
think  that  the  Tamil  cooly  was  a  better  labourer  and  a  more 
contented  man  in  the  good  old  days  before  any  attempt  had 
been  made  to  bring  him  that  Message  to  which  his  employer 
owed  more  than  he  was  frequently  willing  to  confess.  That 
attitude  completely  ignores  the  vast  changes  which  have 
taken  place  in  the  labour  problem  in  the  period  in  question. 
The  planter  of  fifty  years  ago  was  in  most  cases  a  proprietor 
with  a  closer  personal  interest  in  his  workers  than  the 
average  servant  of  a  company  can  possibly  have.  Moreover, 
the  moral  status  of  the  cooly  when  compared  with  that  of 
fifty  years  ago  is  immensely  higher.  That  is  not  to  say  that 
it  is  as  high  as  it  should  be,  or  that  it  is  impossible  to  find 
grounds  for  cheap  sneers  at— or  even  sincere  criticism  of— 
the  cooly's  character.  But  if  we  begin  to  mark  iniquity  in 
that  fashion,  who  shall  be  able  to  stand  ?  When  a  fair 
estimate  is  made  of  the  generations  of  soul-destroying  heathen 
ism  which  lie  behind  the  cooly,  it  is  surprising  that  his  level 
is  not  lower  than  we  find  it. 

And  the  most  hopeful  feature  of  the  case  is,  that  the  cooly 
is  so  susceptible  to  civilizing  and  evangelizing  influences, 
that  he  responds  so  readily  to  the  truth  that  is  taught  when  it 
is  brought  in  clear  and  guileless  methods  before  him,  that, 
speaking  generally,  he  proves  to  be  a  consistent  Christian 
according  to  the  light  that  he  has.  We  do  not  forget  that 
even  now  an  occasional  facetious  advertiser  declines  to  con 
sider  applications  from  Christians  for  employment.  But  the 


most  casual  examination  of  such  cases  usually  shows  that  the 
irate  employer  has  been  deceived  by  a  smart  scoundrel  using 
Christianity  for  financial  profit,  which  could  easily  have  been 
detected  by  the  simple  method  of  writing  to  the  man's  alleged 
pastor,  or  that  there  has  been  a  good  deal  to  say  on  both 
sides,  and  the  employer  is  by  no  means  the  only  injured 
party  in  the  affair.  The  Christian  Church  in  Ceylon  can 
point  to  numerous  cases,  perfectly  genuine  and  open  to  the 
most  rigid  scrutiny,  of  coolies  who  have  embraced  the 
Christian  faith,  and  are  as  a  result  living  up  to  a  standard 
that  would  not  disgrace  a  Christian  of  any  nation.  There 
are  authentic  records  of  direct  evangelistic  efforts  made  by 
coolies  who  were  not  satisfied  that  they  alone  should  remain 
in  possession  of  a  manner  of  life,  that  they  had  learned  to 
value  so  highly,  and  that  had  made  so  great  a  difference  to 
them.  Thus  the  conversion  of  one  or  two  members  of  the 
labour  force  of  an  estate  sets  in  motion  forces  for  good,  the 
results  of  which  it  is  difficult  to  calculate.' 

In  1912  the  Rev.  A.  K.  Finnimore,  who  had  joined  the 
Ceylon  Mission  in  1909,  succeeded  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands 
in  the  charge  of  the  Southern  Division  and  in  the  Secretary 
ship  of  the  Mission,  and  in  the  same  year  a  new  pastorate 
was  formed  in  Sabaragamuwa  under  the  charge  of  the 
Rev.  P.  A.  Paukiam,  son  of  an  old  catechist  connected  with 
the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission. 

In  the  report  for  1915  we  find  there  was  an  income  of 
Rs.  13,949.  The  5,500  adults  and  children  also  contributed 
Rs.  17,361.  The  Rev.  W.  Booth  writes  :—' The  grace  of 
liberality,  efforts  to  win  others  for  Christ,  and  the  honouring 
of  God's  word  by  reading  it  privately  and  at  family 
prayers  show  that  some  of  the  Christians  have  got  hold 
of  the  real  thing.  A  tea  maker  is  giving  by  instalments 
a  sum  sufficient  for  the  purchase  of  a  set  of  communion 


At  a  Confirmation  an  overseer  brought  two  sovereigns  a^ 
a  thank-offering  for  his  recovery  from  a  serious  illness. 
In  one  district,  on  Good  Friday,  when  a  collection  was 
made  for  the  Jews,  a  woman  in  the  congregation  brought 
Rs.  12  as  her  offering. 

The  catechists,  who  are  our  messengers  to  the  people, 
greatly  deserve  the  prayerful  sympathy  of  all  who  wish  their 
work  to  prosper,  for  their  task  is  not  an  easy  one,  and  the 
discouragements  they  meet  with  from  those  who  ought  to 
help  them  are  many.' 

One  of  these  catechists  writes  in  his  journal,  '  The  estates 
are  not  near  to  each  other.  I  have  to  pass  through  forests, 
cross  rivers  and  climb  up  and  down  the  steep  hills.  On  some 
estates  I  have  no  place  to  sleep,  and  sometimes  I  can  get 
nothing  to  eat  before  I  lie  down.  Yet  I  take  much  pleasure 
in  visiting  the  estates,  and  telling  the  Hindus  about  Christ.' 
Another  writes,  '  I  walk  in  sunshine  and  rain.  On  some 
estates  I  find  no  place  to  stop  for  the  night.  On  one  occasion 
I  had  to  sleep  in  a  cattle  shed.' 

A  noteworthy  point,  gleaned  from  the  statistics  for  the 
year  1916,  is  that  the  contributions  of  the  Tamil  Christians 
themselves— Rs.  16,879-29— exceed  the  European  and  general 
contributions— Rs.  13,990-35— by  Rs.  2,888-94.  When  one 
considers  the  circumstances  of  the  coolies  who  form  the 
greater  part  of  the  congregations,  one  realizes  with  thankful 
ness  and  feelings  of  shame  that  the  lesson  of  self-support 
and  the  duty  of  every  church  to  be  from  its  commencement 
a  missionary  church,  are  being  learnt  and  put  into  practice 
by  these  new  Christians  in  a  way  that  sets  an  example  to 
Christians  and  Churches  of  an  older  growth. 

In  1917  the  staff  of  the  Mission  was  the  normal  one  of 
four  superintending  missionaries — the  Revs.  W.  E.  Rowlands, 
A.  K.  Finnimore,  R.  P.  Butterfield  and  T.  S.  Johnson.  At 
the  same  time  there  were  eight  Tamil  clergy  associated  with 




them  in  the  pastoral  oversight  of  the  congregations.  These 
were  the  Rev.  T.  D.  Sathianathan  at  Badulla,  the  Rev. 
P.  A.  Paukiam  at  Rakwana,  the  Rev.  J.  Yorke  at  Avisawella, 
the  Rev.  A.  Pakkianathan  at  Lindula,  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Doss 
at  Dickoya,  the  Rev.  S.  M.  Thomas  at  Gampola,  the  Rev. 
N.  G.  Nathaniel  at  Matale,  while  the  Rev.  G.  M.  Arula- 
nantham  was  expected  to  take  charge  of  the  Kandy  Tamil 

The  Christians  connected  with  the  T.C.M.  have  increased 
from  3,140  in  1900  to  4,711  in  1918  and  their  contributions 
from  Rs.  5,314-93  to  Rs.  14,728'48. 

The  work  sustained  a  severe  loss  in  1918  by  the  death  in 
England  of  the  Rev.  W.  Booth,  and  a  further  one  by  the 
well-earned  retirement  of  the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands,  which 
was  the  occasion  for  the  unique  honour  of  an  appreciative 
minute  being  passed  by  the  Ceylon  Planters'  Association 
and  for  the  request  that  an  enlarged  portrait  of  the  veteran 
missionary  should  be  placed  in  the  Planters'  Hall,  Kandy. 

The  minute  is  as  follows  : — 

This  Association  desires  to  express  the  deep  sense  of 
planters  of  Ceylon  of  their  appreciation  of  the  long  and  valua 
ble  services  rendered  to  the  community  in  general  and  to  plant 
ers  and  their  coolies  in  particular  by'the  Rev.  W.  E.  Rowlands, 
Secretary  of  the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission.' 



AN  effort  to  bring  Christian  education  to  the  Kandyan  girls 
of  rank  first  led  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  into  Ceylon.  The  high-class 
Buddhists  of  the  Kandyan  country  had  seemed  as  inaccessible 
to  ordinary  methods  of  foreign  missions  as  the  rocky  height 
-of  Adam's  Peak,  which  only  enthusiastic  pilgrims  scale  in 
search  of  salvation.  The  Rev.  and  Mrs.  J.  Ireland  Jones 
believed,  in  spite  of  every  discouragement  and  adverse  opinion, 
that  it  would  be  possible  to  induce  the  parents  to  entrust  their 
daughters  to  the  care  of  English  ladies.  The  Rev.  J.  G. 
Garrett  (C.M.S.)  also  had  the  project  at  heart  and  when 
speaking  in  Birmingham  in  1888,  appealed  for  ladies  to  start 
the  work. 

Miss  Bellerby  and  Miss  James  responded  to  the  appeal  and 
the  Church  of  England  Zenana  Missionary  Society  sent  them 
out  in  1889,  the  expense  of  the  venture  being  largely  met  by 
a  few  warm  supporters  of  the  Society. 

On  arrival  in  Ceylon,  Miss  Bellerby  and  Miss  James  went  to 
Cotta  to  learn  the  language.  Miss  Denyer,  who  went  out 
as  an  unattached  and  honorary  worker,  joined  them  and 
worked  amongst  the  villages  around  Kandy.  Later  on  she 
transferred  to  the  C.M.5.,  as  that  Society  was  responsible  for 
the  evangelistic  work  in  the  Kandy  district. 

In  1890  a  suitable  bungalow,  Hillwood,  was  found,  in  which 
to  begin  the  proposed  boarding-school  in  Kandy,  and  Miss 
Bellerby  and  Miss  James  removed  there.  A  prospectus  was 

C.E.Z.M.    SOCIETY    IN    CEYLON  189 

issued  bearing  the  names  of  three  Kandyan  Chiefs.  Miss  R. 
Gooneratna  of  Cotta  was  associated  with  the  missionaries  in 
the  work  during  these  early  years  and  her  wise  and  untiring 
efforts  did  much  to  build  up  the  school. 

Hilhvood  was  originally  called  the  'Clarence  Memorial 
School '  in  memory  of  the  infant  son  of  the  Rev.  and  Mrs.  J. 
Ireland  Jones,  but  owing  to  the  confusion  that  constantly 
arose  through  having  two  names  to  the  same  institution,  the 
Society  decided  in  1900  to  drop  the  name  'Clarence 
Memorial.'  Such  progress  was  made  that  in  1892  there  were 
altogether  twenty  girls  in  the  boarding  school,  and  Miss 
Maiden  was  sent  out  to  help  Miss  Bellerby  in  the  work  as 
Miss  James  had  married  the  Rev.  E.  Bellerby. 

Miss  Scovell  accompanied  Miss  Maiden  and,  after  learning 
the  language  at  Hilhvood,  went  to  Gampola  to  start  the  village 
mission  work  there. 

In  1892  the  Government  Agent,  Mr.  P.  A.  Temple,  in  the 
Administrative  Report  writes,  '  I  should  not  pass  unnoticed  an 
admirable  institution  conducted  in  Kandy  by  some  English 
ladies  for  the  education  of  the  daughters  of  Kandyan  Chiefs. 
It  is  no  small  thing  to  have  made  an  attempt,  even  partially 
successful,  to  bring  out  into  the  sunshine  of  knowledge  and 
womanly  accomplishments  a  class  which  native  prejudice  has 
hitherto  consigned  to  the  gloomy  and  uncultured  life  of  a 
Kandyan  Walauwa.' 

In  1893  three  of  the  pupils  were  confirmed — one  being 
the  first  convert  to  Christianity. 

In  1894  the  work  was  reported  of  as  successful,  though  the 
spadework  done  in  those  early  years  by  Miss  Bellerby  had 
been  exceedingly  difficult.  For  many  years,  owing  to  the  in 
accessibility  of  the  Walauwas — before  the  days  of  train  and 
of  motors — the  children  only  went  home  once  a  year,  during 
Sinhalese  New  Year  in  April. 

The  numbers  soon  outgrew  the  capacity  of  the  bungalow, 


and  in  1895  a  dormitory  to  accommodate  thirty  girls  was 
added.  In  1897  Miss  Alice  Naish  arrived  to  help  in  the  school 
and  carried  on  bravely  with  Miss  Maiden  during  Miss  Bellerby's 
furlough,  but  she  died  at  Home  in  1901,  the  strain  of  the  work 
having  too  great  for  her. 

In  January,  1901,  Miss  Lena  Chapman,  who  had  been 
invalided  home  from  Bengal,  was  sent  to  Kandy.  During 
this  year,  the  arrangement  by  which  the  Principal  of  Trinity 
College  was  manager  of  the  school,  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Garrett, 
Clerical  Secretary  and  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  William  Duff 
Gibbon,  Financial  Secretary,  came  to  an  end.  Miss  Bellerby 
was  appointed  Manager  as  well  as  Principal,  and  the  Rev. 
A.  E.  Dibben  became  Corresponding  Secretary  with  the 
Home  Society. 

In  1902  Miss  Menage  came  out  to  help  in  the  care  of  the 
girls.  She  was  transferred  to  the  Deaf  School  in  Palam- 
cottah,  South  India  in  the  following  year,  and  returned  to 
help  in  the  Deaf  and  Blind  School  in  1912. 

In  1903  Miss  Scovell  and  Miss  Maiden  retired.  The  latter 
had  been  invalided  home  in  1901  having  done  good  work  in 
the  school,  and  was  not  allowed  to  return.  The  first  success 
in  a  public  examination — Junior  Cambridge — was  obtained  in 
1903,  one  fesult  of  this  being  that  girls  were  allowed  to  stay 
longer  at  school ;  thus  a  blow  was  struck  at  the  prevalent 
practice  of  too  early  marriage. 

In  1904  Miss  Eva  Heather,  B.A.,  came  to  Hillwood,  and 
from  1904-1907  Miss  Lena  Chapman  was  acting-Principal, 
while  Miss  Bellerby  was  on  furlough.  Miss  E.  Curtis  joined 
Hillwood  in  1905  as  a  local  worker,  and  in  1907  '  Middle- 
wood,'  a  bungalow  near  Hillwood,  was  opened  as  a  school  for 
little  boys  from  four  to  eight  years  of  age,  the  boys'  schools 
in  Kandy  not  catering  for  such  young  children  and  the  parents 
being  desirous  of  having  their  small  boys  at  '  Hillwood  '  with 
their  sisters.  Miss  F.  Naish  took  charge  of  Middlewood. 


C.E.Z.M.    SOCIETY    IN    CEYLON  191 

In  1908  Miss  Rose  Overton  (Somerville  College,  Oxford) 
joined  the  Hillwood  staff  and  Miss  M.F.  and  Miss  B.E.  Brutton 
came  out  to  give  voluntary  help  for  a  year.  In  this  year, 
Hillwood  was  enlarged  to  accommodate  over  a  hundred  girls. 
This  was  done  by  blasting  away  a  large  portion  of  the  hillside 
and  filling  up  a  deep  ravine  with  the  debris.  Thus  a  two-storied 
school  building,  play-ground,  and  tennis  court  were  evolved. 

In  1909  seven  girls  were  bapti/ed  and  five  confirmed — 
fruits  of  the  faithful  work  of  the  past  years  in  breaking  up  the 
soil.  In  1910  Miss  Cave,  M.A.,  formerly  Editorial  Superin 
tendent  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  and  Miss  J.  Oakley  arrived  to 
help  at  Hillwood  and  Middlewood. 

Miss  Lena  Chapman  returned  from  furlough  in  1910  and 
opened  Peradeniya  School  for  girls  ineligible  for  Hillwood, 
but  in  the  following  year  Miss  Bellerby  was  invalided  home 
and  retired  from  the  work,  and  Miss  Lena  Chapman  was 
asked  to  close  Peradeniya  School  and  return  to  Hillwood  as 
Principal  bringing  some  of  her  girls  and  all  her  school  plant 
with  her. 

Miss  Heather,  who  had  been  in  England  for  some  little 
time,  retired  from  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  in  1911.  The  '  Annexe  ' 
was  built  on  the  hillside  in  1912  and  it  has  served  as  a 
valuable  isolation  block  in  cases  of  infectious  illness.  In  1913 
the  first  day  pupils  were  admitted  to  '  Hillwood.'  Miss  Hall,,  joined  the  staff  in  1915  and  a  Science  Room  was  built. 
Miss  Rose  Overton,  having  learnt  the  vernacular  (Sinhalese), 
was  lent  to  the  C.M.S.  Training  School,  and  she  has  since 
been  in  charge  of  the  Women's  Department  of  the  '  Training 
Colony,'  Peradeniya.  In  1915  the  first  '  Middlewood  '  old 
boy  was  baptized  at  Trinity  College. 

In  1916  class  rooms  and  a  '  covered  way  '  connecting  the 
1  Annexe  '  with  the  school  were  added.  Several  baptisms  had 
taken  place  during  these  years,  and  this  year  saw  the  first 
Christian  marriage  from  Hillwood.  Miss  Dorothy  Gunston 


arrived  during  the  year  and  took  charge  of  the  Kindergarten. 
Other  Christian  marriages  followed  in  1917,  and  thus  the 
goal  of  the  work,  the  foundation  of  the  Christian  Home, 
having  been  now  reached,  the  school  was  abundantly 
justifying  its  existence. 

In  1917  Miss  Oakley  returned  from  furlough  and  brought 
Miss  Cragg  with  her  as  an  honorary  worker.  As  Miss  Oakley 
broke  down  a  few  months  after  her  arrival,  Miss  Cragg  gave 
invaluable  help  for  over  three  years  at  Middlewood  by  taking 
over  the  charge  of  the  small  boys. 

The  Kandyans  are  a  rapidly  changing  community  and  are 
coming  abreast  of  the  other  races  in  their  national  life. 
Perhaps  not  the  least  potent  force  in  this  modern  forward 
movement  is  the  influence  of  its  educated  and  enlightened 


In  1910  Miss  M.  F.  Chapman  joined  her  sister  at  the  Pera- 
deniya  School  for  a  year  and  whilst  there  wrote  an  article  in 
a  Sinhalese  newspaper,  '  The  Rivikirana,'  calling  attention  to 
the  fact  that  nothing  was  being  done  for  the  deaf  and  dumb  of 
the  Island  and  appealing  for  funds  to  start  the  work.  The 
census  returns  for  1911  showed  that  there  were  3,233  deaf  and 
dumb  persons  in  the  Island  and  3,957  blind,  947  of  these  being 
under  fifteen.  Mr.  K.  J.  Saunders,  of  Trinity  College,  took 
up  Miss  Chapman's  appeal  and  commended  it  to  the  public 
through  the  press.  Mr.  T.  Gracie,  Secretary  of  the  Ceylon 
branch  of  the  Bible  Society,  also  wrote  supporting  the  appeal 
and  suggesting  the  formation  of  a  scheme  which  would  include 
the  blind  also.  As  a  result,  an  Appeal  Fund  Committee  was 
formed  with  the  Bishop  of  Colombo  as  Chairman,  Mr.  Saunders 
as  Honorary  'Secretary  and  Mr.  Gracie  as  Honorary  Trea 
surer,  with  the  object  of  raising  Rs.  37,500.  Meanwhile,  Miss 
Chapman  went  to  England  and  succeeded  in  collecting  over 


arrived  during  the  year  and  took  charge  of  the  Kindergarten. 
Other  Christian  marriages  followed  in  1917,  and  thus  the 
goal  of  the  work,  the  foundation  of  the  Christian  Home, 
having  been  now  reached,  the  school  was  abundantly 
justifying  its  existence. 

In  1917  Miss  Oakley  returned  from  furlough  and  brought 
Miss  Cragg  with  her  as  an  honorary  worker.  As  Miss  Oakley 
broke  down  a  few  months  after  her  arrival,  Miss  Cragg  gave 
invaluable  help  for  over  three  years  at  Middlewood  by  taking 
over  the  charge  of  the  small  boys. 

The  Kandyans  are  a  rapidly  changing  community  and  are 
coming  abreast  of  the  other  races  in  their  national  life. 
Perhaps  not  the  least  potent  force  in  this  modern  forward 
movement  is  the  influence  of  its  educated  and  enlightened 


In  1910  Miss  M.  F.  Chapman  joined  her  sister  at  the  Pera- 
deniya  School  for  a  year  and  whilst  there  wrote  an  article  in 
a  Sinhalese  newspaper,  '  The  Rivikirana,'  calling  attention  to 
the  fact  that  nothing  was  being  done  for  the  deaf  and  dumb  of 
the  Island  and  appealing  for  funds  to  start  the  work.  The 
census  returns  for  1911  showed  that  there  were  3,233  deaf  and 
dumb  persons  in  the  Island  and  3,957  blind,  947  of  these  being 
under  fifteen.  Mr.  K.  J.  Saunders,  of  Trinity  College,  took 
up  Miss  Chapman's  appeal  and  commended  it  to  the  public 
through  the  press.  Mr.  T.  Gracie,  Secretary  of  the  Ceylon 
branch  of  the  Bible  Society,  also  wrote  supporting  the  appeal 
and  suggesting  the  formation  of  a  scheme  which  would  include 
the  blind  also.  As  a  result,  an  Appeal  Fund  Committee  was 
formed  with  the  Bishop  of  Colombo  as  Chairman,  Mr.  Saunders 
as  Honorary  'Secretary  and  Mr.  Gracie  as  Honorary  Trea 
surer,  with  the  object  of  raising  Rs.  37,500.  Meanwhile,  Miss 
Chapman  went  to  England  and  succeeded  in  collecting  over 

C.E.Z. M.    SOCIETY    IN   CEYLON  193 

a  thousand   pounds.     She  also  secured  the  services   of    Miss 
Bausor,  a  trained  teacher  of  the  blind,  and  induced  the  C.E.Z. 
M.S.  to  enter  upon  this  new  work  in  Ceylon.     Miss  G.  Bergg 
offered   herself  to  the  Society  specially  for  work   amongst  the 
deaf  of  Ceylon  and  went  into  training.     Miss  Mase,   a  trained 
teacher  of  the  deaf,    came  out  to   help  in  the  work   until  Miss 
Bergg  had  completed  her   course,  anJ.  Miss  Menage,  who  had 
previously  worked  at  Palamcottah,  joined  the  staff  as  matron. 
The  Appeal  Committee  collected  about  Rs.   48,600,  the  Hon. 
Mr.    A.  ].  R.    de    Soysa,    M.L.C.,    gave   a    site  of  six   acres 
near  Mt.  Lavinia,  and  on  this  land  the  school  was  built.     The 
work  itself  was  begun  in  1912  in  a  rented  bungalow   in  Dehi- 
wala,  the  new   building  not   being  ready   for  occupation  until 
1914,  when  the  Appeal  Fund  Committee,  having  completed  its 
work,  handed  over  to  the  C.E.Z. M.S.     A  serious  outbreak  of 
illness  occurred  immediately  after  the   removal  and  as  it  was 
seen    that    further    drainage    was  necessary,    Icicle    Hall    in 
Colombo  was  rented  and  the   school   carried  on   there   for  a 
time.     Miss  Bausor  returned  to  England  in  1914  owing  to  ill- 
health  and   Miss  G.   Bergg,   having  completed  her  training, 
arrived  in   Colombo  in   February,  1915,   Miss   Mase   leaving 
shortly  afterwards.     In  September,  1915,  Miss  Chapman  left 
on    medical   advice    and    the    school    was    re-transferred    to 
the  new  buildings.     Miss   S.   C.   Lloyd,   of   the  C.M.S.,   was 
asked  to  undertake  the  oversight  of  the  work  temporarily,  and, 
after  five   months,   Miss  Bergg  became  Principal,  and  shortly 
afterwards,  Manager  also.     During  the  yean,  1916  and  1917 
steady  progress  was  made,  several  new  buildings  were  added, 
the  numbers  increased  and  new   industries   were   started.     A 
training   class  was   opened    for  girls    who    wished  to  become 
teachers  of  the  deaf  or    blind,  and  most   encouraging  reports 
were  received  as  a  result  of  the  Government  examination,  the 
annual     Government    grant  being    considerably     increased. 
Besides  this  generous  grant  the   school  has  no  fixed  income, 


and  is  entirely  dependent  on  voluntary  contributions.  Appeal 
ing  as  it  does  to  the  sympathies  of  every  class  and  creed,  the 
work  has  aroused  widespread  interest  and  encouraging  support 
in  its  efforts  to  train  these  afflicted  children  to  become  useful, 
happy  and,  as  far  as  possible,  independent  citizens. 


In  1892  Miss  A.  Scovell  was  sent  out,  specially  supported  for 
work  in  the  villages  around  Kandy,  which  remained  her  centre 
until  1896  when  the  present  Mission.  House  at  Gampola  was 
first  rented.  The  C.E.Z.M.S.  was  then  assigned  the  womerrs 
work  in  the  Gampola  district,  thirty-six  miles  long  by  thirty- 
four  broad,  and  Miss  Scovell  and  Miss  E.  S.  Karney  carried  on 
a  zealous  evangelistic  campaign  in  the  numerous  villages, 
besides  running  a  very  successful  dispensary  in  Gampola  itself. 
Through  this  elementary  medical  work  touch  was  obtained 
with  many  of  the  surrounding  villages,  patients  taking  back 
the  Gospel  message  to  their  homes.  The  C.E.Z.M.S.  reliev 
ed  the  C.M.S.  of  the  ten  girls'  schools  in  the  district:  and  opened 
five  new  ones.  Miss  K.  Gedge  worked  in  Gampola  from 
1898  to  190,;,  and  then  took  charge  of  the  C.M.S.  and  C.E.Z. 
M.S.  Training  School  for  vernacular  teachers  at  Cotta  from 
1904  until  her  marriage  in  1909.  Miss  Johnson  arrived  in 
1904  expressly  for  village  work.  Another  valued  helper  was 
Miss  M.  R.  Gedge  who,  after  a  period  of  honorary  service  in 
East  Africa,  came  to  Ceylon  in  1900  and  rendered  useful  help 
in  various  mission  stations,  both  C.M.S.  and  C.E.Z.M.S., 
especially  devoting  herself  to  the  English-speaking  people. 
A  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  branch  of  seventy 
members  was  started  in  Gampola  in  1898  and  Bible-classes 
formed,  and  these  two  branches  of  work  were  carried  on  by 
Miss  Gedge  on  her  arrival  with  much  success.  Living  at 
Gampola,  she  also  visited  in  the  railway  settlements  at 
Kadugannawa  and  Nawalapitiya.  Later  this  work  among 

C.E.Z.M.    SOCIETY    IN    CEYLON  195 

the  railway   employees  and   their   families   was   taken   up  by 

Miss  M.  Peto,  another  honorary  missionary,  who,  after  service 

in  North    India,   made   her   home   at   Gampola   in    1910    and 

has  since  worked  among  the   English-speaking  people.      Miss 

Scovell   retired    in    1903    and    Miss   Karney    in    1905.     Miss 

M.  E.  Lambe  arrived   in    1906  and   from   that  time   she  and 

Miss  Johnson  have  carried  on  the  work.     The  Society  having 

acquired    the    bungalow    and    compound,    a    new    dispensary 

.and  sick-room   were   added   in    191J,   a  boarding  school   was 

started  and  a   preaching   band   formed.     In   this   year    Miss 

Karney  returned   to  the   Mission   and  developed   the  work  at 

Talawa,   a   village  ne_ir   Anuradhapura,    in    which  village  she 

Jived  until  her  departure  from  Ceylon  in  1915. 

Some  of  the  girls'  schools  taken  over  from  the  C.M.S.  were 
given  back  to  that  Society  in  1918,  thus  setting  free  the 
missionaries  to  devote  more  time  to  evangelistic  work. 



THE  great  war  of  1914-18  had  a  less  direct  effect  on  the 
Ceylon  Mission  than  on  those  of  India,  Uganda,  Egypt, 
China  and  Japan.  Ceylon  sent  no  Labour  Corps  officered  to  a 
certain  extent  by  missionaries  as  did  Uganda,  India,  China 
and  Japan,  but  this  was  mainly  due  to  the  inability  of  the 
Ceylon  Government  to  finance  such  an  effort.  Apart  from 
the  enlightened  and  active  patriotism  shown  in  some  of  the 
secondary  schools,  the  attitude  of  the  mass  of  Sinhalese  and 
Tamil  Christians  was  that  of  sympathetic  spectators  of  the 

The  Ceylon  Mission  played  its  part  in  the  war  as  far  as  its 
numbers  and  position  would  allow.  The  Revs.  A.  K.  Finni- 
more  and  A.  G.  Fraser  served  as  Army  Chaplains  on  the 
Western  Front,  while  another  missionary  was  accepted  as  a 
chaplain,  but  withdrew  on  account  of  an  urgent  call  to 
return  to  Ceylon.  Trinity  College,  Kandy,  gave  of  its  best, 
including  seven  of  its  staff,  of  whom  two  were  killed.  Fifty- 
four  of  its  pupils,  of  whom  eleven  laid  down  their  lives,  also 
took  part.  Its  contribution  to  the  war  was  graciously  recog 
nized  by  the  King,  who  presented  one  of  the  captured 
German  machine-guns  to  the  College.  Mounted  on  a  granite 
stand,  this  was  unveiled  by  the  Governor  of  Ceylon,  Sir 
William  Manning,  in  the  presence  of  a  large  assemblage,  in 


The  Rev.  A.  M.  Walmsley  served  tor  a  short  time  in  the 
I.A.R.O.  in  Mesopotamia  and  in  1917  when  compulsory 
military  training  for  all  Europeans  under  fifty  was  introduced, 
several  of  the  members  of  the  Mission  preferred  to  join 
the  local  Defence  Corps  rather  than  be  exempted  by  reason 
of  their  calling.  The  son  of  a  T.C.M.  catechist  joined  up  in 
1916  and  fought  throughout  the  Palestine  campaign. 
Several  old  boys  of  our  elementary  English  schools  also 
joined  up  and  served  in  Palestine  and  Mesopotamia  and  on 
other  battle  fronts. 

The  smaller  boarding  schools,  both  boys'  and  girls', 
contributed  to  the  best  of  their  ability  to  the  various  war 

In  consequence  of  the  war  and  the  subsequent  problems 
arising  from  it,  the  desire  for  greater  political  freedom  has 
become  mftre  intense  and  more  widely  spread.  The  Christian 
community  share  to  a  great  extent  in  this  legitimate  aspiration, 
the  only  difference  being  that  their  non-Christian  brethren 
make  more  use  of  the  Press  and  of  public  meetings  to 
forward  the  particular  ends  which  they  favour.  With  many, 
'  self-determination  '  is  the  political  war-cry  and  the  object 
of  their  agitation.  It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  chapter  to 
discuss  this  movement,  but  simply  to  note  to  some  extent  its 
effect  as  seen  in  the  manner  of  the  recaption  of  the  Christian 
message.  Among  the  masses  of  the  Sinhalese  there  is  a  decided 
tendency  to  regard  Buddhism  as  the  national  religion,  while 
many,  both  Tamils  and  Sinhalese,  regard  Christianity  as  a 
religion  of  the  West.  Hence  has  arisen  the  somewhat 
widely-spread  idea  that  to  become  a  Christian  is  to  become 
•denationalized  and  to  be  out  of  sympathy  with  national 
aspirations.  For  this  reason,  the  missionary  body  as  a 
whole  would  welcome  a  far  greater  measure  of  self-reali/ation 
for  the  Cevlonese  communities  than  has  hitherto  been 


The  '  revival  of  Buddhism,'  which  became  noticeable 
early  in  the  century,  has  received  a  further  impetus  from  this 
national  movement.  Of  recent  years  this  revival  seems  to 
have  taken  the  form  of  an  attempt  to  demonstrate  that  the 
Buddhist  system  of  philosophy  is  capable  of  adaptation  as  a. 
working  force  in  the  modern  movements  of  the  day,  many  of 
which  are  essentially  Christian  in  origin.  Thus  we  have,  as 
pointed  out  in  Ch.  Ill,  Buddhist  Grant-in-aid  Schools  run  by 
a  central  organization,  just  as  we  have  Christian  Grant-in-aid 
Schools  run  by  different  Christian  bodies ;  Buddhist  Sunday 
Schools  ;  Young  Men's  Buddhist  Associations  in  emulation 
of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  ;  and  a  Buddhist 
Literature  Society  is  contemplated.  Buddhists  co-operate 
with  Christians  in  Social  Service  Leagues  and  in  other 
societies  for  the  amelioration  of  suffering. 

As  regards  the  Mohammedans  the  most  that  can  be 
stated  is  that  their  attitude  is  more  friendly  than  in  pre-war 

Dealing  with  the  congregations  of  Sinhalese  and  Tamil 
Christians  connected  with  and  owing  their  origin  to  the  C.M.S.,. 
it  should  be  noted  that  the  ten  years  prior  to  1918  have  seen 
a  considerable  development  in  organization,  especially  in 
connection  with  the  Diocese.  Missionaries  and  Ceylonese 
clergy  of  the  C.M.S.,  holding  the  Bishop's  license,  are 
naturally  part  of  the  Diocese  as  much  as  are  the  clergy  more 
directly  associated  with  it,  their  relationship  to  the  C.M:S. 
being  something  additional.  C.M.S.  missionaries  took  a 
prominent  part  in  the  formation  of  the  Diocesan  Synod  in 
1880,  and  have  ever  since  taken  their  share  in  its  work 
and  in  that  of  the  Diocesan  organizations  generally. 

In  1909  the  present  Bishop  of  Colombo,  Dr.  E.  A. 
Copleston,  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  Parent  Committee 
to  become  Chairman  of  the  C.M.S.  Conference,  and  the  estab 
lishment  of  this  closer  connection  between  the  Bishop  and 

THE    RIGHT    REV.    E.    A.    COPLKSTON,    D.D.,  BISHOP    OF    COLOMBO 


the  Society  has  been  attended  by  much  profit  to  the  work. 
Whilst  thus  intimately  connected  with  the  Diocese,  it  is 
however  natural  that  as  the  Parent  Committee  makes  large 
grants  to  the  Ceylon  Mission  and  sends  out  missionaries  from 
England,  it  should  claim  a  certain  amount  of  control  and  this 
up  to  the  present  has  been  secured  by  the  Conference  and  the 
Finance  Committee  which  together  form  the  Local  Governing 
Body  of  the  Mission,  and  by  a  Patronage  Board  which 
controls  the  appointment  of  Ceylonese  clergy  to  the  charge  of 
pastorates  connected  with  the  Society.  The  Parent  Com 
mittee's  Memorandum  of  1900  forms  the  basis  of  the  policy 
which  has  been  pursued.  Four  Ceylonese  clergy,  elected  by 
their  own  fellow  clergy,  and  two  laymen  nominated  by  the 
Conference  have  seats  on  the  Conference,  and  two  of  these 
are  generally  elected  each  year  to  serve  on  the  Standing 

A  stage  has  now  been  reached  in  which  the  leading  pastor 
ates,  Sinhalese  and  Tamil,  have  attained  to  a  status  of  self- 
support  and  independence,  receiving  practically  no  grant  from 
the  Parent  Committee  for  pastoral  work,  but  assisted  by 
grants  in  aid  of  the  evangelistic  and  school  work  which 
nearly  all  of  them  have  undertaken. 

Thus  for  example,  there  is  now  no  Di-trict  Missionary  in 
Jaffna.  The  whole  of  his  work  has  been  undertaken  by  the 
four  pastors  and  their  Church  Committees,'  with  Chundicully, 
Nellore,  Copay  and  Pallai  as  their  centres,  leaving  only  the 
English  educational  work  and  the  training  of  vernacular 
teachers  in  the  hands  of  the  missionaries.  In  the  Cotta 
District  a  similar  step  has  been  taken  with  the  Nugegoda  and 
Talangama  pastorates,  and  in  Colombo  as  regards  the  Sinha 
lese  and  Tamil  pastorates.  In  Kandy  the  Tamil  pastorate  has 
become  independent,  and  the  Sinhalese  congregations  there, 
namely  at  Trinity  Church,  Katukelle  and  Gatembe,  have  been 
in  this  position  for  nearly  forty  years. 


A  remarkable  feature  of  recent  years  has  been  the  progress 
and  development  of  the  Tamil  Christian  pastorates  in  the 
planting  districts.  Whereas  in  1900  there  was  but  one 
ordained  Tamil  clergyman  working  in  the  sphere  of  the  Tamil 
Cooly  Mission,  the  Rev.  A.  Gnanatuuttu  of  Kandy,  there  are 
now  nine.  These  men  are  in  charge  of  vigorous  pastorates  in 
Kandy,  Dikoya,  Dimbula,  Nuwara  Eliya,  the  Kelani  Valley, 
Sabaragamuwa,  Matale,  Badulla  and  Gampola. 



THE  past  twenty  years  have  witnessed  a  great  and  ever-in- 
•creasing  demand  for  education,  and  a  correspondingly  higher 
standard  in  missionary  schools  has  been  necessitated.  The 
days  are  past  when  any  sort  of  a  weather-proof  building 
would  do  for  a  school  and  when  a  teacher  need  have  only 
sufficient  education  to  impart  instruction.  Buildings,  to 
satisfy  Government  requirements,  must  be  of  a  much  higher 
type,  and  teachers  must,  with  few  exceptions,  be  more  or  less 
experts.  Thus  the  burden  and  expense  of  missionary  schools 
becomes  increasingly  heavier.  Secondary  schools  must  have 
their  laboratories  and  science  equipment  and  all  schools  must 
have  a  certain  proportion  of  trained  teachers  on  their  staffs. 

A  feature  of  the  present  demand  for  education  is  the  desire 
to  learn  English.  Parents  will  pay  anything  in  reason  and 
often  more  than  they  can  afford  for  English  education  for 
their  children.  Pupils  will  daily  trudge  miles  to  supplement 
a  vernacular  school  course  with  some  instruction  in  English. 

The  importance  of  higher  educational  work  is  accentuated 
in  these  days  of  national  aspirations.  Ceylonese  are  taking 
a  more  and  more  prominent  part  in  public  life  and  although 
the  few  proceed  to  an  English  University,  the  many  receive 
their  deepest  educational  impress  in  the  high  schools  and 
colleges  of  the  island.  Moreover,  in  connection  with  the 
progress  of  Christianity  and  the  development  of  the  Church 
of  the  future,  it  is  increasingly  necessary  to  aim  at  the 
training  of  men  who  will  be  fitted  to  take  a  leading  part.  It 
is  a  significant  fact  that  with  some  few  notable  exceptions, 


the  Ceylonese  of  outstanding  capacity  in  politics,  Government 
service  and  business,  are  Christians  or  have  received  their 
education  in  a  Christian  institution. 

A  distinction  more  or  less  defined  may  be  noticed  in  the 
outlook  and  ideals  of  the  Christian  and  non- Christian  leaders. 
Christianity  gives  a  wider  and  more  altruistic  outlook  and,  in 
many  of  the  present-day  leaders,  tends  to  moderate  the 
ambitions  of  the  extreme  Nationalists  without,  however, 
evincing  any  lack  of  sympathy  with  any  reasonable  scheme  for 
the  greater  self-realization  of  the  Ceylonese  races. 

The  teaching  of  science,  both  pure  and  applied,  has  made 
great  strides  of  recent  years.  The  School  of  Tropical 
Agriculture  is  doing  a  great  work  and  receives  the  support  of 
the  land-owning  classes.  Agriculture  as  a  profession  is 
beginning  to  compete  with  the  practice  of  law  and  medicine 
and  with  the  attractive  Government  service. 

The  world-wide  movement  towards  Social  Service  has  not 
left  Ceylon  untouched.  The  first  Social  Service  League  in 
the  island  was  initiated  at  Trinity  College  under  the  leader 
ship  of  the  late  Capt.  N.  P.  Campbell.  The  movement  has 
spread,  and  in  Colombo  and  in  other  places  similar  organiza 
tions  are  working  for  the  uplift  of  the  masses.  Some  of 
these  are  even  non -Christian,  but  when  one  remembers  the 
pessimism  of  the  Buddhist  philosophy,  the  negative  idealism  of 
Hinduism  and  the  fatalistic  creed  of  Mohammedanism,  there 
can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  source  of  the  inspiration. 

Higher  education  for  girls  is  still  largely  in  the  hands  of 
the  missionary  bodies  at  work  in  the  island.  The  Buddhists 
have  two  institutions  in  Colombo  and  others  are  projected, 
whilst  the  Hindus  have  one  school  in  the  North.  The 
Mohammedans,  the  most  backward  race  as  regards  education, 
are  beginning  to  bestir  themselves,  but  so  far  only  as  regards 
the  education  of  their  boys.  Signs  are  not  wanting  that  in 
India  the  more  enlightened  Mohammedan  communities  are 


THE    SAME    SCHOOL    REBUILT,     1915 


realizing  the  necessity  for  educating  their  girls,  and  it  is 
hoped  and  believed  that  this  movement  will  before  long 
spread  to  Ceylon.  There  are  two  factors  which  mark  the 
urgency  of  the  higher  education  of  girls.  One  is  that  the 
educated  young  Easterner  feels  the  need  of  and  demands 
a  correspondingly  educated  and  enlightened  partner.  The 
second  is  the  increased  scope  for  the  work  of  women 
in  social  service.  The  pace  at  which  the  movement  for  the 
emancipation  of  women  in  the  East  is  progressing  leaves 
the  historian  breathless.  During  the  last  year  or  two,  the 
claim  for  the  franchise  for  women  has  been  urged  in  India 
with  no  uncertain  voice.  The  fulfilment  of  this  claim  is 
probably  far  distant,  but  that  it  has  been  made  at  all,  is  a 
momentous  advance. 

From  a  missionary  point  of  view,  the  Boarding  Schools 
for  Girls  are  the  most  satisfactory  in  results.  These,  however, 
share  with  all  other  grades  of  schools,  in  the  necessity  for 
complying  with  the  demands  of  Government  for  better 
buildings,  more  competent  staff,  and  more  up-to-date  equip 
ment.  To  keep  pace  with  these  demands  is  an  ever-increasing 
difficulty  and  many  schools  barely  pay  their  way. 

A  few  years  ago  compulsory  education  was  introduced 
and  is'  gradually  being  enforced.  With  it  came  also  the 
Conscience  Clause,  a  copy  of  which  is  displayed  in  every 
school.  A  new  policy  of  education  affecting  our  vernacular 
schools,  recently  foreshadowed  by  the  Ceylon  Government,, 
constitutes  a  problem  for  our  Missionary  Societies.  The  near 
future  will  witness  a  considerable  modification  of  evangelistic 
effort,  the  chief  notes  of  which  will  be  more  concentration 
and  greater  efficiency. 

Within  the  sphere  of  the  Tamil  Cooly  Mission  the  most 
noticeable  development  of  recent  years  has  been  the  increase 
in  the  number  of  Estate  Schools.  This  is  due  chiefly  to  a 
Government  ordinance  requiring  estates  to  make  provision  for 


the  education  of  the  children  of  their  labour  force.  Though 
the  ordinance  fails  in  that  it  contains  no  clau-e  for  enforcing 
attendance,  a  large  number  of  estates  have  provided  schools 
and  many  of  these  are  under  the  management  of  the  mission 
aries.  A  smaller  number  are  both  managed  and  financed  by 
the  missionaries.  Educationally,  they  are  of  doubtful  value 
owing  to  the  irregularity  of  the  attendance,  though  this,  we 
hope,  will  be  remedied  to  a  great  extent  by  the  provisions  of 
a  new  labour  ordinance  which  will  limit  the  employment  of 
very  young  children  in  manual  labour  on  the  estates.  From 
a  missionary  point  of  view,  the  chief  points  in  favour  of  many 
of  them  are  that  they  provide  a  point  d'appui  for  beginning 
work  among  the  coolies  of  an  estate,  and  that  the  school 
building  is  useful  a?  a  meeting-place  for  the  Christians. 


IT  is  hoped  that  the  foregoing  pages  have  given  a  fair  and  a 
readable  account  of  the  work  of  the  Church  Missionary 
Society  in  Ceylon  during  the  century  which  ended  in  the 
year  1918  and  that  the  reader  will  rise  from  their  perusal 
with  some  idea  of  what  God  has  wrought  by  this  imperfect 
and  unworthy  instrument.  He  has  given  to  all  concerned  in 
the  work  much  cause  for  praise  and  thanksgiving  for  the 
measure  of  prosperity  and  progress  which  He  has  permitted 
them  to  witness,  for  the  many  souls  brought  into  His 
Kingdom  and  for  the  moral  uplift  of  the  peoples  of  Ceylon. 

At  the  same  time  there  is  much  cause  for  humiliation  when 
it  is  borne  in  mind  that  throughout  the  century  there  have 
been  multitudes,  young  and  old,  rich  and  poor,  educated  and 
illiterate,  who,  although  they  have  had  the  Gospel  of  Christ 
put  plainly  before  them,  have  either  deliberately  rejected  it  or 
turned  away  from  it  with  indifference,  as  though  it  were 
something  which  did  not  concern  them.  The  proportion  of 
Christians  to  non-Christians  in  the  whole  island  is  still  a 
fraction  below  ten  per  cent.  This  constitutes  a  loud  call  to 
the  Ceylonese  who  have  embraced  the  Christian  religion  to 
1  Take  up  the  torch  and  wave  it  wide,' 

for  the  work  of  evangelizing  the  country  must  now  be  left 
more  and  more  in  their  hands,  and  dark  places  still  abound 
which  need  to  be  illuminated  with  Gospel  light. 

'  Say  not,   "  The  struggle  nought  availeth, 

The  labour  and  the  wounds  are  vain, 
The  enemy  faints  not  nor  faileth, 

And  as  things  have  been  they  remain." 

For  while  the  tired  waves  vainly  breaking, 

Seem  here  no  painful  inch  to  gain, 
Far  back,  through  creeks  and  inlets  making, 

Comes  silent,  flooding  in,  the  main. 

And  not  by  eastern  windows  only 

When  daylight  comes,  comes  in  the  light  ; 

In  front  the  sun  climbs  slow,  how  slowly 
But  westward,  look,  the  land  is  bright.' 


Jehovah,  Thou  hast  promised 

The  isles  shall  wait  for  Thee; 
The  joyous  isles  of  Ocean,^ 

The  jewels  of  the  sea  ; 
Lo  !   we,  this  island's  watchmen, 

Would  give  and  take  no  rest, 
(For  thus  hast  Thou  commanded,) 

Till  our  dear  land  be  blessed. 

Then  bless  her,  mighty  Father, 

With  blessings  needed  most, 
In  every  verdant  village, 

By  every  palmy  coast ; 
On  every  soaring  mountain 

O'er  every  spreading  plain. 
May  all  her  sons  and  daughters 

Thy  righteousness  attain. 

Give  peace  within  her  borders, 

'Twixt  man  and  man  goodwill, 
The  love  all  unsuspicious, 

The  love  that  works  no  ill ; 
In  loyal,  lowly  service 

Let  each  from  other  learn, 
The  guardian  and  the  guarded, 

Till  Christ  Himself  return. 

To  Him  our  land  shall  listen, 

To  Him  our  land  shall  kneel, 
All  rule  be  on  His  shoulder. 

All  wrong  beneath  His  heel  ; 
Oh  consummation  glorious, 

Which  now  by  faith  we  sing  ; 
Come,  cast  we  up  the  highway 

That  brings  us  back  the  King. 

W.  S.  SENIOR. 


Abbreviations. — Oxf.,   Oxford;  Camb.,  Cambridge  ;    Dub. 
Dublin ;    Dur.,    Durham  ;    Isl.,    Church    Missionary    College, 
Islington;     d.,     deacon;     p.,     priest;     m.,     married;    S.M., 
Sinhalese    Mission  ;    T.M.,    Tamil    Mission  ;    T.C.M.,  Tamil 
Cooly    Mission ;    T.C.K.,     Trinity     College,     Kandy ;     Ret., 
Retired  from  Ceylon;    C.,  Curate;   V7.,  Vicar;    Rec.,  Rector; 
D.,  Died. 


1.  Lambrick,  Rev.  Samuel  (Matlock) — m.  1827  Mary  Ann 
Stratford,     d.  1860.    S.M.     Ret.  1835.     Tutor  at  Eton,  1816. 
Chaplain    to    Marquis   of  Cholmondeley,    1837.     Compiled  a 
'  Sinhalese    Grammar  and  Vocabulary.'      D.    1854,  aged  85. 

2.  Mayor,    Rev.    Robert,    son    of    Rev.    John    Mayor,  of 
Shawbury.—m.  September  4,  1817,  at  St.  George's,  Everton, 
Charlotte    Bickersteth,  daughter    of    Rev.  E.    Bickersteth  of 
Watton,  and  Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.     S.M.    Ret.  1S28.  V.  of 
Acton  and  Rec.  of  Coppenstall,  1838.      D.  July  14,  1846,  aged 
55.     A    soa,    Rev.    John    Eytou     Bickersteth    Mayor,    born 
Baddegama,  January  28,    1825,  became    Professor  of    Latin, 
St.  John's  College,     Cambridge,  in    1872,  and  wrote  several 
classical,    philological    and    antiquarian    works.       He    died 
December   1,    1910,   aged    85.      Another    son,   Rev.    Joseph 
Bickersteth    Mayor,   was    Professor    of    Classics    at    King's 
College,    London,    1870-79,    and    died    in    November,    1916, 
aged  88. 

3.  Ward,  Rev.  Benjamin  (Wellington) — m.  Mary  Meires. 
d.  1864.     S.M.     Ret.   1828.      Hon.  Canon  of   Carlisle,  1857. 

208  APPENDIX    A 

Rec.  of  Meesden,  1859.     D.  1879,  aged  87.     A  son,  Rev.  D. 
Ward,  Vic.  of  Upton,  Cheshire,  died  in  1912,  aged  85. 

4.  Knight,    Rev.  Joseph,  born  at    Stroud  on  October    17, 
1787.  T.M.— m.     (l)  Mrs.  S.  B.  Richards,  D.  April  26,  1825. 
(2)  Mrs.  E.S.  Nichols,  D.  February  4,  1837 — both  widows  of 
American  missionaries.     They  were  buried  in  churchyard  of 
American    Mission,    Tellippalai,    Jaffna.      Wrecked    off   the 
Cape    in    1838,    died    shortly    after  his  return   to   Ceylon   on 
October  11,  1840,  and  was  buried  at  Cotta. 

The  four    above    missionaries   were    ordained    by    Bishop 
Ryder,  of  Gloucester. 


5.  Browning,  Rev.  Thomas  (Stroud)— m.   Mary  Stephens, 
D.  1839.     S.M.  Died  at  sea  in  July,  1838. 

6.  Bailey,  Rev.  Joseph  (Dewsbury)  S.  M. — m.  (l)  Sophia 
Parkin,  D.  1825.     (2)   1834,  Octavia  Bulmer,    D.   1864.     D. 
at    Cotta  on    March   19,   1844,  aged   47,  and   buried   there. 
Compiled  a  '  Church  Hymn  Book.' 


7.  Adley,  Rev.  William  (Canterbury)  T.M.— m.  (l)  Lucy 
Coles,  D.   1839.     (2)    1841,    Catherine   Theodora    Gauntlett, 
D.  1880.     Ret.  1846.     Rec.  Rudboxton.     D.  1889,  aged  97. 


8.  Selkirk,  Rev.  James  (Harwich),  St.  Bees  Coll.,  S.M.— 
Mrs.  Selkirk  died  in  1876.     Two  children,  Emily  Jane  (1831) 
and  John   (1832)    were  buried   in   St.    Paul's   burial   ground, 
Colombo.     Chaplain  of  Hull  Gaol.  D.  1880,  aged  81.     Wrote 
in  1844  '  Recollections  of  Ceylon.'     Ret.  1840. 

9.  Trimnell,   Rev.    George    Conibere  (High    Wycombe), 
Isl.  S.M.— Ret.  1847.    Mrs.  Trimnell  died  in  1861.    D.  1880, 
aged  80. 

APPENDIX   A  209 


10.  Faught,  Rev.  George  Steers,  Isl.  S.M. — m.  Anne  Le 
Clerc.    d,  1870.    Ret.  1836.    C.  Bradfield.    D.  1873,  aged  72. 

Three  children,  Susan  Margaret  (1830),  Marcus  Steers 
(1835)  and  Godfrey  Steers  (1835),  died  and  were  buried  at 


11.  Ridsdale,   Mr.  William    (Hull),  S.M.— m.  on  April  7, 
1832,  at  St  Peter's,  Colombo,  Susan  Dorothea,  eldest  daughter 
of  Captain    F.  W.    von  Drieberg.     Ret.    1836.     A  daughter, 
Mary  Anne  (1834),  buried  in  Galle  Face  burial  ground. 


12.  Marsh,  Rev.  Joseph  (Bonsall),  Isl.  S.M. — Died  at  sea, 


13.  Oakley,   Rev.  William    (Hertford),  Isl.  S.M. —Born 
October  3,  1808.     m.  1839,  Frances  Mary  King,   D.  in  Kandy 
July  14,  1866.     A  tablet  to  ner  memory   in    Trinity    Church, 
Kandy.     Wrote  '  The  Lord's  Supper  not  a  Sacrifice,'  '  Conver 
sation  on  the  Christian   Religion,'  '  Simple   Truths  of   Chris 
tianity  '  and  several  other  tracts.     Did  not  visit  England  aftei 
his  arrival    in  1835,  and   died  in    Nuwara  Eliya  on    July  18, 
1886,  in  his  79th  year. 

Mr.  Oakley's  only  son  sailed  for  England  in  the  City  of 
London  in  1850,  the  vessel  foundered  and  all  on  board 
perished.  His  only  daughter,  Mary,  married  at  Kandy  on 
May  10,  1867,  Priestly  Jacob,  Head  Master  of  the  High 
School,  Poona,  son  of  the  Rev.  G.  A.  Jacob,  D.D.,  Christ's 
Hospital,  London. 


14.     Powell,    Rev.   Henry  (Reading),  Isl.  S.M. — m.  Mary 
Ann  Heath.    Ret.   1845.    Vicar  of  Bolton  and  Hon.  Canon  of 
Manchester.     D.  1898,  aged  84. 

210  APPENDIX    A 


15.  Haslam,    Rev.    John   Fearby  (Halifax),    B.A.,  Camb. 
S.M.— m.    (1)  1837,  Elizabeth  Denton,  D.   1839.     (2)    1842, 
Sophia   Elizabeth,    daughter    of    Rev.    J.    Bailey,  D.    1873. 
Compiled   '  Vocabulary,'  and   '  Arithmetic  '.     Translated  into 
Sinhalese    Dr.    Mill's    '  Life    of    Christ.'       D.    in    Colombo 
March  19,  1850.     Buried  in  Galle  Face  burial  ground. 

The  Haslams  arrived  on  January  7,  1839.  The  first  Mrs. 
Haslam  died  at  Cotta  on  March  24,  aged  25,  and  their 
daughter,  Elizabeth,  died  on  November  S.  Both  buried  in 
the  Galle  Face  burial  ground. 

16.  Taylor,     Rev.    Francis    W.  (Luton),    Isl.    T.M.— m. 
Caroline   Bella   Price.     Ret.    1849.     V.   West  Thorney.    D. 
1887,  aged  76. 


17.  Johnson,    Rev.   J.  Talbot    (London),   Isl.  T.M.— Ret. 
1849.     m.  Amelia  Winn.  Rec.  Beccles.   D.  1871. 


18.  Greenwood,  Rev.  Charles  (Cambridge),  Isl.  S.M.— m. 
Harriet   Winn,    D.   1872.     Drowned  whilst  bathing    in    the 
Gindara  river  at  Baddegama  on  June  21,  1850,  aged  37. 


19.  Pargiter,  Rev.  Robert  (Cornwall)— d.  1846.      p.  1847. 
T.M.     m.  (1)  1844,  Charlotte  Elizabeth  Jones,   D.   1849.     (j) 
1851,    Anna    Matilda    Palm,    D.  1900.     Ret.    1864.     C.M.S. 
Association  Secretary,  1865-1885.     V.  Towersey,  1885.     D. 
Charmouth,    April    1,    1915,  aged  98.     Mr.  Pargiter  went  to 
Ceylon  in  1844  under    the  Wesleyan   Missionary  Society  and 
joined  the  C.M.S  the  following  year. 

A  son,  Robert  S.  Pargiter,  C.C.S.,  died  as  Assistant  Govern 
ment  Agent  of  Negombo  in  1876.  A  daughter,  Mrs.  John 

APPENDIX    A  211 

Pole,  died  in  Ceylon,  and  another  son,  A.  H.  Pargiter,  died  in 
Colombo  in  1898.  Another  son,  Rev.  G.  E.  A.  Pargiter,  was 
Principal  of  St.  John's  College,  Agra,  1883-91. 



20.  Gordon,    Rev.   Alexander  Douglas,    Isl.   S.  M. Ret. 

1854.     D.  1865. 

21.  O'Neill,   Rev.  James  (Kilcoleman),   Isl.,    B.D.,  Lam- 
beth.— d.  1845.     p.    1846.      in.    1846,    Elizabeth   Adams,  D. 
December  16,  1848,  aged   27.     T.  M.  Ret.    1854.     V.  Luton. 
D.  December  28,  1896,  aged  75. 

There    is  a  marble    bust  of  Mr.  O'Neill   in    Luton    Parish 
ChurcL  where  he  was   Vicar  for   thirty-four  years.     A   son, 
^ James    Arthur,    a    physician    in    Devonshire;    another     son, 
Henry  Edward,  H.  M.  Consul  at  Rouen. 

22.  Collins,  Rev.   Henry  (Maidenhead),     Isl.   S.M.— Ret. 
1849.   D.  1860. 


23.  Wood,     Rev.     Isaiah,     Isl.     S.M.— m.    Sarah     Ann 
Spencer,  D.  1873.     Ret.  1861.     D.  1889. 


24.  Bren,   Rev.    Robert  (Reading),    Isl.   T.M.— m.  Sarah 
Jordan  Brown.      Ret.  185S.     D.  1885.     Wrote   '  Christianity 
and  Hinduism  Compared  '   (Tamil). 

25.  Parsons,  Rev.  George    (Bath),   Isl.     S.M. — m.   Diana 
Alway,   D.    1896.      D.    Colombo,    April    18,    1866,    aged    42. 
Buried  in  Galle  Face  burial  ground.     Wrote   '  Exposition  of 
the    Thirty-nine    Articles'     (Sinhalese).      A    tablet    to    his 
memory  in  Baddegama    Church.     Eldest    son,    Rev.   G.   H. 
Parsons,  a  C.  M.  S.  missionary    in    Bengal,   for  many  -years. 
A  grandson,  Rev.  B.  G.  Parsons,  C.M;S.,  Fuhkien. 

212  APPENDIX   A 


26.  Fettitt,  Rev.  George  (Birmingham),  Isl.  S.M. — Tinne- 
velly,    1833-50.     Ret.     1855.      m.     Louisa   Hare,    D.    1892. 
V.  St.    Jude's,    Birmingham.  D.    1873.     Wrote    '  Tinnevelly 
Mission  '  (1850),  '  Life  of  Rev.  J.  T.  Tucker,'  '  The    Mirror 
of  Custom.'   (1862). 


27.  Fenn,  Rev.  Christopher  Cyprian,   son  of   Rev.  Joseph 
Fenn,    Travancore. — Born   at    Cottayam.     M.A.,  Camb.     d. 
1848.     p.  1849.     S.  M.    in.     (l)   1859,    Emma    Poynder,    D. 
1870.     (2)   1872,  Harriet  Elizabeth  Christiana  Morris.     Ret. 
1863.     C.    Ockbrock  1848-50.     C.M.S.    Secretary,    1864-94. 
D.  October  12,  1913,    at  Tunbridge  Wells,  aged  90.     Wrote 
(1868)  '  Answer  to  Durlabdy  Winodaniya.' 

28.  Higgens,    Rev.      Edward    Thomas    (Snodland),   Isl. 
S.M.— m.  (1)     Amelia    Dyke,    D.  June  9,    1854.     (2)    1858r 
Annie  Catherine   Schon,  D.  1911.     Ret.  1900.     D.  June  11, 
1901,    at    Chatham,     aged    78.     Wrote    '  No    Salvation    in 
Buddhism  '   (Sinhalese).     The  first  Mrs.   Higgens,  and  their 
son,  Edward  Albert,  who  died  on  October   6,  1854,   buried  in 
Holy  Trinity  Churchyard,  Kandy, 


29.  Barton,    Mr.  Henry    James    (Ipswich),    St.    Aidan'sr 

S.M. Ret.    1862.     m.    A.    Allen.    Afterwards  ordained  and 

Chaplain  of  Poplar  Sick  Asylum. 

30.  Sorrell,    Mr.    Joseph,     Highbury    Training    College, 
X.M. — Ret.    1860.     Afterwards   ordained,    d.    1863.   p.  18,64, 
C.   St.   John's,    Limehouse,    1901.     Rec.    of  St.   Nicholas', 
Holton,  Somerset.     D.  November  1 1,  1916,  aged  88. 

APPENDIX    A  213 


31.  Collins,    Rev.  Richard,  M.A.,    Camb.     T.C.K.— Ket. 
1880.     m.  (1)  Frances  Wright,  D.  1862.  (2)    1863,  Frances 
Anne  Hawksworth.  V.   Kirkburton.  D.  190C,    Wrote  '  Philo 
sophy    of    Jesus   Christ'   (1879),    'The  After  Life'    (1894) 
4  Missionary  Enterprise  in  the  Far  East,'  and  'introduction  to 
Leviticus  in  Pulpit  Commentary.' 


32.  Whitley,  Rev.    Henry,     B.A.,    Camb.  Incumbent   of 
Christ   Church,  Galle    Face.— m.    1855,    Marcia     Paterson. 
Accidentally  killed  by  the  falling  of  a  wall  of  school  room, 
•Galle  Face,  November  10,  1860,  aged  34. 

A  tablet  to  his  memory  in  Christ  Church. 

33.  Hobbs,  Rev.    Septimus  (Portsea),     Isl.  T.C.M.— m. 
1849,    Sarah  Westbrook,  D.   1898.     Ret.  1862.     1842-55  in 
Tinnevelly.     Rec.  Compton  Vallence.  D.  1898,  aged  82, 


34.  Jones,  Rev.  John  Ireland,    M.A.,  Dub.  Isl.    S.M.— m. 
(1)   Kitty   Crawford  Colclough,  D.  1877.   (2)    1882,  Frances 
Matilda  Sinclair.   D.  Colombo,  November  12,  1903.     Wrote 
'  Jubilee  Sketches  '  (1868),  '  The  Wonderful  Garden  '  (Sinha 
lese),     '  Handbook     of    Sinhalese,'    '  Answer    to    Durlabdy 

Eldest  son,  Rev.  Philip  I.  Jones,  C.M.S.,  North  India; 
second  son,  Beauchamp,  died  in  Kegalle,  and  daughter,  Mrs. 
H.  W.  Umvin,  died  in  England. 


35.  Mac  Arthur,     Rev.     Charles    Chapman,     (lona),     Isl. 
T.M.  -m.  Annette  Cohen,  D.  1898.  Ret.  1867.     Rec.  Burling- 
ham.     D.  1892.     Wrote  '  First  Principles  '  (Tamil). 

214  APPENDIX    A 

36.  Foulkes,  Rev.    Thomas    (Holywell),   Isl.     T.M.— m- 
(1)   Miss  Maiben,    D.     1853.     (2)   Mary    Anne    Ashley,    D. 
February  6,   1859,  aged  22.     A   tablet    to   her     memory    in 
Nellore    Church.     Tinnevelly,   1849-58.     Madras,    1859-60, 
Only  one  year  in  Jaffna. 


37.  Coles,    Rev.    Stephen,     Highbury    Training  College. 
S.M.— m.  1860,    Elizabeth  Nicklin,    D.  1898.     D.  Colombo, 
1901.     Wrote  '  Essay  on  the  Atonement.'     Comp.  '  Scripture 
Text    Book,'    '  Hymns    for    Children.'     Trans.    '  My    King ' 
(Sinhalese),  '  Picture  Tracts.' 

38.  Tonge,    Rev.  Robert   Burchall    (Manchester),    B.A.r 
Lond.     Isi.     S.M.— Ret.    1867.     Mrs.    Tonge    died     1875. 
C.  Gresley. 


39.  Clowes,  Rev.  Josiah  Herbert   (Yarmouth),  Isl.  S.M.— 
in.    Susan    Emily   Seppings.     Ret.    1866.     C.    Woodbridge, 
1867-68.      C.     Newton,     1868-70.     Diocesan    Inspector    of 
Schools,     1880-96.     Rec.    Weston.     D.  Beccles,    May    16, 
1911,  aged  74. 

A  son,  Rev.  E.  G.  Clowes,  Rector  of  Weston  ;  a  daughter 
married  Rev.  E.  A.  Fitch,  C.M.S.,  E.  Africa. 

40.  Rowlands,     Rev.     William      Edvvard      (Worcester),, 
M.A.,    Oxf.     Isl.— Born     October    30,     1837.     d.    1861.    p. 
1864.     T.   M.  Ret.  in   1884  and   rejoined   in    1907.     m.    (1) 
1863,    Mary   Black  well  Evans,    d.    1877.     (2)   1S88,  Emily 
Charlotte  Adams,    D. '1889.     C.  Watermen's  Church,  Wor-, 
cester,  1861.     Rec.  Bonchurch,  1895-1906.     Assistant  Chap 
lain  at  Les  Avants.     1906-07.     Ret.   1918. 

A  son,  Rev.  H.  F.  Rowlands,  C.M.S.,  Punjab,  killed  in 
earthquake  at  Kangra  in  1905  ;  another  son,  Rev.  F.  W. 
Rowlands,  Japan  Mission.  .... 

APPENDIX    A  215 


41.  Bus  well,  Rev.   Henry  Dixon,  Isl. — d.   1862.  p.  1863. 
T.  M.     m.  1862,  Mary  Sophia  Cullis,  D.   1892.     Ret.   1865. 
C.M.S.,  Mauritius,  1866.     Archdeacon  of  Seychelles,  1894. 

42.  Pickford,  Rev.   John  (Sheffield),  St.   Bees.     T.  C.  M. 
Previously  eleven  years  in    Tinnevelly. — m.    Mary  Turner, 
D.   1866.     Ret.  1868.     D.  1882. 


43.  Allcock,    Rev.  John   (Marston),  Isl.   S.  M.— m.  1867, 
Harriet  Elizabeth  Gladding,  D.  1899.     D.  Kandy,  1S87. 

Eldest  son,  Rev.  W.  G.  Allcock.     C.  St.  John's,  Baling. 


44.  Good,    Rev.    Thomas    (Kilbourne),  Isl.    B.D.,    Lam 
beth.— d.  1866.    p.   1867.     T.    M.     m.   1867,    Susan    Brodie. 
Ret.  1874.    C.  Baggotrath,  1874-78.     V.  Sandford  Ranelagh, 
1878.     Wrote  on  '  Temperance.' 

45.  Mill,    Rev.  Julius  Caesar    (Lodi,  Italy),     T.M.— Ret. 
1869.      m.  1867   Catherine  Mary  Schaffter.      1869-75  Tinne 
velly.     D.  1888. 


46.  Fenn,    Rev.   David,   M.A.,    Camb.    T.M.— Only    four 
months  in  Ceylon.     D.  1878. 

47.  Dowbiggin,    Rev.   Richard    Thomas    (Hawkshead).— 
Born    April  27,    1838.     Isl.    S.    M.    m.    1869,     Letitia    Ann 
Layard.      D.  at  sea  near  Suez  on  March  8,  1901. 

48.  Griffith,    Rev.     Edward     Moule     (Birmingham),    Isl. 
B.A.,    Camb.     T.  M.— m.  1867,   Mary  B.  Skinner  Marshall. 
D.  Jaffna,  March  13,  1890,  aged  47. 

216  APPENDIX    A 

49.  Wood,  Rev.   David  (Stockton  on  Tees),  Isl.— d.  1867. 
p.  1869.     T.M.     m.  1869,      Margaret  Webster.     Ret.    1892.. 
Rec.  Willand,  1898.     Wrote  '  Brief  History  of  Prayer  Book  ' 

A  son,  Rev.  A.  R.  Wood,  V.  Thorpe-le-Soken ;  a  daughter, 
Mrs.  T.  Gaunt,  C.M.S.,  China. 


50.  Clark,    Rev.    William     (South wark),   Isl.     T.C.M.— 
m.    1851    Mary    Anne   Baker.     Ret.   1878.     Wrote    '  Expo 
sition  of  Prophecy,'  '  Christian  Minister.'     1848-68  in  Tinne- 
velly.     1.880-84    in    Travancore.     D.   at  Highbury    in  1013, 
aged  88. 


51.  Unwin,     Rev.     Gerard    Francis,     Isl. — d.    1873.     p. 
1878.     S.  M.     Ret.   1878.     V.  Frocester. 


52.  Cavalier,    Rev.  Anthony  Ramsden   (Sheffield),    Isl.— 
d.    1874.     p.    1875.     T.C.M.    m.     1876    Mary    Grey.      Ret. 
1880.     1883-85,  Tinnevelly.     Secretary,  Z.B.M.S.     V.  Man- 
cester,  1915. 

53.  Dunn,    Rev.   Thomas   (Wallhouses),     Isl.  — d.  and  p. 
1882.     Ret.  1881.     m.  1874,  Jane  A.  Ford.     1882-84,  British 
Columbia.     1886-90,  Japan.     1904-10.     Rec.  Weare  Gifford. 

54.  Simmons,    Rev.  Jonathan  Deane   (Shiplake),    Isl. — d. 

1860.  p.  1862.     T.M.     m.  (l)   1860,  Caroline  J.  Bolton,   D. 

1861.  (2)   1864,   Ada  Van   Someren   Chitty,   D.  1900.     Ret. 
1903.      In    Tinnevelly,     1861-74.      D.    March      27,     1914, 
Wokingham,  Berks,  aged  79. 


55.  Smith,  Mr.  William.— Ret.  1878.     D.  at  sea. 

APPENDIX    A  217 


56.  Newton,  Rev.  Henry,  M.A.,  Dub.— d.  1870.    p.  1871. 
Incumbent,    Christ    Church,  Colombo.     Ret.  1885.     C.   St. 
Matthew's,  Dublin,  1870-72.  C.  Christ  Church,  Leeson  Park, 
1872-73.     Inc.  St.  Paul's,  Portarlington.    1873-76.     Perp.  C. 
St.  Mark's,  Brighton,  1885-95.     V.  Christ  Church,  Surbiton, 
1901-15.     V.  Haydon,  1916. 

57.  Ferris,  Mr.  William  Bridger,  Isl.  T.C.M.— Ret.  1878. 
Ordained  d.    1878.     p.  1879.     V.  Christ   Church,   Worthing, 
1898.     Hon.  Canon  of  Chichester. 

58.  Taylor,    Mr.  Isaac  John.— Born    November    1,    1847. 
Isl.  T.C.M.  Ret.  1878.     S.  India,   1878-80.     Ordained  d.  and 
p.  1880.     N.  W.  Canada,  1884-1897.     V.  Linstead,  1907. 


59.  Schaffter,  Rev.  William   Pascal,   Isl.  T.C.M.,  son  of 
Rev.  P.  P.  Schaffter,  C.M.S.,  Tinnevelly.— m.   1861,  Theresa 
Stammer,    D.  November  29,  1916.     Ret.  1879.     Tinnevelly, 

60.  Blackmore,    Rev.    Edwin    (Exmouth),    Isl.    T.M.— 
D.  Jaffna,  1879.     Tinnevelly,   1874-78. 

61.  Pickford,  Rev.  Joseph   Ingham    (Sheffield) — d.  and  p. 
1878.   Isl.  T.M.    m.  1880,  Mary  Young.    Ret.  1907.    C.  Wing- 
neld,  1888-9.    C.  St.  Mary's,  Islington,  1897-98.    V.  Walpole, 


62.  Fleming,  Rev.  George  Thomas  (Pimlico),  Isl.  T.M. — 
.m.  1892,    Minnie    Frances  Fleming,  daughter   of   Rev.  T.  S. 

Fleming,   formerly    of  the    Chekiang    Mission,  who   died   on 
November  11,  1916,  aged  90.     D.  Colombo,  1896. 

63.  Garrett,    Rev.  John    Galloway    (Boyle),  M.A.,    Dub. 
S.M.— m.  1878,  Eliza  Margaret  Bradshaw.    D.  Dublin,  1911. 

218  APPENDIX    A 

Father  of  Rev.  Geo.  Garrett,  C.M.S.,  Uganda,  also  of 
Second  Lfeut.  William  Oakley  Garrett,  killed  in  action  in 
Mesopotamia,  1915. 


64.  Glanville,    Rev.  Frederic  (Exeter). — Born  November 
19,  1856.  Isl.     d.  and  p.  1880.    T.C.M.  m.  (l)  1882.     Frances 
Ann  White,  D.  1883.      (2)  1885,  Eleanor  Keen.    Ret.    1883. 
C.  St.  John  Evang.  Penge,  1880-81.  C.M.S.  Organizing  Sec., 
1885-1901.     V.  St.  Matthew's,  Kingsdown,  Bristol,  1901.    D. 
Bristol,  May  15,  1914. 

65.  Balding,    Rev.  John   William.— Born  at  Horncastle, 
March  20,  1856.     Isl.  d.     1881.  p.    1884.   S.M.     m.   June  10, 
1884,  Matilda  Hall.     Wrote  '  Story  of   Baddegama   Mission,' 

Story  of  Cotta  Mission,'  '  Centenary  Volume  of  the  Ceylon 
Mission'  Eldest  son,  Charles  John  Balding,  A.M.I.C.E., 
drowned  at  Felixstowe  in  1912,  aged  27  ;  youngest  son, 
Second  Lieut.  Reginald  Norman,  fell  in  action  in  Mesopotamia 
in  1917,  aged  22. 

66.  Horsley,    Rev.    Hugh  (Courtallam),    M.A.,    Camb.— 
d.  1873.    p.  1877.    T.M.  m.  1877,     M.E.  Kendall.    In  Tinne- 
velly,  1873-79.      Ret.  1894.     V.  Oulton.     V.  Eastwood. 


67.  Field,  Rev.  John  (Schull),  Isl,— d.  1880.  p.  1881.  S.M. 
m.  1872,  Emily  Jane  Mattock.  Ret.   1885.    In  Yoruba,    1877- 
79.     C.    Pitt  Portion,  Tiverton,  1880-82.    British  Columbia, 

68.  Liesching,   Rev.  George  Louis  Pett. — Born  July   18, 
1856.     Isl.    d.    1882.  p.  1885.  S.M.   m.  1882,  Maude  Edridge. 
Ret.   1901.     C.    St.    Paul's,  Dorking,  1892-3.     St.  Stephen's, 
Walthamstow,  1902-03.  Bushbury,  1903-04.  Bovington,  1904-' 
07.     V.  Little  Horwood,  1907. 

A  daughter,  Grace  Liesching.  Assistant  Secretary  of  the 
Z.B.M.S.,  London. 

APPENDIX    A  219' 


69.  llsley,  Rev.  Joseph  (Liverpool). — -Born  September  19,. 
1855.    Isl.    d.  1879.   p.  1885.     T.  M.  Ret.  1914.  m.  (1)  1881, 
Jeannette     Morgan,     D.     1905.      (2)      1909,      Isabella    Jane 
Boesinger.    In  Tinnevelly,  1880-84.    C.  St.  Giles',  Northamp 


70.  Thomas.  Rev.    John    Davies,  Isl.,   son   of    Rev.   John 
Thomas,  Megnanapurarn. — In  Tinnevelly,  1863-86.     m.  1*63 
Mary  Jane  Green.    T.  M.  D.  Colombo,  April   18,  1896,  aged 
56.     Buried  in   Kanatte  Cemetery.     Translated    '  Whately's 
Evidences '   and  '  Butler's  Analogy,    Part  I  '  into  Tamil. 

Father  of  Dr.  J.  Llewellyn  Thomas,  many  years  in  Colombo, 
of  Mrs.  T.  S.  Johnson,  C.M.S.  and  Mrs.  E.  A.  Douglas,  C.M.S. 

71.  Hodges,  Rt.  Rev.  Edward    Noel,  D.D.,  Oxf.    T.C.K. 
— m.  1877  Alice  Shirreff.     Ret.  1889.    Masulipatam,  1877-86. 
Bishop  of  Travancore    and    Cochin,    1890-1904.      Rec.     St. 
Cuthbert,  Bedford,  and  Hon.  Canon  of  Ely.     A  son   killed  in 
France  in  1916. 


72.  Fall,  Rev.    John    William  (Bedale),  M.A.,    Camb.— 
d.  1887.  p.  1888.    T.  M.  m.  1893,  Ethel  Berridge.   Ret.   1897, 
C.     Walcot,    1887-89.     Jesmond,    1898-1900.       Asst.    Secy., 
C.P.A.S.,   1900-02.    V.  St.  Andrew's,   Whitehall  Park,    1902, 
V.  Christ  Church,  Ware,   1917. 

73.  Perry,    Rev.    Edward   John    (Stratford;,    M.A.,    Oxf. 
T.C.K. — Accidentally  shot  near  Alutnuvvara  on  April  2,  1890, 
aged   34   years.     Was   of    Worcester    College,    Oxford,    and 
Pusey    and    Ellerton    Scholar   and    had    been   a    master    at 
Merchant  Taylors  School. 

.220  APPENDIX    A 


74.  Napier- Clavering,  Rev.  Henry  Percy,   M.A.,  Camb.— 
d.    1885.   p.     1886.      T.C.K.     Ret.    1908.    m.    1909,    C.K.E. 
Gedge.     C.  Monkton  Combe,  1885-89.     Rec.  Stella,  1900-07. 
Chaplain,    Pussellawa.     Clerical  Secy.,  C.E.Z.M.S.,  London, 
1912-16.     Chaplain,     Beaufort    War     Hospital,     Fishponds, 
Bristol,  1917. 

75.  Dibben,  Rev.    Arthur  Edwin,  M.A.,  Camb.— d.   1886. 
p.  1888.     S.  M.  Secy,  of  Ceylon  Mission.    C.  Fairfield,  1886- 
87.     St.  John's,  Chelsea,  1887-89. 


76.  Carter,   Rev.    James  (Netherseale),    M.  A..,     Camb. — 
<1.   1889.  p.    1890.  m.    (1)   1893,  Mary    Fertile,    D.  1899.   (2) 

1903,  Agnes  Layard  Dowbiggin.  T.C.K.  and  St.  John's, 
Jaffna.  Ret.  1904.  Asst.  Master,  St.  Oswald's  Coll.,  Ellesmere, 
1888-89.  C.  Christ  Church,  Stone,  1890-91.  C.  Branston, 
1904-05.  Rec.  Kineton  and  Oxhill,  1905. 


77.  Welchman,   Rev.    William  (Bristol),  M.A.,    Camb.— 
d.  1890.  p.  1891.  m.  Elizabeth  Marshall  Griffith,  1892.    T.  M. 
Ret.  1899.   V.    Holy  Cross,  Bristol,  and    Hon.    Canon,    1901. 
Army  Chaplain  in  France,   1915-16. 

A  son,  Lieut.  Eric  Welchman,  fell  in  action,  1914,  in  France. 

78.  Simmons,  Rev.   Sydney   Mainwaring,  son  of  the  Rev. 
J.    D.     Simmons.     Isl.— d.     1897.     p.     1898.      m.    (1)   1897. 
Beatrice  Reynolds,  D.  1907.  (2)   1909,  Helena  Elsie    Marion 
Walker.    S.M.     Ret.  1915.  C.  Christ  Church,  Great  Woriey, 
1915.    Rec.  Little  Laver,  1917. 

79.  Carus-Wilson,  Mr.   Ernest  Jocelyn. — m.  1898,  Kathe- 
rine  Mary  Chapman.  S.M.      Ret.  1899. 

APPENDIX    A  221 


80.  Heinekey,  Rev.  Henry  Edward,    Lond.  Coll.    Div 

d.  1889.  p.  1890.  m.  1892,  Ellen  Flora    Harris.    S.  M.     Ret. 
1905.     Compiled    'Sinhalese    Birthday    Text    Book.'      Only 
child  died  and  buried  at  Baddegama.    C.  St.  Paul's,  Stratford, 
1889-91.     C.   St.  Cuthbert's,  West   Hampstead,   1891-93.  V. 
St.  George's,  Westcombe  Park,   1906.    C.  St.  Thomas',  Hull, 
1916.     V.  St.  Peter's,  Drypool,  Hull,  1917. 


81.  Mathison,  Major  Gilbert  Hamilton  Fearon.— m.  1906,, 
Edith  Alary  Tucker.     Ret.  1909;     S.  M.     Formerly  Major  iti 
Alexandra  P.W.O.,  Yorkshire  Regt. 


82.  Ryde,  Rev.  Robert  William  (Brockley),  M.A.,    Camb. 
T.C.K.    and    St.   John's,    Jaffna— m.    1897,  Emily    Margaret 
Loveridge.     S.  M.  D.  Colombo,  1909. 


83.  Hamilton,  Rev.  James,  B.A.,  Dub.— d.  1876.  p.  1878. 
T.M.     m.  1880,    Wilhelmina    M.B.  Moore.     Ret.   1897.    In 
cumbent  of  Thornhill,  Ireland. 


84.  Townsend,  Rev.  Horace  Crawford  (Clonakilty),  B.A., 
Dub.— d.  1893.    p.  1894.  m.  1899,  Mary  Edith  Grace  Young.' 
T.C.M.    Ret.     1903.     C.    Ballymena,    1893-96.     Incumbent, 
Craig     Army  Chaplain,  France,  1915-17.     Awarded  Military 
Cross  (Fourth  Class),  1917. 


85.  Hanan,    Rev.    William  John  (Cahir),     M.A.,    Dub.— 
d.  1895.  p.  1897.    m.  1899,  Miriam  Clarke.    T.  M.     C.  Cahir, 

222  APPENDIX    A 

86.  Thompson,    Rev.  Jacob  (Liverpool;,    M.A.,  Camb.— 
.d.  1888.  p  1894.  m.  1888,  Amy  Beatrice  Brockbank.  St.  John's 

College,  Jaffna.  Travancore,  1888-94.  C.  Blundell  Sands, 
1895-96.  C.  Peel,  1896-7.  Brother  of  Rt.  Rev.  J.  D. 
Thompson,  Bishop  of  Sodor  and  Man. 

A  son,  Lieut.  H.  B.  Thompson  of  the  Berkshires,  was 
awarded  the  Military  Cross  in  December,  1916,  was  wound 
ed  and  missing  the  same  month.  Another  son,  Second  Lieut. 
R.  Denton  Thompson,  joined  a  Motor  Cycle  Signalling 
Corps,  and  a  third  son,  Second  Lieut.  J.  Cyril  Thompson  of 
the  East  Lanes.,  was  taken  prisoner. 


87.  Butterfield,  Rev.  Roland  Potter  (Aylsham),  Isl.  M.A., 
Our.— d.  1900.    p.  1901.     ra.  1904,  Clara  Herbert.     T.C.M. 

88.  Pilson,   Rev.   Arthur    Ashfield  (Birts  Morton),    M.A., 
•Oxf.  T.C.K.— D.  April  30,  1902,    at  Nuwara  Eliya,  aged  29. 

89.  Purser,  Rev.   George  Arthur,   Isl.— d.   1911.    p.   1912. 
S.M.     m.  1911,  Elizabeth  Beatrice  Sparrow,  S.M. 


90.  Booth,    Rev.  Wilfrid,  B.A.?  Oxf,— d.    1895.    p.   1896. 
m.     1904,    Constance    Magdalene    Clift.      T.C.M.    C.   Great 
Yarmouth,   1895-1900.      D.  Teignmouth,   March  23,  1918. 

91.  Shorten,  Rev.  William  Good,  Isl.  B.:\.,  Dur.— d.  1901. 
p.  ,1903.  S.M.     m.  1907,  Amy  Kathleen  Deering,  S.M. 


92.  Johnson,  Rev.    Thomas  Sparshott,    Isl.   B.A.,   Dur.— 
d:  1902.     p.  1903.    T.C.M.     m.  1905,'  Annie  Elizabeth  Mary 
Thomas,  T.M. 


93.  MacLulich,    Rev.    Archibald    MacLulich    (Clonaiin), 
M.A.,  Dub.— d.  1899.  p.  1902.   T.C.K.    Ret.  1909.  '  C.  Tuam, 
1899-1900.      C.    Carrickfergus,   1900-02.     V.    Holy  Trinity, 

APPENDIX    A  223 

94.  Ferrier,    Rev.    John    William,    Moore  Coll  ,    Sydney 
d.  and  p.  1912.    L.Th.,  Dur.-m.  1901,  Evelyn  May  Garland' 

5.M.    Accountant  of  Mission  till  1910  ;  rejoined  1915,  having 
been  ordained  in  Australia. 


95.  Fraser,  Rev.  Alexander  Garden,  M.A.,  Oxf .  —  d.  191 ; 
p.   1915.     m.  1901,  Annie  Beatrice   Glass.     T.C.K..  Uganda^ 
1900-04.     Army  Chaplain,  France,  1917. 

~6.  Phair,  Rev.  Robert  Hugh  Oliver,  B.A.,  Manitoba 
Isl.— d.  1904.  p.  1906.  Son  of  the  Rev.  Archdeacon  Phair 
of  Winnipeg.  S.M. 

97.  Storrs,  Rev.  Arthur    Noel  Coopland,    B.A.    Camb  - 
d.  1887.  p.  1888.  m.  1893,  Anna  Maria  Louisa  Fitton.  T  CM 
Tinnevelly,    1889-04.     Son    of    Rev.    W.T.    Storrs,   CMS 
India.     Ret.  1904. 


98.  Walmsley,  Rev.  Alfred  Moss  (Stockport),  M.A.,  Camb 
~d.    1906.  p.     1907.  m.    1906,  Alice   J.  Murgatroyd,    B.Sc  ', 
London.    Trinity  College,  1906-1911.  S.M.,  1911.    Served  in 
Mesopotamia,  1918. 

99.  Weston,     Rev.  George    Thomas    (Langley),     Isl  -d 
1906.  p.    1907.     T.M.  Ret.  1911.  Planters' Chaplain,   Matale' 

100.  Senior,   Rev.  Walter  Stanley,   M.A.,   Oxf— d    1903 
p.  1904.    T.C.K.,    1906-1915.     Incumbent   of    Christ  Church 
Colombo,    1915.  m.  1907,     Ethel  May   Poole,  T.M.     Author 
of  '  Pisgah   or  The  Choice,'     the  triennial    prize  poem  'on   a 
sacred  subject  in  the  University  of  Oxford,  1914. 


101.  Gibson,    Rev.    John    Paul    Stewart   Riddell     MA 
Camb.    F.I.A.-d.   1906.   p.  1907.     m.   1904,    Kathleen"  May 
Armitage.  T.C.K.,    1908-1914.  Training  Colony,   Peradeniya, 

224  APPENDIX    A 

102.  Saunders,  Mr.  Kenneth  James,  B.A.,  Camb.  T.C.K.- 
Ret.  1913.     Y.M.C.A.,  Calcutta,    Rangoon.     Trans.  '  Dham- 
mapada '  into  English.    Author  of  '  Maitri— The  Coming  One,' 
'Buddhist  Ideals,'  '  Two  Heroes  of  Social  Service  (St.  Francis 
and  St.  Dominic),'  '  The   Candid  Friend,  or    Buddhism  from 
Within,'  '  The  Vital  Forces  of  Southern  Buddhism  in  relation 
to    the    Gospel,'  '  Adventures  of    the    Christian    Soul,'    and 
several    other    pamphlets    and  articles. 

103.  Campbell,  Mr.  Norman  Phillips,  M.A.,  Oxf.  T.C.K. 
— m.  1913,  Lettice  Margaret  Armitage  (a  sister   of   Mrs.   P, 
Gibson).     Joined  H.M.'s  Forces  in  1914,  obtained  commission 
as  Captain  in  Royal  Engineers,  fell  in  action  on  May  3,  1917. 


104.  Finmmore,  Rev.  Arthur  Kington,  Isl.    M.A.,  Dur.— 
d.  1885.  p.  1888.     Inc.  Christ  Church,  Colombo.     T.C.M.  m. 
1885,  Mary    Elizabeth   Hughes.     In   South   India,    1885-90. 
Mauritius,  1893-01.     C.M.S.  Organizing  Secy.,    1901-08.     C. 
Eastbourne,    1908-09.      Army   Chaplain,    France,     1915-16. 
A  son,  Lieut.  David  Keith  Finnimore,  died  from  wounds  in  a 
military  hospital  on  May  10,  1917.    Another  son,  Major  A.  C. 
Finnimore,  in  the  Royal    Engineers ;  a  daughter,  Miss  D.  E. 
Finnimore,  a  missionary  at  Palamcotta. 

105.  Mulgrue,  Mr.  George  Robert.     T.C.K.— Ret.  1915. 


106.  Gaster,    Rev.    Lewis   John,    Isl.— d.  1910.    p.  1912. 
T.C.K.     m.  November  18,  1911,  Harriet  Elizabeth  Hobson, 
S.M. ' 


107.  Houlder,    Mr.   Alfred  Claude  (Croydon),  B.A.,  Oxf. 



108.  McPherson,  Rev.  Kenneth  Cecil,  B.A.,  Oxf.  T.C.K 
— d.  1915.  p.  1917. 

APPENDIX    A  225 


1.  jayasinghe,  Rev. Cornelius.— d.  1839.  p.  1843.  Educated 
at  Cotta  Institution.  First  Catechist  and  Interpreter.   Stationed 
at  Talangama   and    Slave  Island.      In  1867,  Trinity  Church, 
Kandy.     Editor  of  the  Sinhalese  CM.  Record.     D.  Colombo 
on  November  18,  1876.     Mr.  Jayasinghe's  name  stands  fourth 
on  the  C.M.S.  List  of  Native  Clergy  and  Mr.  A   Gunasekara's 

2.  Gunasekara,    Rev.     Abraham.— d.    1839.    p.    1843    by 
Bishop    Spencer.      Educated   at  Cotta    Institution.     Worked 
in  Baddegama   and  died  there    on   June    27,    1862,    aged    60. 
The  son  of  Bastian  Gunasekara,    who  was    born  in  1773  and 
died  in  1853.     The  father  of  Rev.  H.   Gunasekara,  who  died 
in   1916,   Paul  Gunasekara,  a  catechist  and  schoolmaster  for 
fifty  years,  who  died  on  January  3,  1917,  aged  74  years,  and 
Mrs.   B.    Karunaratna,    a   Bible  woman  for  many    years.     A 
grand- daughter    married    Rev.     T.  G.    Perera,    and  another 
married  Rev.  A.  B.  Karunaratne. 

3.  Senanayake,      Rev.     Cornelius.— d.     1846.      p.    1851. 
Educated    at    Cotta     Institution.     Transferred    to    Colonial 
Establishment  in  1852  and  died  in  1886.     Wrote  a  Sinhalese 
Church   Hymnal. 

4.  De    Livera,    Rev.    James  Andris.— d.  1861.     p.    1867. 
Educated  at    Cotta    Institution.     Stationed    at    Kandy    and 
Nugegoda.     Died  December  23,  1868.     At  his  examination 
for  Deacon's  orders  by  Bishop  Chapman,  he  was  offered  his 
choice  between  the  Greek  Testament  and  the  Sinhalese  Bible 
and  he  unhesitatingly  chose  the  former. 

5.  Gunasekara,   Rev.   Henry.— d.  1867.  p.  1871.  Educated 
at   Baddegama  Seminary  and  Cotta    Institution.     (1)    Pupil 
Teacher,  (2)    Catechist,  (3)   Pastor.    Stationed  at  Nugegoda, 
Colombo,    and   Trinity    Church,    Kandy.     Retired    in    1909. 


226  APPENDIX    A 

Died  May  24,  1916,  at  Lunawa.  Mr.  Gunasekara  was 
married  in  1870,  and  his  widow  died  on  November  1,  1916. 
A  son  of  Rev.  A.  Gunasekara. 

6.  de  Silva,  Rev.  Hendrick. — d.  1868.  p.  1885.     Educated 
at  Cotta   Institution,     (l)   Schoolmaster,    (2)     Catechist,    (3) 
Pastor  at  Cotta,  Nugegoda  and  Talangama.   Died  at  Negombo 
on  March  12,   1891. 

7.  Jayasinha,  Rev.  Daniel. — d.  1868.     Educated  at  Cotta 
Institution.     (1)  Schoolmaster,   (2)  Catechist,    (3)   Pastor   at 
Katukelle,  Nugegoda  and  Cotta.    Died  at  Cotta  on  January  1, 

8.  Wirasinha,  Rev.  Bartholomew   Peris. — d.  1869.      Edu 
cated  at  Cotta  English  School.     (1)   Schoolmaster  at  Cotta, 
(2)  Catechist  for  sixteen  years,  (3)  Pastor  at  Kegalle.     Retired 
in  1894  and  died  in  1900. 

9.  Kannanger,     Rev.     Hendrick.— d.    1869.     (1)    School 
master,  (2)  Catechist,  (3)   Pastor  at  Talangama,  Cotta,  Ben- 
tota.   Retired  1885,  and  died  on  July  13,  1894.    Father  of  Mrs. 
Wirakoon,  Head  Mistress    of    Baddegama    Girls'    Boarding 
School . 

10.  Perera,  Rev.  Garagoda  Arachchige  Bastian. — d.  1881. 
p.    1886.     Retired    1916.     The  son  of  Garagoda  Arachchige 
Don    Abraham    Perera  and    Thudugalage    Dona    Christina. 
Born  at  Talangama  on  December    19,    1836.     Stationed   at 
Balapitiya,    Baddegama,    Cotta    and    Colombo.    Celebrated 
golden  wedding  and  fifty-fourth  anniversary  of  service  with 
C.M.S.    in    1914.     Mrs.   Perera     died    the     following    year. 
A  daughter  married  Mr.  H.  C.  Jayasinghe  of  T.C.K. 

11.  Amarasekara,  Rev.  Abraham  Suriarachchi. — d.  1881. 
p.   1884.     Stationed     at    Kegalle,     Dodanduwa    and   Kandy. 
Retired   in   1885    and    became    (l)   Curate   of    Holy  Emma 
nuel,     Moratuwa,    (2)    Incumbent    of     Matale.     Founder    of 
Matale  Mission  to  the  Duriyas. 

12.  Kalpage,    Rev.  Johannes  Perera.— d.   1881.  p.   1887. 

APPENDIX    A  227 

Kurunegala,  Kegalle,  Baddegama,  Dodanduwa,  Bentota. 
Died  1903  from  the  effects  of  a  crushed  finger,  and  buried 
in  Kanatte  cemetery.  Father  of  Rev.  J.  A.  Kalpage  of 

13.  Amarasekara,    Rev.  Gregory  Suriarachchi. — d.   1887. 
p.   1889.     Educated  at  Baddegama   and  T.C.K.     (1)  School 
master,    (2)  Pastor,    Cotta,    Nugegoda   and  Trinity    Church, 
Kandy.     Celebrated  twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  ordination  to 
Priesthood  in   1914.     A  brother  of  Rev.  A.  S.  Amarasekara. 

14.  Botejue,    Rev.  Welatantrige  Lewis. — d.  1889.    Edu 
cated   at     Cotta     Institution.     (1)    Catechist,  (2)    Pastor  at 
Mampe  and  died   there  on   May    13,   1895.     Father  of    Rev. 
W.  E.  Botejue. 

15.  Seneviratne,   Rev.   Henry  William. — d.   1889.    Gam- 
pola.     Retired  1902.     Died  in  1917,  aged  80. 

16.  Colombage,    Rev.   James.— d.     1894.  p.   1898.     Edu 
cated    at    T.C.K.     Baddegama    and     Kegalle.     Retired   and 
joined  the  staff  of  St.  Paul's,  Kandy. 

17.  Daundesekara,     Rev.     Frederic    William. — d.    1894. 
p.  1910.     Educated  at  Kurunegala  and  T.C.K.  Colombo  and 
Kegalle.     Retired. 

18.  Botejue,  Rev.  Welatantrige  Edwin. — d.  1896.  p.  1901. 
Educated    at    T.C.K.     Mampe.     Ret.    1902.      Incumbent   of 

19.  Perera,    Rev.  Theodore  G.— d.  1896.  p.  1898.     Edu 
cated  at    Cotta    English  School.     Talangama.    m.  a  grand 
daughter  of  Rev.  A.  Gunasekara.     Ret.  in  1902. 

20.  Perera,     Rev.      D.      Joseph.— d.      1896.     p.     1904. 
Colombo.    Died  in  1912. 

21.  Gunatilaka,     Rev.   Robert     Teuton    Eugene    Abeya- 
wickrama.—  d.     19C3.    p.     1905.      Baddegama,    Dodanduwa, 
Cotta,  Mampe. 

22.  Welikala,    Rev.     Don     Louis. — d.     1903.     p.    1905. 
Talangama  and  Colombo,  m.  a  sister  of  Rev.  J.  Colombage. 

228  APPENDIX    A 

23.  Wikramanayake,     Rev.     John     Henry.— d.    1903.    p. 
1905.     Mampe,  Nugegoda. 

24.  Wijesinghe,      Rev.     Charles.— d.       1903.      Gampola, 
Kurunegala,  Liyanwela.  Ret.  1916. 

25.  Seneviratne,     Rev.    James    Gregory     Newsome.— d. 
1909.     p.  1913.     Gampola. 

26.  Wickramasinghe,    Rev.    Benjamin  Perera.— -d.    1909. 
p.    1914.     Mampe.     Cotta. 

27.  Ramanayake,    Rev.  John  Perera.— d.    1913.    p.  1917. 
(1)  Schoolmaster,  (2)   Catechist,  (3)  Pastor,    Homagama  and 

28.  Jayasundra,  Rev.  D.  S.— d.  1915.  Talampitiya. 

29.  de  Silva,  Rev.   W.  Bernard.— d.   1915.  Educated  at 
T.C.K.     (D  Catechist,  (2)  Pastor.  Baddegama. 

30.  Weerasinghe,   Rev.  C.  B.    Educated   T.C.K.  Master 
at  T.C.K. — d.  1918.  Kurunegala. 


1.  Hensman,  Rev.  John.— d.  1863.  p.    1865.     Educated  at 
Cotta     Institution.       Teacher,       Nellore,     1837.     Catechist, 
Chundicully,  1840.  Copay,  1848.     Pastor,  Copay.     Died  Sep 
tember  5,  1884. 

2.  Champion,   Rev.  George.— Born    October  1.  1824.      d. 
1865.  p.  1870.     Educated  at  Batticotta  Seminary.     (1)    Cate 
chist,  (2)   Pastor,     Nellore,  and  Chundicully.     Retired  1902. 
Died  1910.    Celebrated  Jubilee  of  his  C.M.S.  Service  in  1894. 

3.  Hoole,  Rev.     Elijah.— d.  1865.  p.  1870.     Pundit,  185CX 
Catechist,  Chundicully,  1852.     Pastor. 

Died  at  sea  July,   1881,   on  his   way  home  from  Bishop's 
Assembly  at  Colombo. 

4.  Handy,    Rev.    Trueman    Parker.— d.     1865.    p.    1870. 
Educated  at  Batticotta  Seminary.      School   Inspector,   1850. 
Pundit,    1851.     Catechist,  1856.      Pastor   at    Nellore.    'died 
May  17,  1885. 

APPENDIX    A  229 

'5.  Peter,  Rev.  Pakkyanathan.— d.  1872.  p.  1874. 
Teacher,  1856.  T.  C.  M.  Catechist,  1862.  Assistant 
Missionary,  Pelmadulla,  1892.  Died  June  15,  1895. 

6.  Peter,   Rev.  John  S.—  d.  1872.  p.  1874.     Retired  1877. 
T.C.M.  Pastor,  Kandy.     Died  1906. 

7.  Gabb,   Rev.  John.— d.    1876.  p.    1883.      Retired  1883. 
(1)   1876-81,  Mauritius.     (2)   1881-83,  Ceylon.      (3)  1883-94, 

8.  Gnanamuttu,    Rev.  Arulananthar.. — d.    1881.   p.   1885. 
Retired  1897.     Died  1906.     Schoolmaster,  Catechist,   Pastor 
T.C.M. ,  Dickoya,  Kandy. 

9.  Samuel,  Rev.  Samuel. — d.  1878.  p.  1881.     Educated  at 
Palamcotta  Training   institution.     Son  of    Rev.  A.  Samuel  of 
Tinnevelly.  1878-84,  Tinnevelly.      1884-95,  Colombo.     Died 
May  6,  1895,  in  Colombo. 

10.  Niles,    Rev.  John.— d.   1885.  p.    1889.     Copay.   Died 
March  23,  1892. 

11.  Backus,    Rev.    John.— d.   1885.  p.  1889.     (1)    School 
master,  (2)  Catechist,  ^3)  Pastor,  Pallai,   Nellore.     Celebrated 
his    fiftieth    year  of  C.M.S.  service    in    1913.     Mrs.    Kackus 
died  December  17,  1916. 

12.  Handy,    Rev.    Charles  Chelliah.— d.     1891.    p.    1896. 
B.  A.,    Calcutta   University.     T.C.K.     Head  Master    of     St. 
John's  College,  Jaffna.     Died  1908. 

13.  Virasinha,    Rev.   Arulumbalam   Russell. — d.    1892.  p. 
1900.     T.C.K.     Stationed  T.C.M.   Died  1914. 

14.  Daniel,     Rev.    George.— d.     1893.    Catechist,     1858. 
Copay.       Seventy-five    years    of      age     on      retirement     in 

15.  Williams,    Rev.    Charles    Tissaverasingam — d,    1893. 
p.  1896.     T.C.K.     Pastor,    Kokuvil,  Anuradhapura,     Kandy, 

16.  Morse,    Rev.    Samuel.— d.    1893.     p.    1896.     Nellore. 
Died  1909. 

230  APPENDIX    A 

17.  Matthias     Rev.    Arulpragasam.— d.  1893.     p.     1898. 
Vavuniya.     Copay.     Retired  after  forcy    years  of  service  in 


18.  Sathianathen,  Rev.  Aseervathem.— d.  1899.     p.  1902. 
T.C.M.  Nanuoya,  Dickoya.     Retired  1914.     Died  1916. 

19.  Daniel,  Rev.  John  Vethamanikam— d.  1900.     p.  1902. 
Head  Master  of  Borella  Boys'  Boarding  School,  Incumbent  of 
Tamil  Congregation,  Christ  Church,  Colombo. 

20.  Satthianadhan,     Rev.    Tillainather   David.— d.    1903. 
p.  1906.     T.C.M.  Badulla. 

21.  Arulananthan,    Rev.   Gnanamuttu   Manuel. — d.    1906. 
p.  1908.      Incumbent,  Emmanuel  Church,  Colombo. 

22.  Pakkiariathan,    Rev.  Asirvatham.— d.  1906.     p.  1908. 
T.C.M.  Lindula. 

23.  Doss,    Rev.    James    G.— d.  1907.     p.    1910.     T.C.M. 

24.  Somasundaram,  Rev.  Sangarappillai  Samuel. — d.  1909. 
p.    1911.     B.A.,    Calcutta.      Master    in    St.     John's   College, 
Jaffna.      Chundicully. 

25.  Nathaniel,    Rev.  Gunaratnam  N.— d.  1909.     p.   1913. 
Jaffna.      1917  Matale. 

26.  Welcome,    Rev.    Jesson    Daniel.— d.  1910.     p.    1914. 

27.  Daniel,    Rev.    Samuel   Chelvanayakam. — d.  1910.     p. 
1914.     Pallai. 

28.  Paukiam,    Rev,    Paul    Abraham.— d.   1912.     p.  1914. 
Rakwana  T.C.M.     Died  1918. 

29.  Yorke,  Rev.  John  Vedamanickam.— d.  1914.    p.  1917. 
Avisawela  T.C.M. 

30.  Thomas,  Rev.  S.  M.— d.  1915.    p.  1917.     Wellawatte 

31.  Ratnathicum,  Rev.  J.  S.— d.  1915.     Jaffna. 

32.  Refuge,  Rev.  M.— d.  1915,     Matale.     1917,.Vavuniva. 

APPENDIX    A  231 




1.  Knight,  Miss  Jane    (Stroud),  T.M.— m.    Rev.  D.   Poor, 



2.  Cortis,    Miss     Hannah.     S.M.— m.    Rev.  J.  A.    Jetter, 


3.  Stratford,    Miss    Mary    Ann.    S.M.— in.  Rev.    S.  Lam- 
brick,  1827. 


4.  Bailey,  Miss  Sophia  Elizabeth.     S.M.— m.  Rev.    J.  F. 
Haslam,  1842. 


5.  Young,     Miss    Mary    (Louth),    sister   of    late    Bishop 
R.    Young    of    Athabasca.     T.M.— m.   Rev.    J.  I.    Pickford, 


6.  Hall,    Miss    Matilda,    sister  of   Rev.  j.  W.   Hall  and 
Miss  Margaret  Hall,    and    cousin    of    Miss  E.    Hall,  of  the 
C.M.S.,  India.     T.M.—m.  Rev.  J.  W.  Balding,  1884. 


7.  Young,    Miss  Eva    (Louth),    sister  of    Nos.  5  and  12. 
T.  M. — -m.  Rev.  H.  Robinson,  N.  W.  Canada. 


8.  Higgens,  Miss  Amelia,  daughter  of  Rev.  E.  T.  Higgens. 
1877  in  service  of  I.F.N.S.,  Punjab.  S.M. 

232  APPENDIX    A 


9.     Child,  Miss  Beatrice.     T.M.— Ret.  1898. 

10.  Denyer,  Miss  Ann  Murton.     S.M.— Ret.  1915. 


11.  Phillips,   Miss    Helen    Plummet.     S.M.     Previously 
Principal  of  Clergy  Daughters'  School,   Sydney.— Ret.  1905. 

12.  Young,  Miss    Emily  Sophia.     T.M.  Sister    of   Nos.  5 

and  7.— Ret.  1910. 


13.  Heaney,     Miss     Kate,     Highbury     Training     Home. 
T.M.— Ret.    1898. 

14.  Saul,    Miss  Mary,  Highbury  Training    Home.     T.M. 
—Ret.  1899. 

15.  Paul,     Miss    Annie    Elizabeth,     Highbury    Training 
Home.  T.M.— Ret.  1897. 

16.  Josolyne,  Miss  Ellen  Maria.     The  Willows.     S.M. 


17.  Forbes,  Miss  Constance  Cicele.     S.M.— Ret.  1896. 

18.  Case,   Miss  Lizzie  Ann,    Highbury   Training    Home. 
T.M.— Ret.  1912.     m.  Rev.  G.  Hibbert-Ware,  S.P.G. 


19.  Luxmoore,      Miss     Caroline    Noble.     The    Willows. 
S.M.— m.  1896,  Rev.  J.  H.  Mackay,  Murree. 

20.  Finney,     Miss     Harriet     Ellen,     daughter    of     Rev. 
W.  H.  Finney,  Birkin.      The  Olives.     T.  M.— Ret.  1904. 

21.  Loveridge,    Miss  Emily   Margaret,   Highbury  Train 
ing  Home.     S.  M.— m.  Rev.  R.  W.  Ryde,  1897. 

22.  Gedge,    Miss  Mary  Sophia  (Redhill).     The  Willows. 



23.  Spreat,  Miss  Helen  Mary  Warren.    T.  M.— Ret.  1897. 
Died  in  London,  1898. 

APPENDIX    A  233 

24.  Wood,  Miss  Minnie  Alice,  daughter  of  Rev.  D.  Wood. 
The  Olives.     T.M.— Ret.  1898. 

25.  Dowbiggin,    Miss    Agnes    Layard,    daughter  of    Rev. 
K.  T.  Dowbiggin.     S.  M.— m.  Rev.  J.  Carter,  1904. 

26.  Thomas,  Mrs.    J.   D.     T.M.— Ret.  1914.     Remained 
on  staff  after  the  Rev.  J.  D.  Thomas'  death. 


2.7.  Townsend,  Miss  Susan  Henrietta  Murray.  The 
Willows.  S.M.  Daughter  of  Rev.  H.  W.  Townsend  of  Abbey- 
strewry  and  sister  of  Rev.  H.  C.  Townsend. 

28.  Earp,    Miss   Annie    Louisa  (Capetown).     The  Olives. 
S.M.   Ret.  1915. 


29.  Goodchild,  Miss  Amy  Chanter,    St.  Hugh's  Hall,  Oxf . 
The  Willows.— Principal  of  Chundicully   Girls'  School.— m. 
Mr.  C.  V.  Brayne.  C.C.S.  1906. 

30.  Thomas,  Miss    Annie    Elizabeth,    daughter    of    Rev. 
J.  D.    Thomas.    The    Olives.     1887-93  in    Tinnevelly    under 
C.E.Z.M.S.— m.  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson,  1905.    T.M. 

31.  Young,  Miss  Maud  Lucy.   The  Willows.   S.  M.— Ret. 

32.  Franklin,  Miss  Valentina  Maria  Louisa.    The  Willows. 
T.M.— Ret.  1912.    m.  Rev.  Ashton. 


33.  Payne,  Miss    Harnette    Edith.     The   Willows.    T.M. 
-Ret.  1911. 

34.  Leslie   Melville,   Miss    Lucy  Mabel,  daughter  of   the 
late  Rev.    Canon   Leslie  Melville,    Welbourn.     The  Willows. 

35.  Nixon,    Miss   Lilian    Evelyn,    B.A.,   Royal  Univ.   of 
Ireland.     The    Olives    and   Willows.      Principal    of    C.M.S. 
Ladies'   College,  Colombo.  — Ret.  1914. 

234  APPENDIX    A 

36.  Whitney,    Miss    Elizabeth.    St.  John's,  N.B.  Canada. 
C.M.S.   Ladies'  College,  Colombo. 

37.  Howes,  Miss  Eva  Julia.     The  Willows.    T.M. 


38.  Tileston,   Miss   Mary  Wilder,   B.A.     Harvard   Univ. 
The  Olives.— Ret.  1902.  S.M. 

39.  Dowbiggin,  Mrs.  R.T.    S.M.— Remained  on  staff  after 
Mr.  Dow  biggin's  death. 

40.  Beeching,    Miss    Edith    Grace,    Highbury    Training 
Home.     Pacific   Mission,    1894.  T.M.    m.  Mr.  J.  B.    Dutton, 
C.C.S.,   1906. 

41.  Lloyd,  Miss  Sarah  Cecilia.     The  Olives.  S.M.— Ret. 
1907.      Rejoined  1914.     Died  1918. 


42.  Vines,  Miss  Ellen  Campbell,   daughter  of  Rev.  C.  E. 
Vines,     C.M.S.,    Agra.     1889,    South    India.   T.M.   m.    Rev. 
W.  S.  Hunt,  C.M.S. ,   1907. 


43.  Board,    Miss    Annie    Theresa    (Clifton).  The   Olives. 
S.M— Ret.  1907. 


44.  Ketchlee,  Miss  Sophy  Laura.     The  Olives. — m.  Rev. 
A.  N.  MacTier,  C.M.S.,  Tinnevelly. 

45.  Poole,   Miss  Ethel   May.  The  Olives.    T.M.  Daughter 
of  Bishop   Poole,   first   C.  of   E.  Bishop  in  Japan.— m.    Rev. 
W.  S.  Senior,  1907. 

46.  Page,     Miss     Sophia    Lucinda     (Bath).    The  Olives. 
Principal,  Chundicully  Girls'  High  School. 

47.  Bennitt,   Miss  Edith    Gertrude     (Harborne),    L.L.A. 
St.  Andrew's  Univ.     The  Olives.     S.M. —Ret.  1908. 


48.  Browne,    Miss    Constance    Emily,     B.Sc.,   Univ.   of 
Wales.     C.M.S.  Ladies'  College  and  T.C.K.— Ret.  1914. 

APPENDIX    A  235 

49.  Deering,  Miss  Amy  Kathleen.  S.M.— m.  Rev.  W.  G. 
Shorten,  1907. 


50.  Sparrow,  Miss   Elizabeth   Beatrice.     S.M. — m.    Rev. 
G.  A.  Purser,  1911. 

51.  Tisdall,  Miss  Adairine  Mary.     The  Willows.      T.M. 

52.  Henrys,    Miss   Florence  Emily.     T.M.   South    India, 
190,2.      Returned  to  India,  1917. 


53.  Walker,  Miss  Helena  Elsie  Marion.     S.M. — m.   Rev. 
S.  M.  Simmons,  1909. 

54.  Hargrove,    Miss  Eleanor    Mabel.       Daughter   of   the 
late  Rev.  Canon  Hargrove.     The  Willows.     S.M. 

55.  Hobson,  Miss  Harriet  Elizabeth.     Grand-daughter  of 
Rev.  J.  Hobson,  C.M.S.,  China.    S.M.    m.  Rev.  L.  J.  Gaster, 

56.  Horsley,  Miss  Anna  Frances,  Newnham.    The  Olives. 
Daughter   of   Rev.  H.  Horsley.     C.M.S.    Ladies'   College. - 
Ret.  1914. 


57.  Led  ward,  Miss  Mary  Amelia.     T.M. 


58.  Kent,  Miss  Alys  Emily,  C.M.S.  Ladies'  Coll.,  Colombo. 
— m.  Mr.  H.  S.  Stevens,   1915. 


59.  Morgan,  Miss  E.     C.M.S.  Ladies'  College. 

60.  Opie,  Miss  Gwen  Lilias  Fanny,  M.A.,  B.Sc.     C.M.S- 
Ladies'  College. 

61.  Higgens,  Miss  E.  C.  (In  Local  Connexion). 


62.  Taylor,   Miss  J.  R.,  L.L.A.     Chundiculiy  Girls'  High 



OF  MARCH  8,   1921. 


The  Local  Governing  Body  of  the  C.M.S.  Ceylon  Mission 
shall  be  the  Conference  of  men  and  women  hereinafter  refer 
red  to  as  the  Conference. 


The  Conference  shall  consist  of  : — 

(a)  The  Bishop  of  Colombo,  if  a  member  of   the  Church 
Missionary  Society — Chairman. 

(b)  All  ordained  Missionaries  of  the  Society. 

(c)  All  lay  Missionaries  in  Home,  Colonial,  or  Local  Con 
nexion  with  the  Society,  both  men  and  women. 

(d)  Eight  Ceylonese,   of   whom  six    shall   be   clergymen 
and  two  shall  be   from   the  laity,   one  man   and  one   woman, 
annually  elected  by  the  Conference.     Among  the   six   clergy 
men,  those  priests  in  responsible  charge  of    Districts  formerly 
under  the  charge  of  European   Missionaries   shall   first  of  all 
be  included.     The  remainder  shall  be  clergymen  in    Priests' 
Orders    elected    annually    by   the   whole   body   of    Ceylonese 
clergy   in   connection   with  the   C.M.S.,   provided  that  the  six 
clerical  representatives  shall  include  at   least  two   Tamils  and 
two  Sinhalese. 

(e)  Seven  lay  members,  primarily   to  advise  on   matters 
of  finance,  who  shall  be  appointed  by  the    Parent   Committee, 
and  shall  hold  office   for  three  years,   being   eligible    for  re- 
appointment  at  the  end  of  that  period. 

APPKNDIX    B  237 

(/)  Any  additional  members  who  shall  be  appointed  to 
membership  by  express  resolution  of  the  Parent  Committee 
on  the  recommendation  of  Conference. 


While  nothing  shall  be  considered  as  outside  the  purview 
of  the  Conference  as  a  whole,  it  should  direct  its  attention 
more  particularly  to  the  larger  matters  of  Mission  policy,  to 
receiving  and  dealing  with  the  reports  of  its  Committees,  and 
to  the  opportunity  for  united  devotion  and  intercession,  devolv 
ing  the  main  responsibility  for  actual  administration,  includ 
ing  finance,  on  its  Executive  Committee. 

This  Executive  Committee  shall  direct  the  work  of  the 
Mission  between  meetings  of  the  Conference,  and  shall  con 
sist  of — 

(a)  The  Chairman  of  Conference. 
(/;)   The  Secretary  of  the  Mission. 

(c)  The    Chairman    and    Secretary    of     the    Women's 

(d)  The    seven    laymen    appointed   by   the  Parent  Com 

(e)  Two  Ceylonese,  and  four  men  and  two    women    from 
the  Missionary  members  of  the   Conference,  to  be  elected  by 
the  whole  body  of  the  voting  members  of  the  Conference. 


There  shall  be  a  Finance  Sub-Committee  of  the  Executive 
Committee  to  consider  and  when  required  report  to  the  Exe 
cutive  Committee  on  matters  of  finance.  This  Sub-Commit 
tee  shall  consist  of  the  seven  lay  members  appointed  by  the 
Parent  Committee,  and  three  members  elected  by  the  Exe 
cutive  Committee,  together  with  the  Secretary  ex-officio. 



AT    THE    DIOCESAN    PRESS,    MADRAS — 1922